639 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2015
    1. ome educators confuse the term phonemicawarenesswith the terms auditory discrimina-tion, phonetics, or phonicsand believe that anew label has been invented for an old idea
    2. shark strolling in the park

      kids love creating non-sense sentences that rhyme!

    3. The Ants Go Marching”

      heard this song multiple times but never thought of it as a tool

    4. middle sounds

      middle sounds are usually vowels and vowels have multiple sounds so you really have to think back on the structure of the word

    5. Child-ren appear to be better able to capture and gaincontrol over larger units of sound before smallerunits of sound

      I think I knew this subconsciously but never thought about.

    6. purposeful

      yes! why is this important to the learning

    7. prioritygoal in kindergarten classrooms.

      yes, because although there are 26 letters there are 44 (I think) different phonemes

    8. Because an alphabetic orthography maps speechto print at the level of the phoneme.

      /st/ is one phoneme but contains 2 letters

    9. honemic awareness is a typeof phonological awareness, that is, the aware-ness of the sound structure of language in gen-eral.

      subset within phonological awareness

    10. In sum, we encourage teachers to providetheir students with linguistically rich environ-ments in which written and spoken language areused to learn, to communicate, to express ideas,to understand the ideas of others andin which

      Higher grades have more social study, science and math material than language. I also liked this because it made me ask myself, "does not being linguistically sound impact a child's ability to communicate or have self expression or even low self esteem"

    11. Scavenger Hunt (letters)

      Another great idea for my girls. I have to be creative with the way I educate while empowering. My girls need empowerment and education, but if they think they're being educated instead of empowered, they resist.

    12. We u rg e t e a c h e r s t o b e w a t c h f u l f o r c h i l d r e nwho are not catching on—after multiple expo-sures—to games and activities such as those pre-sented here. These children may need extrasupport in phonemic awareness development.

      I wonder if overcrowded classrooms, or classrooms with children who have behavioral issues, impact this?

    13. Bag Game (cues)

      This would be a good ice-breaker game. I can use empowering words. This will expand their vocabulary.

    14. “Down by the Bay”

      I love this activity. I don't teach small children but may incorporate this activity to continue strengthening my older girls.

    15. phonemic awareness instruc-tion should be intentional, not incidental (evenaccidental), in classrooms.

      Teacher's must be deliberate in their planning of phonemic awareness activities.

    16. Phonemic awareness supports reading develop-ment only if it is part of a broader program that in-cludes—among other things—development ofstudents’ vocabulary, syntax, comprehension,strategic reading abilities, decoding strategies, andwriting across all content areas.

      Phonemic awareness, while important, must be incorporated into other domains in order to be effective.

    17. 10 minutes to 30 minutes per session

      10-30 minutes seems like an appropriate time frame for young children to be able to pay attention to a task

    18. Itmay be helpful to increase the use of concreteobjects or other cues to represent sounds and toprovide more phonemic awareness instructionthat includes familiar letters. Also, by focusingon sounds that can be elongated, teachers aremore likely to draw students’ attention to thosesounds

      Great strategies and suggestions for struggling students.

    19. Someof them also may be used with older children.

      I have had older students who struggle with phonemic awareness and have had difficulty finding age appropriate activities and tasks for them.

    20. In linguistically rich classrooms, phonemicawareness activities will be incorporated inten-tionally into literature sharing experiences, musicexperiences, movement experiences, and otherexperiences throughout the day.

      Genuine experiences.

    21. Itis the qualityof instruction and the responsive-nessof the instruction to the individuals in theclassroom that should have greater considerationthan the amount of time.

      Important to monitor progress and adjust accordingly.

    22. the difficulty of the task depends inpart upon the number of sounds (fewer soundsare easier than more), which sounds they are(liquids are typically easier than nasals or stops),and their location in the word (middle sounds aremore difficult to attend to than initial or finalsounds).

      Good to remember for scaffolding/differentiation.

    23. They may be asked toblend sounds together to form a word (e.g., Whatword would we have if we put these sounds to-gether? /j/-/u/-/m/-/p/). They may be asked tosegment words into their constituent parts (e.g.,Tell all the sounds you hear in the word dog).

      Blending and segmenting are most important phonemic awareness skills.

    24. Phonemicawareness development is not meaningful in andof itself. It is important only in the context ofcomprehensive reading instruction.

      Interesting. I always thought students had to have strong phonemic awareness before they were ready to move on to other components of reading like phonics.

    25. Adams andBruck (1995), for instance, submitted that songs,chants, and word-sound games are ideally suit-ed toward developing young children’s sensitiv-ity to the sound structure of language. Beck andJuel (1995) posited that time spent on word play,nursery or Dr. Seuss rhymes, and general expo-sure to storybooks contribute to phonemicawareness. Mattingly (1984) encouraged class-room teachers to provide their students with lin-guistic stimulation in the form of storytelling,word games, rhymes, and riddles in order to fa-cilitate phonemic awareness.

      Consensus seems to be that songs, chants, rhymes, riddles, and word games/play help develop phonemic awareness.

    26. phonemic awareness instruction foryoung children should be playful and engaging,interactive and social, and should stimulate cu-riosity and experimentation with language.

      I think that the goal of instruction in any domain is to incorporate these terms (engaging, interactive, social, stimulate curiosity, etc).

    27. Every ChildReading: An Action Plan of the Learning FirstAlliance(1998) identifies phonemic awarenessas one of the most important foundations of read-ing success and recommends that its developmentbe addressed in prekindergarten and kindergarten.

