3 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2021
    1. The political theorist Hannah Arendt once wrote that the most successful totalitarian leaders of the 20th century instilled in their followers “a mixture of gullibility and cynicism.” When they were lied to, they chose to believe it. When a lie was debunked, they claimed they’d known all along—and would then “admire the leaders for their superior tactical cleverness.” Over time, Arendt wrote, the onslaught of propaganda conditioned people to “believe everything and nothing, think that everything was possible and that nothing was true.”

      政治理论家汉娜·阿伦特(Hannah Arendt)曾写道:“20世纪最成功的极权主义领导人向他的支持者者灌输了‘一种轻信和犬儒主义的混合心态’。当他们被欺骗时,他们会选择相信;而当谎言被揭穿时,他们会声称自己早已知晓,然后开始钦佩领导人高超的战术智慧。而随着时间的推移,宣传攻势会使人们习惯于‘相信一切,却又不相信一切;认为万物皆有可能,也怀疑万物皆为虚假’。”

    2. Once you internalize the possibility that you’re being manipulated by some hidden hand, nothing can be trusted. Every dissenting voice on Twitter becomes a Russian bot, every uncomfortable headline a false flag, every political development part of an ever-deepening conspiracy. By the time the information ecosystem collapses under the weight of all this cynicism, you’re too vigilant to notice that the disinformationists have won.


    3. In his book This Is Not Propaganda, Peter Pomerantsev, a researcher at the London School of Economics, writes about a young Filipino political consultant he calls “P.” In college, P had studied the “Little Albert experiment,” in which scientists conditioned a young child to fear furry animals by exposing him to loud noises every time he encountered a white lab rat. The experiment gave P an idea. He created a series of Facebook groups for Filipinos to discuss what was going on in their communities. Once the groups got big enough—about 100,000 members—he began posting local crime stories, and instructed his employees to leave comments falsely tying the grisly headlines to drug cartels. The pages lit up with frightened chatter. Rumors swirled; conspiracy theories metastasized. To many, all crimes became drug crimes.

      伦敦政治经济学院研究员彼得•波梅兰采夫(Peter Pomerantsev)在他的书《这不是宣传》(This Is Not Propaganda)中,描绘了一位年轻的菲律宾政治顾问“P”的故事。上大学时,P曾研究过“小阿尔伯特实验”(Little Albert experiment)。在这个实验中,科学家们为了让一个年幼的孩子养成害怕毛茸动物的习惯,便在他每次遇到实验室里的白老鼠时,用巨大的噪音对其进行干扰。这个实验给了P灵感,于是他创建了一系列的Facebook群组,让菲律宾人讨论他们社区里正在发生的事情。一旦这些群组发展到一定规模(大约有10万名成员),他就开始散播当地的犯罪新闻,并指示他的员工留下虚假的评论,将这些犯罪新闻与贩毒集团联系在一起。在此之后,网站点击率激增,谣言纷飞,阴谋论盛行,而在许多人眼中,所有的犯罪都变成了毒品犯罪。