640 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2022
  2. Jun 2018
    1. the course Resources page

      Where is the course resource page? Do you mean the tool box under the Make_List tab?

    2. We do not require textbooks, exams, or formal essays.

      I am ready to challenge my creativity and step out of my comfort zone with this course. looking forward to it!

    3. Office hours: by appointment

      Can we schedule Zoom Conference or Facetime with you if we need help?

    4. Required course readings and media will be made available each week at no cost.

      Will the readings and media be found in the module for each week?

  3. Sep 2016
    1. Mark, with his usual severity, makes Jesus angry and disappointed, and also turns the insiders into outsiders. They cannot answer this riddle, any more than they could read the Parable of the Sower.

      Most of us would think of Mark as the conveyor of the parable for us to interpret, however, this article makes it seem more like everyone that wasn't Jesus had to first interpret the parables themselves before talking about them and writing them down. The interpretations conducted by Mark and Matthew were unavoidably influential on their writing method--they intruded on the parable. Thus, we are left with an already partially interpreted parable instead of the original.

    2. For example, he tells two stories about miraculous feedings. Any creative writing instructor would have cut one of them; but Mark's awkwardness can hardly be dismissed as accidental.

      Many people don't realize that there are two separate stories. --Nicole Whitlock

    3. By contrast later scholars ask only what kind of allegory one may expect the evangelists to have inserted into a story that was not in itself allegorical at all. Then they ask what the story meant in its original form, before the salvation allegory got attached to it.

      It is interesting how the meaning of a narrative changes over time to different audiences, but this does not change the original intention of the narrative. There can only be one true original intent. --Nicole Whitlock

    4. he is Adam, who has left Jerusalem, the heavenly city, for Jericho, the world. The Samaritan is Christ, the inn is the ChW'Ch, the promise to return the Second Coming.

      I never thought of the Good Samaritan parable in this way; I always assumed it was a straightforward explanation of what a neighbor was. --Nicole Whitlock

    5. you are virtually obliged to claim that the whole Marean passage is inauthentic or corrupt.

      This is probably hard for many theologians to swallow. --Nicole Whitlock

    6. The implica-tion is that the exclusion atises..nat from the speaker's inten-tion, but from the stupidity of his hearers'""so that theJ;>la.D,!c; .~ilieirs.

      How does this relate to the idea of the innocence of a child? If the hearers are unable to understand, it is not an intentional denial of the Word, but rather a lack of reasoning capability--like a child. Should it not still be the responsibility of the communicator, (Jesus) to either help them understand or forgive their innocence? --Nicole Whitlock

    7. instead of Mark's uncompromising exclusions -outsiders must stay outside and be damned -Matthew proposes some-thing much milder:

      I find it interesting that Matthew, one of the original writers, was already changing words around to fit his personal preference. --Nicole Whitlock

    8. he substitutes for hina the word hod, "because." This is a substan-tial change, involving a different grammar; Matthew replaces Mark's subjunctive with an ·indicative.

      This reminds me of the "misinterpreting Jesus" clip we watched week 2 --Nicole Whitlock

    9. In this altered form the theory no longer conflicts with the prefatory remark that Jesus was teaching the crowd, which seems inconsistent with his telling stotjes in order to ensure that they would miss the point.

      This concept was always taught to me in the baptist church when I was a child.

    10. hose out-side, like K and like us, see an uninterpretable radiance and die.

      This is so morbid and disheartening for a lover of wisdom and truth! --Nicole Whitlock

    11. the Good Samaritan, works hard to make the answer obvious

      This is more of what I think of when I hear the word "parable." I think of a complex idea such as "neighborliness" put into a simple story for the common folk. I guess one's definition of parable can be either like a metaphor, vague and complicated, or an analogy, simple and helpful. --Nicole Whitlock

    12. All require some interpretative action from the auditor;

      Although a riddle and a comparison both require some interpretative action from the author, One (a riddle) seems more like a game of wits and the other (a comparison) seems like you want the listener to reach their own conclusions and thus "certain knowledge" of the content. --Nicole Whitlock

    13. It means a placing of one thing beside another; in classical Greek it means "comparison" or "illustration" or "analogy." But in the Greek Bible it is equivalent to Hebrew mashal, which means "riddle" or "dark saying," but I gather it can extend its range to include "exemplary tale." Sometimes the Greek word is also used to translate hldah, meaning "riddle."