      I am interested to see how phonemic awareness will be addressed in prekindergarten.

    28. Phonemicawareness—a subset of phonological aware-ness—refers to a sensitivity to and control overthe phonemes.

      Image Description

    29. , the Bag Game, described here forphoneme manipulation, can be used for syllablemanipulation

      perfect for third graders!

    30. Make a Word (letters)

      useful for small group

    31. qualityof instruction and the responsive-nessof the instruction to the individuals in theclassroom that should have greater considerationthan the amount of time

      quality vs quantity

    32. their location in the word (middle sounds aremore difficult to attend to than initial or finalsounds)

      This is something that is difficult for many of my struggling readers in the third grade. They can identify,delete and segment beginning and ending sounds but when it comes to the middle they really struggle.

    33. A sequence for phonemic awareness instruction

      larger parts of speech to smaller

    34. Phonemicawareness development is not meaningful in andof itself. It is important only in the context ofcomprehensive reading instruction.

      Not sure if I agree with this statement. Reading to learn vs learning to read?

    1. There are many different varieties of English. Some of these are different dialects spoken in different regions of the country or by different sociocultural groups. Some of them are different varieties of language used by different occupations or for different specific purposes: for example, the language of bookies, lawyers, or video game players.

      There are also many different ways to learn and understand reading, they are different for each one of these groups, and different for each individual.

    2. Children who must learn reading primarily as an instructed process in school are at an acute disadvantage. It would be like learning to cook or play video games via lectures or decontextualized skill-and-drill. Possible, maybe, but surely neither effective nor easy.

      Shows how important hands on learning is.

    3. If most people learned to cook as well as they learn physics, whole cultures would starve.

      True.

    4. Every human is built to learn a native language well; not everyone is built to learn physics well.

      Interesting thought

    5. phonemic awareness” (the conscious awareness that oral words are composed of individual sounds), then on phonics (matching letters to sounds), then practice with fluent oral reading (reading out loud), then work on comprehension skills. Each stage is supposed to guarantee the next.

      Nice way to lay it out

    6. Poor children do it as well as rich, if they have access to the cards, games, or figures.

      Having access is key

    7. hey all had polysyllabic names
    8. member of a particular social group have anything whatsoever to do with learning to read in school? Isn’t the whole purpose of public schooling to create a level playing field for all children?

      This is an interesting point, it makes you think that public schools in different areas are teaching to different standards.

    9. children don’t get enough overt instruction on “phonics

      I often wonder, as a sped teacher, how much time children are "supposed" to spend on phonics instruction

    10. We see here, again, the potential importance of modern technologies like video games

      Of course, assuming that kids are always using video games in this social manner (see the abortion example below), they have great potential. However,in his zeal for promoting virtual learning and meaning making, Gee ignores the fact that kids still need actual face to face contact with other kids. Video games can supplement, but I don't think they should replace, human interaction.

    11. Once we see how important being able to simulate experiences in our mind is to comprehending oral and written language, we can see the importance of supplying all children in schools with the range of necessary experiences with which they can build good and useful simulations for understanding things like science. We can also see a potential role for things like video games that allow people to experience and act in new worlds

      This is the paragrah that, so far, has brought this chapter full circle for me. Children need a multitude of experiences so they can create mental simulations to create meaning in oral and written language. The virtual world offers children who have not had physical experiences opportunities to have experiences that can help them create those mental simulations, thereby creating meaning.

    12. “The work of childhood is learning to read.”

      Oh, I beg to differ. Like Gee, (and Mr. Rogers for that matter), I believe that lay is the real work of childhood.

    13. How does any reader learn the specific meanings of any word. By playing the “games” the word is used in. Reading lots of texts may not be an effective way to learn what words mean specifically, but playing the games they are used in is.

      Readers need to experience words - act them out, draw them, use them in conversation, make riddles and jokes out of them. They need to play with their words.

    14. But the bigger paradox here is that reading is, in fact, not an especially good way to learn vocabulary

      Gee just said that "Research also shows that the only way poor readers can catch up in vocabulary is to do lots of reading." So which is it?

    15. Here we see the additional factor of ensuring that people feel like they belong to and are a valued and accepted part of the social group within which their learning takes place.

      If we cannot satisfy our need of love and belonging, we can not move on to self-esteem, which prohibits us from successfully moving on to self-actualization. Hierarchy of Needs

    16. In his work, highly educated college-age African-Americans and women do less well on math tests when, and only when, the tester, however subtly, triggers their fear of negative stereotypes (e.g. African-Americans are “less smart” or women are “no good at math”). Otherwise they perform as well as white males. To ignore these wider issues, while stressing such things as phonemic awareness, is to ignore not merely “politics,” but what we know about learning and literacy as well.

      Is this author a feminist because he's speaking my language.

    17. the white-black gap has remained roughly constant for the last 16 years...

      Reading this made me wonder how mixed race children do.

    18. Given the amount of parallelism and repetition in her text, clearly Leona is not primarily interested in making rapid and linear progress to “the point.” Rather, she is interested in creating a pattern out of language, within and across her stanzas: a pattern

      During slavery, people often sang songs that were coded so master would not know the plans of the slaves. This rhythmic way of communicating is deeply rooted in the African American culture. However, because of it's origin and history, people outside of the African American culture might dismiss with way of communicating. Which is what was done here.

    19. music was now “scary” and the landscape much harsher-looking than the ones he had previously been in.

      I'm looking at the relationship between kids getting older and things getting harder (the game got scary when it was for older children). How is this conditioning the children.