      If I were using a "comparison," "illustration," or "analogy," my intention would be to assist others in understanding my point--to aid in communication. If I were using a "riddle" or "dark saying" I believe my intentions would be less amiable. It is interesting how the word parable can mean such contrasting things. --Nicole Whitlock

    1. because no 2 things, can be more equal

      The symbol for equality is literally a picture of two equal lines. I have never thought about that before!

    2. Mathematical lunacy: for a short time the symbol for positive and negative was a moon. The equation above is -4 + 6 = 2 Photograph: Joe Mazur

      So interesting! That would get tedious in calculus proofs though!

  4. Jul 2016
    1. Research has long shown that people with poor vocabularies are poor readers

      vocabulary instruction is important students do gain a bigger vocabulary the more that they read

    2. Learning to read is about learning to read different types of text with real understanding. This is why learning to read and learning content can never really be separated.

      imagine how much our struggling readers are missing

    3. At the very least they may demand an argument for “Why school?

      Besides saying, "Going to school is your 'job,' like going to work is my job. It's where you learn and grow to become a citizen who can contribute to society." I've also resorted to saying, "If you don't go to school, mom and dad can go to jail. It's the law."

    4. Classrooms tend to encourage and reward individual knowledge stored in the head, not distributed knowledge

      Discourse is an essential piece of the puzzle. It is the driving force of the affinity space; it's how those with intensive knowledge can teach those growing their extensive knowledge.

    5. What is wonderful about computer and video games is that people can interact so directly with the content of the game

      Using the Smart Board in the classroom changed the way I teach and the way students learn. They are immediately engaged and love the interactive opportunities it provides.

    6. There are spaces that are mixtures of the real and the virtual, such as a meeting in which some people are physically together in a room and others are interacting with the group via the Internet or over a video conferencing system

      Our virtual alliance in this course makes us a community of practice, coming together for a common goal. Some are completely immersed wanting to gain knowledge, others are "playing the game" for a grade.

    7. This box is an excellent example of alerting players to the fact that they need to assess their own progress, desires, and learning styles. They need to be proactive, make decisions, think about what they are doing and learning, and take control of their own learning.

      Self-monitoring when reading is key and hard to teach. I can see that doing so via the "right" video games is more effective.

    8. Video games are nothing if not vivid.

      How much gaming is too much? My boys love to play video games and have learned a great deal of vocabulary from them. I limit their game playing, but what is the best scenario for children in the critical period (grades 3-6)?

    9. Let us use as an example experiences of weddings

      Gee's attempt to connect with his female audience...Pokemon wasn't doing it for me!

    10. experiences are stored in the mind/brain, not in terms of language but in something like dynamic images tied to perception both of the world and of our own bodies, internal states, and feelings: “Increasing evidence suggests that perceptual simulation is indeed central to comprehension” (Barsalou 1999a: p. 74).

      I have memories as a young girl that are tied to certain scents or specific scenes...."situated" memories.

    11. you have to just actively play the game and explore and try everything. Then, at last, the booklet makes good sense, but then too you don’t need it all that much any more.

      This is the whole to part to whole approach. You can't understand the parts until you've first seen the whole.

    12. the work of childhood is play

      This is why we have to make learning fun!

    13. knowing the general meaning is nearly worthless, unless you can recognize the word’s applications in specific cases.

      good point

    14. he only realistic chance students with poor vocabularies have to catch up to their peers with rich vocabularies requires that they engage in extraordinary amounts of independent reading.

      How can a child get better at playing the piano, the child needs practice. How can this child improve his/her reading? This child needs practice.

    15. Learning to read is about learning to read different types of text with real understanding. This is why learning to read and learning content can never really be separated. You can’t read a book if the content of the book is meaningless to you.

      If there is is no interest, there is no engagement. If there is no engagement, there is no TRUE reading taking place.

    16. Sometimes it is because instruction in school has made these varieties of language seem distant, irrelevant, and even frightening

      The ELL population feels especially alienated in every way: socially, culturally, emotionally. Transitioning to a new country to learn a new language with no friend base is not an easy feat! How do ELL children have any room to focus and attend with so many worries on their minds?

    17. By the mid-1980s integration increases ceased and the society became more segregated instead, a trend that continues today.

      So....we have the research, the data showing what works, yet still choose to do the opposite. Why? Is it not valued by government heads?

    18. she adopts a frame that mimics story book reading as it is often done by teachers and other teacherly adults: “You can read along in your story book. I’m gonna read aloud... Wasn’t it fun reading together? Let’s do it again, real soon.”


      This one minute video teaches us a lot of how much young children imitate the adults in their lives.

    19. When children watch television with an adult who gets them to think and talk about what they are watching, it can be good for the children’s cognitive growth.

      "active" watching - not passive

    20. often in affluent schools, and in fact get lots of practice with academic varieties of language at school starting in the early grades. By fourth grade they are doing middle-school work

      It's unjust... How does the poor student compete with the student who attends the affluent schools?

    21. they teach these children to “read” only in the sense of being able to do phonics and dealing with the superficial literal meanings of words mostly in the vernacular.

      Is it too late to "catch" these kids up, or is there a "window" of time to get out of the 4th grade slump?

    22. specialist languages use many devices to connect, contrast, and integrate sentences across stretches of text that are not used as frequently, nor in exactly in the same way, in vernacular varieties of language

      Is the goal to communicate lofty, elusive ideas? Or, is the goal to attain the reader's comprehension?

    23. People who learn to read the vernacular often have great trouble reading texts written in specialist varieties of language.

      Children who read too much fiction may have a hard time transitioning to nonfiction reads. The jargon is non-familiar and the reader can become easily frustrated and disengaged.

    24. experience cognitively challenging talk and texts on sustained topics and in different genres of oral and written language

      In a world where everyone's face is glued to a screen (gaming, TV, computer, iPads), it's a fight to get kids talking at length on any given topic. This is why the school setting is optimal. Class discussions can go a long way in deepening our students' comprehension.

    25. can’t “read” in the sense of understanding, in any deep way, informational texts written in fairly complex language

      It gets even more complicated when the subject material is of non-interest for the reader!

    26. taking on the emerging identity

      fully immersed (like when you just can't put that book down)

    27. turn learning physics into a cultural and not an instructed process (or not just an instructed process). Why? Because it is clear that deep learning works better as a cultural process than it does as an instructed process

      Decontextualizing the learning works!

    28. a cultural learning process

      This course is a cultural learning process for me. Even making this annotation is brand new for me.

    29. Advocates of Whole Language argue that learning to read is a “natural” process in the same way in which the acquisition of one’s native language is a natural process

      Learning to read is affected by many socio-cultural factors; not everyone comes with the same schema, which is why whole language must be balanced with explicit phonics instruction.

    30. School can’t compete with that

      I've thought this before... Kids are less focused due to video gaming and are over-scheduled, left with little time to devote to school work.

    31. many children’s Pokémon knowledge is deeper than even this implies

      interest level is a HUGE motivating factor!!

    32. You simply have to feel unaffiliated with school and formal schooling for any of a variety of reasons

      Many students in the ELL population feel excluded. Because they don't learn at the same pace as the "in group," they are marginalized as a "special needs" group.

    33. purpose of public schooling to create a level playing field for all children?

      this will NEVER happen

    34. the majority are poor or come from minority groups whose members have faced a history of prejudice and oppression

      Also children whose parents "just don't know" because English is not their native language.

    35. Second, a phrase like “the hottest source of heat in the whole wide world” mixes vernacular

      Interesting to think about in terms of language development.