    20. “person like us”: that is, a member of his family

      This idea of "person like us" is one of the main barriers in many things. There's a norm and everyone else is other and we treat them like that.

    21. The story suggests that gender differences (boy versus girl) are associated with different interests (Transformers versus Cabbage Patches) and that these different interests inevitably lead to conflict when male and female try to be “equal” or sort themselves on other grounds than gender (“a fight on who would be which team”: the actual fight at her party had been about mixing genders on the teams).

      Gender identity and characterizations are always apparent.

    22. This is because schools do not start the academic language acquisition process for these children—a process that has already started at home for other children.

      There is no transition. You either assimilated or die (not literally more figuratively).

    23. does not allow an emotional word

      Some languages take out human emotion which can cause serious problems

    24. People think of a language like English as one thing—“a language.” Actually, it’s not one thing, it’s many things.

      I never thought about it this way. However, I know exactly what she means by being in a program outside my discipline.

    25. The fourth-grade slump is made up of kids who can “read,” in the sense of decode and assign superficial literal meanings to texts, but can’t “read” in the sense of understanding, in any deep way, informational texts written in fairly complex language.

      I see this all the time with the girls I work with. They were pushed along because they could read, but could not comprehend.

    26. Most humans are not, in fact, very good at learning via overt instruction.

      Humans are very good at learning based on their exposure, experience and being hands on.

    27. proper tools are made available

      Poor communities don't have proper tools or resources

    28. Literacy (written language) is too new a process historically to have had the evolutionary time required to have become “wired” into our human genetic structure. Written language is, at the very best, 6000 to 10,000 years old—too short a time to have gained biological support. Furthermore, written language was invented by only a few cultures and only a few times, unlike oral language, which has existed for all human cultures for long enough to have become part of our human biological inheritance.

      Do we take into consideration the thousand of cultures that used symbols as written language or are we just talking about actual text?

    29. Henry Ford would have been proud.

      It's the American way. Force fed information without the ability to step outside the lines for creativity or individuality.

    30. Technologies are tools that allow us to do certain things.

      These can be low tech too, sometimes technology is solely about access, especially for those with disabilities. Technology has been a game changer for many students.

    31. instruction is a much less efficient process (in all sorts of ways) than learning to play video games via a cultural process (i.e. via becoming a member of the games culture).

      I think both internal motivation (strong desires to learn particular skill) as well as the act of doing heavily influence how learning is acquired.

    32. Most children learn to read, regardless of what instructional approach a school adopts

      This speaks to the "one size fits all" approach to reading is not the best one.

    33. It’s the situation that counts.

      This is the balance that most of us referred to in my discussion director question on technology and children.

    34. So what is this early language ability that seems so important for later success in school? According to the report, it is indicated by things like vocabulary (receptive vocabulary, but more especially expressive vocabulary, p. 107); the ability to recall and comprehend sentences and stories; and the ability to engage in extended, connected verbal interactions on a single topic.

      It seems as though these are the things that parents, community members, and teachers need to focus on in children, especially those who are at risk.

    35. The “fourth-grade slump” (Chall et al. 1990) is the phenomenon where some children seem to acquire reading (i.e. pass reading tests) fine in the early grades, but fail to be able to use reading to learn school content in the later grades, when the language demands of that content (e.g. science) get more and more complex.

      As a former high school science teacher, I came across many students who had these same difficulties.

    36. Many children are exposed to language and other symbols connected to modern technologies and media (e.g. the Internet, video games, text messaging) that seem more compelling and motivating than school language.

      I have to talk to my students all the time about not including "text talk" in their academic work. "LOL" and "OMG" are not appropriate language for a formal assignment.

    37. ensuring that people feel like they belong to and are a valued and accepted part of the social group within which their learning takes place

      Creating that environment is critical.

    38. The teacher heard her as rambling.

      I wonder what the teacher could have done to help Leona become aware of the many things she was doing unintentionally well in her story and help her develop those skills even farther.

    39. What we are dealing with here is talking and thinking about the (internal) design of the game

      Could later manifest into thinking about author's intent and purpose.

    40. He ended up reading on the Internet, in books, and in his video games much more complicated and much more academic-like language than he read in his first-grade school texts.

      This is important. Students should be read appropriately challenging books and be exposed to academic language early.

    41. Some planets that are near the sun are hot; others that are a little farther away are warm.

      Good use of compare/contrast.

    42. What is happening here is that a little girl, who cannot yet “really” read, is learning and practicing non-vernacular forms of language associated with school and schooling.

      She definitely seems to have reading readiness.

    43. All human beings acquire their first language well, and about equally well as everyone else

      I don't agree with this. What about students with mild speech/language impairments?

    44. I have seen students who struggle in one of these areas but not the subsequent ones (like a student with very low fluency but very high comprehension).

    45. Poor children do it as well as rich, if they have access to the cards, games, or figures.

      Is their point that poor children can read as well as rich if they have access to books?

    46. The examples will be familiar to many. They are things like children doing pretend readings of books, that sound like the child is reading a real book, or children reporting at dinnertime on their day in a fashion that sounds like a school report. Some families encourage their children to do these things, while others don’t—some, in fact, wouldn’t be caught dead doing some of these things.

      This is sad to know that some parents "wouldn't be caught dead doing this". My question really is why not?

    47. what I have called a cultural learning process is how the vast majority of young people today learn to play computer and video games

      This always shocks me. Students who are non-verbal or can only identify their letters can navigate their way around the computer, type in their favorite website with no assistance.