    36. This is a literary device in which nature, or the cosmos, is treated as if it is “in step with” human affairs (e.g. the beauty and peace of a sunset matches the inner peace of the elderly poet resigned to the approach of the end of life)

      I like the way that the author explained this. I think this is similar to what we see here:


    37. oday’s reading traditionalists, supported by many linguists, myself included (Gee 2001; Rayner et al. 2001, 2002), argue that learning to read, unlike acquiring one’s first oral language, cannot be a biologically supported process and, thus, cannot be “natural.

      When we think of the "reading brain" this image helps to illustrate that the brain is not wired for reading. !

    38. Henry Ford would have been proud

      This made me think of how schools used to be thought of as "factories" that "produce" learners.

    39. Many, but not all, Pokémon can evolve, as they gain experience, into one or two other Pokémon

      This whole discussion made me think the ways readers make sense of vocabulary by looking at units of meaning. It makes sense that Charmander belongs to the fire group because it has "char" in the name.

    1. Do we, for example, teach the same comprehension strategies and text structures at each grade level, or does there come a point at which dividing and conquering these strate-gies and structures by year is more productive?

      I prefer the idea of teaching strategies every year, but helping students see how to use those strategies as texts become more complex

    2. Evaluating Your Fostering and Teaching of Reading Comprehension

      this is good to use during faculty meetings and PLCs

    3. differentiation should be a priority

      we see this more at the elementary level, then it seems lost or forgotten at the middle school level

    4. much comprehension instruction is provided in a whole-class for-mat

      I've seen more introductory instruction done in whole group lessons and a shift to strategy groups and individual conferences for comprehension instruction

    5. careful observation and assessment is needed to ascertain students’ comprehension strengths and weaknesses

      this can be done during individual conferences

    6. Reading aloud, a common instructional strategy, is one widely researched context that is rich with opportunities for teaching vocabulary

      one of the best ways to teach vocabulary and engage students I think reading aloud is one of those underappreciated parts of the school day but can make the biggest impact on student literacy

    7. Vocabulary impacts comprehension

      I find this to be a major factor for comprehension

    8. trying to figure out what authors had in mind in writing a text in a certain way

      author's purpose

    9. effective teachers of reading comprehen-sion tend to employ classroom discussion to help readers work together to make meaning from the texts they encounter (

      this can be done during read aloud

    10. (a) that students learn that text is structured and (b) that they develop the ability to take advantage of any particular text’s structure in learning and remembering its key informa-tion.

      important to learn early on, then reinforced as texts become more complex

    11. certain strategies to become overused to the point of diminishing returns (

      important for students to 1. know when to use the strategy and 2. notice when they are using the strategy automatically

    12. high-poverty students is that they spend a good deal more time coaching

      I think this is true for ALL students. Also - it is very important to circle back during conferencing to check students' use of the strategy

    13. called the three of you together

      strategy group

    14. An Adapted Version of the Gradual Release of Responsibility Mode

      good visual to share with teachers

    15. teaching students comprehension routines that include developing facility with a repertoire of strategies from which to draw dur-ing independent reading tasks can lead to increased understanding

      students need to know that we use more than one comprehension strategy at a time

    16. eaching them why, how, and when to apply certain strategies shown to be used by effective readers

      through "think aloud" lessons using picture books

    17. Motivated reading behavior is characterized by students valuing and engaging in the act of reading

      choosing to read when they can be doing something else

    18. . We certainly want readers to have opportunities to read texts that are not difficult for them, but we also want readers to have access to texts that challenge them. Although it has long been rec-ommended that we prevent readers from reading frustration-level texts, it is becoming clear that challenging texts, at least as determined by word-reading accuracy, may not in fact be frustrating to students

      there are so many reasons for allowing students to read what they want, even books at what we may think is their frustration level. one of those reasons is student interest. if a student wants to read something they may have strong background knowledge in that topic and will be able to figure out difficult words

    19. Texts should represent a range of complexity,

      and we shouldn't be so tied to keeping students in their reading levels when they choose books for independent reading

    20. concept development in science (e.g., learning the stages of the water cycle) is viewed as tightly linked to reading vocabulary development

      I imagine this would also be true for social studies

    21. the IDEAS (in-depth expanded applications of sci-ence) model replaces literacy instruction with a two-hour block of inte-grated science–literacy instruction.

      many science and social studies topics can be covered during a literacy block therefore expanding students vocabularies, background knowledge and exposure to expository text. it also frees up more time in the school day for read aloud and independent reading

    22. efforts to provide readers with opportunities to build domain and world knowledge support their subsequent reading comprehension

      frequent read alouds of both fiction and nonfiction texts can help with this

    23. The amount of related domain or world knowledge that a reader brings to a text significantly affects that reader’s compre-hension of that text;

      background knowledge and what a reader brings to the text plays an important role

    24. active readers.

      they think about their reading, they are practicing metacognition

    25. Skilled readers are also more motivated and engaged readers, reading more actively and more voluminously, thus further developing their knowledge and skill

      the readers that need the most practice are reluctant to spend a great deal of time on something that they feel they are not good at

    26. When readers build a situation model, they rely even more heavily on background knowledge and inferential processes than when build-ing a text base.

      so how do we help them build that knowledge base

    27. When readers build a situation model, they rely even more heavily on background knowledge and inferential processes than when build-ing a text base.

      this can prove difficult for our students with limited background knowledge

    28. situation model can be thought of as an account of what the text means

      make an inference

    29. we use our knowledge along with our perceptions of what we think the text says to literally build, or construct, mental representations of what the text means

      and here is scaffolding at work

    30. incrementally turning over responsibility for meaning-making practices from teacher to student,

      it is extremely important that we give students the power of their learning, let them try and make mistakes so that they can figure out how to fix them

    31. Observe and assess.10. Differentiate instruction

      hopefully through small strategy groups and individual reading conferences

    32. Another key task facing research and development in reading com-prehension is to understand how reading comprehension instruction is best coordinated across entire schools and districts.

      It doesn't work when only a few teachers are on board. Yes, change happens one person at a time, but consistency is the key.

    33. a student’s reading level varies depending on his or her interest in the text,

      This makes me wonder if we're getting students' levels right after all?

    34. representations are constructed, we can merge, or integrate, the information in those models with the knowl-edge stored in our minds.

      I tell my students to "make a movie" in their minds to help them visualize their thinking.

    35. Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, and Hemphill (1991) found that students whose home environments were poor with respect to promoting reading comprehension development nonetheless made adequate progress in reading comprehension if they had strong teach-ers of reading comprehension for two consecutive years.

      This is evidence that it doesn't matter where the child comes from or what is in their "backpack," ALL children can grow when given quality instruction.

    1. MCVERRY

      Kuddos to you! This course has definitely made me "explore, build, and connect online." I am more versed on the web possibilities available to me. Still have a lot to learn!

    2. ocusing on practices of privacy and openness.

      sounds paradoxical

    3. descriptive , as opposed to prescriptive

      no limitations...I like it.

    4. I just figure out what I need to learn and then I go learn it

      This is the highest form of motivation. Garth was in "need" of something in his own learning journey. Because no one around him could fulfill that "need," he figured out how to fill that void for himself. Incredibly motivated! As a parent, I'd love to learn what sorts of restrictions he had with web access when growing up. How much time was he allowed? What sites were off limits? At what age did he have full access? It's the balance game...I don't want to offer too much too soon, yet I don't want to hinder or stunt their development either.

    5. Let us play, but guide us.

      Gee's philosophy is "Kids learn best through play," not through work as many believe.

    1. Students’ spellings provide a direct window into how they think thesystem works. By interpreting what students do when they spell, educators can target aspecific student’s “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1962) and plan wordstudy instruction that this student is conceptually ready to master.

      This is a really great idea

    2. Word knowledgeaccumulates as students develop orthographic understandings at the alphabetic level,the pattern level, and the meaning level in overarching layers of complexity.