    48. So does this mean, as the traditionalists argue, that reading is an instructed process? Does learning to read require lots of overt instruction? Not necessarily.

      I had the same thought! I wonder why it is not necessarily instructed if we just established it is not natural?

    49. Learners are given continual verbal and behavioral feedback for their efforts

      Feedback is so important for children! I strive to leave a meaningful comment on every piece of work my students complete.

    50. Even when instruction is good, we find a pattern in such cases where a small number of people succeed quite well and a far greater number succeed much less well. Every human is built to learn a native language well; not everyone is built to learn physics well.

      Great point.

    51. In fact, it seems a bit strange—creepy even—to claim that an African-American child or a poor child might be inherently less able to engage with Pokémon than white or rich children. We do not, however, find such thoughts strange when we think about school learning, though we should.

      I thought that this was such a great way to examine why poor and minority students are not doing as well at reading. These children can learn the Pokemon system just as well as the rich children when given equal access to it. These children have the ability to be great readers, it is just not being tapped into in the right ways.

    52. Why should being poor or a member of a particular social group have anything whatsoever to do with learning to read in school? Isn’t the whole purpose of public schooling to create a level playing field for all children?

      Being poor or a minority should NOT be a factor in one's ability to read. While we may not be able to control what happens at our student's homes in terms of education, we CAN control what goes on in the classroom.

    53. What appears to cause it are family, community, and school language environments in which children interact intensively with adults and more advanced peers and experience cognitively challenging talk and texts on sustained topics and in different genres of oral and written language

      In What no Bedtime Story Means families in the community of Trackton believed that they shouldn't rely on a baby to tell them what they need so adults make no attempt to engage with the child as they coo/babble. This shows that mindset could be hindering a large portion of children's language and reading ability.

    54. Poor children suffer the same sort of plight that someone who tries to pass French 4 without French 1, French 2, and French 3 does.

      Good comparison

    55. So what is it about school that manages to transform children who are good at learning (witness Pokémon), regardless of their economic and cultural differences, into children who are not good at learning, if they are poor or members of certain minority groups?

      I think this is a harsh generalization and I strongly disagree.

    56. You simply have to feel unaffiliated with school and formal schooling for any of a variety of reasons.

      So children are failing to learn how to read because they don't fit in? I may be reading this wrong, but students who are in a poor area or are a minority do not have the same exposure an experiences as the "in group" which may be why reading is more difficult. Also if they are in the minority group it could be a language barrier.

    57. Children will not identify with—they will even disidentify with—teachers and schools that they perceive as hostile, alien, or oppressive to their home-based identities (Holland and Quinn 1987). Indeed, I argue throughout this book that learning is all about identity and identification

      Primary and elemetary teachers, the majority of which continue to be white women, often claim to be "colorblind." However, when they do not acknowledge students home cultures, they run the risk of alienating students. Teachers need to acknowledge and celebrates students' identities if they want to gain their trust and support their successes.

    58. As long as schools are organized as they are—and they have historically been impervious to change—she will suffer for that

      This was written ten years ago. I feel this is changing, as more and more schools, parents, and communities are investing in quality preschool experiences for children. The length of children's "preschool" years are being shortened, as many are entering school at three or four instead of five or six. Those early school years, when quality teachers are introducing acadmic language, might make the difference.

    59. Could Leona’s story-telling language practice have been fruitfully recruited by the school?

      I wonder what the structure of "sharing time" looked like. Was it a whole group experience, where children were expected to sit and listen to thier peers? If so, Leona might have been cut short by the teacher in a misguided attempt to accomodate the group's needs. Perhaps if the structure of the sharing was changed, Leona's narrative would have been more respected.

    60. Language ability

      language experiences? literacy exposure?

    61. he “fourth-grade slump” (Chall et al. 1990) is the phenomenon where some children seem to acquire reading (i.e. pass reading tests) fine in the early grades, but fail to be able to use reading to learn school content in the later grades, when the language demands of that content (e.g. science) get more and more complex

      Here's a phrase I've heard a lot regarding this phenomenom: "move students from 'learning to read' to 'reading to learn'"

    1. Discussion in which stu-dents show a good understanding of and critical thinking about the text often includes listening and linking to others’ ideas, providing evidence from the text to support one’s thinking, and regular student participation

      This past year we incorporated Socratic seminars into our classrooms and it was amazing to see students making connections to the text, agreeing/disagreeing with their classmate's comments, and active participation from student's who are normally on the reserved side.

    2. Also, students sometimes forget a lesson overnight or over a weekend, at least temporarily, so when they return to school, they may not remember how to independently enact the strategy they were using effortlessly the previous school day.

      I have seen this happen quite a few times. These strategies (or any concept that is taught) should be reviewed every so often in order to stay fresh in students minds.

    3. The model we recommend for teaching any comprehension strategy is the gradual release of responsibility

      Yet again, another example of the importance of scaffolding!

    4. Instruction that includes hands-on activities, opportunities to engage in reading for authentic purposes, and texts with a clear structure and vivid, concrete examples is associated with motivated engagement and, subsequently, better recall and learning

      All of my "best" lessons are those in which students are engaged in some type of hands-on activity. These kinds of activities definitely motivate students and I find that students do have better recall and learning as a result. My students almost always remember the objectives of these kinds of lessons months after they have taken place.

    5. Words are not the point of words; ideas are.

      I like this quote!

    6. Very true, this also highlights to need for teacher's to incorporate a variety of texts into the classroom.

    7. we use our knowledge along with our perceptions of what we think the text says to literally build, or construct, mental representations of what the text means.

      This is the basis of comprehension.

    8. both models carve out a central role for readers’ prior knowledge in the comprehen-sion process

      Prior knowledge is key in comprehension! This may be part of the reason why underprivileged students have such difficulty learning how to read.

    9. . One study found that second and third graders whose teachers engaged them in reading and writing texts more like those you would find outside of school, for rea-sons similar to those for which people read and write outside of school, showed higher growth in reading comprehension;

      This makes total sense, but is difficult to follow through on because of those texts not always aligning with Common Core or not being a part of the district's curriculum.

    10. The program’s fun-damental premise is that reading, writing, and language (e.g., vocabulary, discourse) are best developed when they are put to work as tools to help students acquire knowledge and inquiry skill in a specific domain, such as science

      Seems like an easy way to kill two birds with one stone.

    11. Writers of narratives often omit the motives that drive characters to particular actions in a story on precisely the grounds that they expect readers to use their knowledge of stories, life experiences, and human nature to infer those motives.

      As teachers we can't assume that our students have had the life experiences or situations to be able to infer on their own. Thus, we need to clarify those motives together with our students.

    12. we need to make rapid progress in this area if we are to prepare readers to be versatile enough to comprehend the his-torically unprecedented range of text available to them

      Yet another call for better preparing teachers to teach in the digital age. As stated earlier, research indicates that readers might use different processes and strategies with digital texts, and teachers need to be prepared to support that literacy as well.

    13. These multiple and varying representations may be responsible for the observed improvement in understanding and memory for key ideas encountered in the text.

      Again, varying the modality of instruction (written, spoken, visual) creates knowledge that is more likely to be long lasting

    14. the primary focus should actually be reading, for compelling purposes, with teachers guiding and helping students select strategies as needed for students to meet their comprehension goals while working through the tough parts of the texts they encounter.

      The strategy is a tool to increase comprehension. The strategies themselves are not the goal.

    15. a student’s reading level varies depending on his or her interest in the text, as well as other factors, including background knowledge, as discussed earlier in this chapter.

      Reading level is fluid, depending on interest in the subject. Which makes you wonder about the reliability of those DRA scores....

    16. the knowledge that students would gain in more vigorous social studies and science instruction would, as Kintsch’s (1998, 2004) Construction–Integration model dictates, fuel comprehen-sion development directly and powerfully.

      Haven't we known for a long time that in integrated approach to learning, when connections are made between disciplines benefits students?

    17. IDEAS (in-depth expanded applications of sci-ence) model replaces literacy instruction with a two-hour block of inte-grated science–literacy instruction.

      I wish this would become the norm. When students experience how literacy is woven throughout domains, and can help them cultivate their interests, they are motivated to learn the necessary skills.

    18. the model must correspond with their relevant prior knowledge of how the world works. In short, read-ers must integrate information from the text base (i.e., words, sentences, paragraphs) with available and relevant prior knowledge retrieved from long-term memory and fold it all into an emerging situation model of the meaning of the text at that point in the process.

      This speaks to why prior knowledge is so important. Early and diverse exposure in the world assist students in comprehension as readers.

    19. We must understand how skilled comprehenders con-struct meaning, so we can help students learn to construct meaning in the same way.

      It is important to replicate what works instead of just hunting and pecking or guessing.

    20. then teachers are the tour guides, ensuring that students stay on course, pausing to make sure they appreciate the landscape of understanding, and encouraging the occasional diversion down an inviting and interesting cul-de-sac or byway.

      I think this is a great way to describe a teacher's role to students....that they are their tour guides. A visual could even be created to explain both student and teacher roles as well as the expectations for all. This approach could be used at all grades levels and might possible act as a "hook" to engage students as we've been discussing.

    21. Table 3.1. What Good Readers Do When They Read

      For skilled readers, these strategies are automatic and almost subconscious.

    22. Skilled readers are also more motivated and engaged readers, reading more actively and more voluminously, thus further developing their knowledge and skill

      Youm do what you are good at. If you are a skilled reader, you read more, which in turn, helps you become a better reader. Conversely, if reading is not easy for you, you will avoid it, missing opportunities to build those skills. We tell kids to read every night. But. if they come from families that include adults who are not skilled readers (and therefore avoid reading) they don't get the social support needed. This is where the digital texts, with embedded support, could help bridge that divide.

    1. Morris and Perney (1984) found that first grader’sinvented spellings were a better predictor of end-of-grade reading than a standardized readingreadiness test.

      so interesting!

    2. Students and adult learners move from using but confusing elements ofsound, to using but confusing elements of pattern, to using but confusing elements ofmeaning.

      Interesting way of putting the learning process. I definitely have since this sequence with my students.

    3. not only represent beginning,middle, and ending sounds within words, but they also learn to deal with more am-biguous sounds

      phonics rules

    4. This typeof writing issemiphonetic

      beginning and ending sounds

    5. What students do correctly—an independent or easy level2.What students use but confuse—an instructional level where instruction is mosthelpful3.What is absent in students’ spelling—a frustration level where spelling concepts aretoo difficult

      I really like the way they explain these three levels of learning. I have seen other ways of classifying this but none ever said so simply.

    6. Designing a word studyprogram that explicitly teaches students necessary skills and engages their interest andmotivation to learn about how words work is a vital aspect of any literacy program

      fcrr.org is a wonderful resource for word study engaging activities

    7. Word study is active, and by makingjudgments about words and sorting words according to similar features, students con-struct their own rules for how the features work.