      What of the student whom is a great speller and has mastered English orthography, yet lacks motivation to read, so they limit their own potential for further learning? Any suggestions?

    3. Developmental spelling theory suggests that invented spelling is a window into achild’s knowledge of how written words work and can be used to guide instruction

      A writing sample is just as important as a reading record. So much information is presented about what the child's instructional level should be based on student work.

    4. There is converging evidence that reading, writing, and spelling developmentare integrally related

      Educators who don't know this research separate the instruction into distinct "disciplines," and don't integrate the learning, thus hurting the learner.

    5. With plenty of reading, writing, and word study, students’ vocabularies continue togrow and branch out into specialized disciplines and interests

      This is the precursor to learning academic language.

    6. As word study proceeds in this stage, the examination of accent or syllable stress be-comes a more central interest

      struggling readers and ELL groups have a challenging time with changes in syllable stress

    7. students may substitute a /b/ sound for a /p/ sound, be-cause they are made with the lips in the same way except for one feature: In making the/p/ sound, air comes out of the mouth in an explosive way, whereas with the /b/sound, there is no accompanying explosion of air.

      The study of phonetics.... Some consonant sounds are voiced like /p/, and others are unvoiced like /b/.

    8. When students are instructed within their own zone of proximal development—at theirown level of word knowledge—they are able to build on what they already know, tolearn what they need to know next, to move forward.

      Often teachers miss the ZPD and incorrectly instruct students at their independent level (which over time leads to boredom) or their frustration level (which eventually makes the student shut down and tune out). Finding the instructional level for all students is best, but tricky when delivering whole group instruction.

    9. similaritiesin the spelling

      Cognates are words that look very similar (sometimes identical) in the 2nd language as they do in the 1st language. The meanings are the same as in "confirm" and "confirmar" in Spanish.

    10. Teachers must be clearthat in written English,patterns refer to vowelsounds

      Key point!

    11. In teachingthe alpha-betic code to EnglishLanguage Learners,teachers are sensitive tothe English sounds thatmay not exist in students’native languages, and toletters that may be pairedwith different sounds indifferent orthographies
    12. Eachlayer provides information, and in mature readers and writers,there is interaction among the layers

      A helpful graphic from Words Their Way

    13. Wordstudy also comes from what we have learned aboutthe orthographic structure of written words.
    14. Thebetter our knowledge of the system, the better we are at decoding an unfamiliar word,spelling correctly, or guessing the meaning of a word.

      This increases a students' vocabulary knowledge and ability to read multisyllabic words. Knowing the system improves a reader's fluency and comprehension.

    1. players argue and debate at a meta-level about game rules, strategies, and innovations they advocate.

      very sophisticated

    2. More-advantaged learners in our schools often cannot apply the knowledge they can write down on paper-and-pencil tests to real problem-solving in areas like history and physics

      What good is knowledge if one doesn't understand what to do with it?

    3. Digital technologies allow us to build worlds full of the sorts of content we have associated with books, but allow young people to enter these worlds and experience directly the connections between words and other symbols and the world. They can see how these connections can be used for problem-solving

      Awesome, but the fast-pace is overwhelming. When does it become too much too soon? Everything in moderation.

    4. The group lagging furthest behind in digital media access is Hispanics.


    5. One key reason that some children — often, but not always more privileged children — are successful in school with academic language is their early home-based preparation. Many successful students enter kindergarten with a large and varied vocabulary acquired through regular dialogue with parents or grandparents, being read to frequently, and exposure to a wide variety of experiences in the world. Such interac-tions are crucial

      This information should be delivered through a training to ALL parents at the hospital BEFORE they even bring baby home!!

    6. Stated simply, if we don’t create a different approach to literacy in the primary grades, millions of children will never overcome the “slump” that prevents them from becoming fully productive citizens.

      This is scary! Teachers would stop "teaching to the test" if the teacher evaluation system changed. We could focus on teaching what children need at their instructional level if there were changes in evaluation policies.