      This seems like a sound approach to reading and spelling instruction since it allows student participation.

    8. It is not the case that students abandon sound once theymove to the more efficient use of patterns, or abandon patterns once they move to themore efficient use of morphology.

      Excellent support as to why phonemic awareness instruction is so important when students are learning to read and spell.

    9. One of the easiest ways to know what students need to learn is to look at the waythey spell words.

      Word and pattern analysis is very important to take the time to do.

    10. .Students’ learning of spelling and vocabulary is based on their developmental or in-structional level.2.Students’ learning is based on the way they are naturally inclined to learn, on theirnatural course of conceptual learning

      Again, these statements do not seem unique to teaching spelling and vocabulary, but should be the fundamentals of all good teaching.

    11. when they read good stories, write purposefully, and are guided by knowl-edgeable teachers in word study.

      This connects to prior reading on early exposure to language and literacy. Those who are given a rich variety of exposure may have an easier time with written expression in addition to learning to read.

    12. children can become quite attached

      I'd call it possessive - I've seen young children get into arguments over the letters that start their names! "That's my A!." No it's not, it's my A!"

    13. adults will recognize their efforts as more pretend than real.

      While I understand what the author is saying, I hesitate to label any child's attempt at communication as "pretend." If they are trying to write, and the writing has meaning to them, then the writing is real - not traditional, but real.

    14. There is converging evidence that reading, writing, and spelling developmentare integrally related.

      this is one of those statements that teachers make, because they just "know it." It's good to know that there is evidence to support the idea that students' abilities to read, write, and spell are intertwined.

    15. so students have littleopportunity to manipulate word concepts

      Word and sound mainuplation are key!

    16. By using students’ invented spellings as a guide, teacherscan differentiate efficient, effective instruction in phonics, spelling, and vocabulary.

      I think this is such a great way to analyze and select teaching methods for each student.

    17. his con-struct, calledinstructional level,is a powerful delimiter of what may be learned. Sim-ply put, we must teach to where a child “is at.”

      this is the hallmark of quality instruction in all domains

    18. As students learn to read andwrite, they appear to literally reinventthe system as it was itself invented.

      Amazing! and all learners go through this process.

    19. By building connections betweenmeaning parts and their derivations,we enlarge our vocabulary.

      fitting new knowledge into an already established schema

    1. o understand the history of reading research, we need to appreciate theimpact of these varied perspectives on learner and learning that become mir-rored in the research questions posed, the methodologies applied, and the inter-pretations made.

      everything in education always links back to research and the multiple ways students learn.

    2. ittle regard for motivation in the form of readers’goals, interests, and involvement in the learning experience (O

      heavy emphasis today

    3. e relativedominance of informal knowledge over formal understandings could be becausewhat is learned in a school setting appears of limited relevance and therefore lim-ited value to students (

      many schools have made the shift of students reading more informational texts

    4. ere was a shift away from the neurological orphysiological arguments central to that earlier period and more concern fornaturalism in the materials and procedures used to teach reading. O

      really? I always thought they linked

    5. ssential to unite all manner of language acquisitionand use.

      just because someone can speak the language does not mean they can write or read

    6. interaction of language as a system and languagein its particular social uses. S

      why low SES children have a smaller vocabulary

    7. st aschildren came to understand the spoken language of their surrounding communi-ty (Halliday, 1969), they would come to understand its written language givenenough exposure in meaningful situations (Goodman & Goodman, 198

      to an extent

    8. of these movementsturned attention back inside the human mind and away from the environme

      shift to science - cognitive

    9. William James (1890) endured in the notion that human thought mattered inhuman action and that introspection and self-questioning were effective tools foruncovering those thoughts.

      interesting

    10. onics in-struction came to be seen as part of the logical groundwork for beginning toread

      wow not long ago phonics became the groundwork

    11. accountability, primarily in the form ofhigh-stakes testing, and the drive for national standards

      New liberal approaches don't get looked at when testing is performed. Social cultural approaches aren't considered. The standardization of testing still keeps people oppressed.

    12. Today’s K–12 students in postindustrialsocieties have never experienced a world without computer-based technologies.They regularly surf the Web, send e-mail, and use instant messaging—acts thathave changed the face of information processing and human communication

      Today people are less interactive and more distant so technology is preventing socialization skills

    13. thereis a significant relationship between learners’ knowledge and their interests

      If we offer text that centers around a child's interest with hidden positive messages, or learning cues, this could be a beneficial approach.

    14. experiential learning and interest

      Thought about this two pages ago. Experiential differences.

    15. these motivational factors were not consideredin isolation but were studied in relation to other factors such as students’ knowl-edge, strategic abilities, sociocultural background, and features of the learningcontext.

      I can see more inclusion

    16. From the standpoint of human interactions, as well, certain sociocultural re-searchers came to the position that knowledge was not merely shaped or colored

      Taking into consideration experiential differences. I wanted to tag the whole sentence but it wouldn't let me.

    17. unschooled knowledge

      I like this term. First time I heard it.

    18. impetus to change was the development of a systematic atti-tude of distrust or devaluing of formal knowledge, and of the traditional mode ofscientific inquiry.

      People started to go against what they were told. Sounds like Third Wave Feminism had some influence.

    19. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this research period was its fo-cus on the individual mind.

      What individual mind? Meaning, if research was done on Anglo-American men, how could anyone be considered?

    20. “natural”

      Who defines what's natural/normal?

    21. Consequently,learning to read, the written counterpart of acquiring an oral language, came tobe viewed as an inherent ability, rather than a reflective act involving the labori-ous acquisition of a set of skills

      If it was inherent ability, why was there a "problem"

    22. identification of the requisite desired behaviors

      We program people to the desired behaviors

    23. In this theoretical orientation, learning resulted from the repeated and controlledstimulation from the environment that came to elicit a predictable response fromthe individual.

      How do negative environments play a role?

    24. With this analyticview, there was a growing tendency for problems in the reading act to be looked onas deficiencies in need of remediation, just as physical ailments require medicalremedies.

      Why do Americans always want an answer to a problem?

    25. Such an analysis would presumably result in pedagogical techniquesbased on an understanding of the physiological and environmental underpinningsof human behavior (Glaser, 1978)

      Reminds me of Maslow

    26. This baby boomcontributed to both quantitative and qualitative changes to the school population

      With this high increase of children how did school prepare? Were school overcrowded? Did students receive the same attention?

    27. Such domain-specific or task-specific qualifi-cation of student ability added to the conditionality of learning.

      It's completely possible for students to excel in some areas and struggle in others. It seems like students were looked at more individually and more specifically, which likely helped improve instruction based on particular needs.

    28. Schools clearly functioned as social institutions centeredaround the interactions of students and teachers.

      Interesting shift. Those interactions are so important for students to develop social skills and are likely to increase motivation.

    29. The goal of learning was no longerseen as the development of an individually held body of knowledge, but rather thecreation of a mutual understanding arising in the social interaction of particularindividuals in a particular context at a particular time.

      This is interesting. Doesn't sound like kids were taught to be critical thinkers.

    30. aspectrum of general text-processing strategies, including summarization, map-ping, self-questioning, and predicting

      So the focus was on comprehension strategies rather than decoding strategies?

    31. There was little, if any, consideration of sociocultural or contextual influences onthe processing of linguistic information

      This is a big limitation.

    32. Text-based learningwas about knowledge, which was organized and stored within the individualmind, and resulted from the input, interpretation, organization, retention, and out-put of information from the individual’s environment

      Seems like reading was thought of more as knowledge than a skill.

    33. his new perspective held littleregard for the innateness or naturalness of reading and little interest in the amal-gamation of literacy fields

      I think recent research on dyslexia and reading disabilities has proved that there is some degree of innateness to reading.

    34. miscue analysis

      still often used today

    35. Learning to read was not so much a matter ofbeing taught, but a matter of arriving at facility as a result of a predisposition toseek understanding within a language-rich environment.

      More student-centered, higher motivation

    36. human beings were biologicallyprogrammed to acquire language under favorable conditions

      What about those with reading disabilities?

    37. Language, as with other innatehuman capacities, was to be developed through meaningful use, not practiced tothe point of mindless reaction

      But what if a child is not sufficiently exposed to meaningful language outside of school?

    1. Many students who appear to be learning to read well in the early years of school cannot read to learn by the fourth grade.

      This is the time where that 10%, the "unique" and "complex" vocabulary, begins to enter their reading.

    2. novices need experiences (diSessa, 2000) to marry to words to give them concrete meanings. This will start them on the path to more general meanings as they have more experiences and find patterns within them

      While this is what students needs it seems we are moving farther away from hands on experiences and focusing more on paper-pencil worksheets.

    3. One key reason that some children — often, but not always more privileged children — are successful in school with academic language is their early home-based preparation. Many successful students enter kindergarten with a large and varied vocabulary acquired through regular dialogue with parents or grandparents, being read to frequently, and exposure to a wide variety of experiences in the world. Such interac-tions are crucial

      This needs to be broadcasted everywhere! While it makes common sense to me, perhaps because that was my experience as a child, this needs to be the mindset amongst all American families!

    4. What gives students a good running head start to engage this complex language is a wide-ranging, sturdy vocabulary of complex words in the early years (before age five)

      Calling all parents...talk to your children!

    5. Stated simply, if we don’t create a different approach to literacy in the primary grades, millions of children will never overcome the “slump” that prevents them from becoming fully productive citizens.

      Not sure if adding digital media to literacy instruction is the answer to this problem. I believe the problem is that a child's success is solely on the teacher's shoulders, which just isn't going to cut it.

    6. The probability that a poor first-grade reader will be a poor reader in the fourth grade is 0.88, and children who are behind in reading in the first grade have only a one-in-eight chance of ever catching up

      Doesn't this show that it becomes out of the teacher's hands to give the foundation needed if the crucial age for it is between the age of birth to five?

    7. . Create “a place in every community”: New literacies technology centers

      Nice idea, but I feel like a library fulfills this for those families that do want their child to have more digital practice. Also, so many families have a computer in the home a lot of people won't want to take additional time out of the day to go.

    8. hey can also be used to track how learners learn, moment by moment, so that, eventually, we can give students constant feedback based on our knowledge of various trajectories of learning

      Good point.

    9. The most accurate predictor of school success is the size of a child’s vocabulary at age five of “book” words (words more likely to appear in written texts than in spoken language). This breadth of vocabulary is created by parents talking to children, answering their questions, reading to them, modeling their own pleasure in reading, and offering their children a wide variety of experiences in the world

      Yet again, another statement that goes against the belief of people from the community of Trackton who don't find it necessary to interpret their child's cooing and babbling.