    7. White children spend less time playing video games than Hispanic or African American children.

      It would be neat to find out if video game companies purposely target minority audiences. Hmm...

    8. many of our schools into test-prep academies focused on assessing standardized skill sets

      Teaching to the test is not a new practice, but it's finally rearing its ugly head as something that's actually hurting - not helping - our students.

    9. ” Teachers will do this by working with digital media, in particular multiplayer games, that invite students into an environment that teaches skills, vocabulary, facts, and different ways of thinking

      Sounds exciting, but there will have to be a window for a learning curve period for PD in working with digital media.

    10. Sesame Street

      Another more modern "Sesame Street" for older audiences is "Electric Company." The famous Lin-Manuel Miranda, prodigy rapper and author of the popular musical Hamilton, debuts his talent in this learning program.

    1. Important for teacher to keep in mind

    2. This is a great strategy to practice onset-rime!

    3. This chart is a helpful visual for me to better understand the sequence of phonemic awareness instruction.

    4. In my experience, it works really well to start with larger units and reduce to smaller units over time.

    5. This should be obvious!

    6. These are more engaging ways to teach phonemic awareness.

    7. I wonder what happens if a student does not enroll in Prekindergarten. Are they behind and lacking skill compared to their peers in Kindergarten? Is this one of the reasons why Kindergarten classes have such a wide range of abilities?

    8. This shows how more and more people are recognizing the importance of phonemic awareness instruction.

    9. Phonemic awareness supports reading develop-ment only if it is part of a broader program that in-cludes—among other things—development ofstudents’ vocabulary, syntax, comprehension,strategic reading abilities, decoding strategies, andwriting across all content areas.

      holistic approach

    10. teachers should avoidrigid adherence to a sequence

      interesting -- there should be variety AND consistency

    11. “You may jump the number of times as there aresyllables (some teachers say “beats” or “chunks”for syllables)

      All teachers should use the same academic language "syllables" and not "dumb it down" for young kids. They will learn what they are taught.

    12. clapping when taking attendance for severaldays, clapping the number of syllables as you calleach child’s name. And at dismissal time youmay clap once and anyone with a one-syllablename may leave

      nice idea for classroom management with incorporating phonemic awareness

    13. Develop a bar graph reflecting the number ofstudents that have a given number of syllablesin their names

      cross-curricular lesson - incorporating math with graphing

    14. In linguistically rich classrooms, phonemicawareness activities will be incorporated inten-tionally into literature sharing experiences, musicexperiences, movement experiences, and otherexperiences throughout the day

      decontextualizing the learning for the learner

    15. hecombination of phonemic awareness activitiesand letter-sound instruction has been found to beparticularly supportive of children’s emerging un-derstanding of the alphabetic principle

      matching a letter symbol to sound

    16. matchingsounds (especially initial sounds) is one of theeasier tasks, and more difficult may be the abili-ty to blend sounds together to form words

      difficult task especially when the child approaches words with long vowel patterns

    17. planto move from larger to smaller units of sound.

      from the more concrete to the more abstract

    18. to overemphasize this component of litera-cy instruction in the initial years of schooling isto limit children’s opportunities for more com-prehensive literacy development.

      The child needs a balanced approach to literacy -- whole language is also important.

    19. phonemic awareness instruc-tion should be intentional, not incidental

      Have a lesson plan and stick to it. Yes, enjoy the teachable moment, but get back on track with the lesson. The teaching of phonemic awareness requires systematic, focused instruction in a fun learning way.

    20. prioritygoal in kindergarten classrooms. Every ChildReading: An Action Plan of the Learning FirstAlliance(1998) identifies phonemic awarenessas one of the most important foundations of read-ing success and recommends that its developmentbe addressed in prekindergarten and kindergarten

      Many children don't attend preschool because of the costly fees or ignorant parenting. Grade school hasn't even begun and already the achievement gap is widening.