    10. The fourth-grade slump consistently leads to educational failure. The digital gap leads to a failure to become confidently “tech-savvy,” a 21st-century skill crucial for success, and even for survival

      It is assumed since our society is so immersed with technology that students know anything and everything there is to do with it, but in actuality a lot of students don't know about proper formatting or how to construct a powerpoint. This assumption is leading to more of a digital gap now then in our generation.

    11. The digital gap: Access to digital media is important, but perhaps more important is access to adult mentoring in the use of digital media. Students need adults to help them learn to leverage technological “know-how” to learn content, produce knowledge, and develop high-level expertise.

      The key here is the fact that children need adults to make meaning out of their child's experience with digital media.

    12. Unfortunately, the skills — especially the digital skills — needed to modernize early literacy teaching are not being transmitted in teacher education programs in the United States. We need to radically transform the preparation and professional development opportunities available to teachers in the primary grades.

      Agreed. This is an area of teacher prep programs that is sorely lacking.

    13. Sustained research within and across diverse disciplines is needed to shed light on the specific benefits of digital media, and to assess what works best for children from different backgrounds and with different learning profiles.

      I am especially interested in how a young children, who are still developing their concept of real and imaginary, and who are still concrete thinkers, receive the virtual world.

    14. tech-savvy,” that is, unafraid of technical learning, adept at technology, and able to use it in productive and innovative ways.

      i like this definition of "tech-savvy"

    15. they can only be useful if parents, teachers, and more advanced peers help children seek out good learning media and fruitfully draw on their internal design features for learning.

      A challenge is to find the "good learning media." The market is saturated with software and website that claim to to promote learning, but it can be tough to weed out the good ones from the mediocre.

    16. Less-well-off families engaged much less in such mentoring, and consequently, their children gain less school-based knowledge from digital media and print literacy, read less well, are more passive in their activities, have less of a foundation to build on, and, thus, fall further and further behind.

      So what do we do? How do we support families to engage with their children, especially if they do not have the digital literacy themselves?

    17. challenge #2: Learning content like math and science at any age must always include language learning. We must more proactively integrate approaches to teaching content, language, and literacy in the early grades

      I think currently more curriculum is designed to be cross-curricular. I think it's important to incorporate content specific vocabulary into all subject areas

    18. Even our best students can no longer compete.

      Why didn't America keep up with changing education along with other countries?

    19. Because digital media easily, perhaps uniquely, can combine action in relationship with environment, this technology can generate situated meaning — vocabulary used in actual situations, which makes meanings clear and easier to remember — in myriads of settings. Thus digital media, whether in a format custom-designed to be educational or, in some cases, in off-the-shelf products, have the potential to increase the “book” vocabulary, and the concepts attached to such words, for children whose families are unable to do so

      I hadn't thought of digital media in this way...that it provides both rote skill and actual learning situations. This was a new way to look at digital media and teaching for me.

    20. What is crucial for learning is not just access to books or digital tools, but access to support and structured mentorship as well.

      So we"digital immigrants" either need to learn quickly, or we need to find capable digital natives who can serve as those mentors.

    21. Learning to situate meanings requires that learners have well-structured, well-supported, well-mentored experiences in the area of interest.

      Digital learning needs to be supported with human interactions. It cannot completely replace them.

    22. We suggest that the barrier to academic language in school, especially for underprivileged kids, is the overreliance on texts and words to teach new language, texts that they cannot fully understand. One solution — in fact, the one taken by popular culture practices that recruit complex language — is to tie language more to images, actions, goals, experiences, and dialogue as a way to teach deep comprehension of text

      making the abstract more concrete, and allowing students to use a variety of learning modalities

    23. impose standards and testing, which has led many schools to focus on the basics, skill-and-drill, test preparation, and standardized skills, often at the expense of teaching students complex language and thinking skills, let alone the ability to use these skills to innovate and produce knowledge

      So, if we know this doesn't work, if students aren't making significant gains, why is this the fall-back? If we want our students to be critical thinkers and problem-solvers, shouldn't our policy-makers be the same?

    24. We need to supply such children, within their families and in programs beyond the family, the early school-based language development that more privileged children are getting. This would most certainly include one-on-one talk and reading with adults. This kind of intense in-person support, however, has sometimes proven difficult to sustain in the preschool period among lower-income families.

      Schools and child-care centers cannot replicate the interactions described above. Those interactions, while steeped in rich language, occur in the context of a relationship that is warm and loving. Children who learn in homes like this come to associate learning with those same positive emotions. No preschool teacher could ever replicate those experiences.

    25. Academic language encompasses not just a specialist vocabulary, but also a good number of more formal words that occur across many academic, specialist, and public-sphere domains and in a wide variety of written texts, words like “process,” “state,” “account,” “probable,” “occurrence,” “maintain,” “benevolent,” and so forth. Such words do not occur regularly in everyday conversation

      Early childhood professionals are realizing the importance of incorporating these Tier 2 words into the everyday language of our classrooms. These words are not "too hard" for young children, and with repeated use, they become part of a child's vocabulary. They proudly own those words.

    26. children who are behind in reading in the first grade have only a one-in-eight chance of ever catching up

      I wonder if this stat would be different today, considering the amount of effort put into RTI. If not, RTI appears to be a SIsyphean endeavor.

    27. But instead of facing the enlarged needs of the future, our nation has turned many of our schools into test-prep academies focused on assessing standardized skill sets in a world that demands higher-level skills and the ability to innovate. We need a new educational approach.

      Individual teachers recognize this need, and are trying to find ways to teach these "21st century skills" while still meeting the demands of preparing students for standarized tests. We need a systemic shift.