    21. English is considered funda-mentally alphabetic

      a bit amusing, since we have some crazy spelling patterns, including trigraphs (igh) and quadragraphs (eigh)

    22. metalinguistic awareness entails thinking aboutone’s language.

      I often find myself using metalinguistic awareness when thinking of how to translate an English word into Spanish.

    23. e difficulty of the task depends inpart upon the number of sounds (fewer soundsare easier than more), which sounds they are(liquids are typically easier than nasals or stops),and their location in the word (middle sounds aremore difficult to attend to than initial or finalsounds).

      This is important for teachers of reading to consider as they plan instruction and assess students' phonemic awareness.

    24. riffith and Olson (1992) argued that phonemicawareness activities will not be helpful unlessthey can be placed in a context of real readingand writing.

      This makes sense to me. Students benefit from the visual representation and it is important that it takes place in the context of reading and writing.

    25. teachers should avoidrigid adherence to a sequence. It is not the casethat teachers should engage exclusively in rhymeactivities for weeks before they engage in sylla-ble activities. Likewise, we do not believe thatchildren must “pass” one type of operation (e.g.,matching) before having experiences with an-other (e.g., blending). Phonemic awareness de-velopment is not a lockstep process

      Important when planning, selecting, or implementing a systematic, explicit phonics program.

    26. linguistically rich environ-ments—

      Very important for students! Children also need to interact with that environment.

    27. e difficulty of the task depends inpart upon the number of sounds (fewer soundsare easier than more), which sounds they are(liquids are typically easier than nasals or stops),and their location in the word (middle sounds aremore difficult to attend to than initial or finalsounds). (

      Development of phonemic awareness skills.

    28. Manysuccessful training studies include concrete repre-sentations of sounds in order to make mental ma-nipulations more over

      I enjoy teaching phonemic awareness this way. The kids love it!

    1. oday’s K–12 students in postindustrialsocieties have never experienced a world without computer-based technologies.They regularly surf the Web, send e-mail, and use instant messaging—acts thathave changed the face of information processing and human communication

      They will never know what it's like to search through books to find information!

    2. reading extends beyond the initial phase of acquisition andacross the lifespan as readers engage in a range of reading-related, goal-directedactivities.


    3. outside the concern for readers’ efferent oraesthetic response to literature or the creation of a stimulating print-rich learn-ing environment, there was little regard for motivation in the form of readers’goals, interests, and involvement in the learning experience

      Wow, very different than today.

    4. This meant that a global label such as “good” or “poor” student would be per-ceived as too general and in need of qualification. The critical question was“good at what or poor at what”?

      Strengths and weakness are something we all have! This shift is great for grouping students to enhance the learning experience.

    5. Knowledge was not a singular construct, but existed in diverse forms and inter-active dimensions

      Multiple Intelligences!

    6. the goal was tolose oneself inthe text and not specifically to learn fromit.

      I think once students experience this they begin to truly appreciate the beauty of reading.

    7. There was little, if any, consideration of sociocultural or contextual influences onthe processing of linguistic information

      This is so important to keep in consideration.

    8. Researchers studied the knowl-edge and processes of expert chess players to understand how experts visualizetasks, anticipate the moves of their opponents, and act to counter those moves.

      That's pretty cool!

    9. the focus was more on how those process-es and procedures could be best represented symbolically and transferred intocomputer programs that could approximate human performance (Fodor, 2001).In effect, these individuals were interested in creating “intelligent machines” thatmimicked the problem solving of intelligent humans

      It sounds to me like this is part IQ testing and part computers doing the thinking for us.

    10. The contrast be-tween the everyday language of children growing up in different social settingsand the language demanded in an educational setting began to surface as an is-sue for educational research and practice

      This can be a challenging part of Language Arts for teachers.

    11. This was so important! Phonics-based techniques allow for a more organized and systematic approach to teaching students how to read.

    12. This is interesting to me. I never thought about how the Baby Boom effected the educational systems but I can see how it could bring up issues in schools once the rise in school-aged children began.

    13. a glance backward at where reading research hasbeen may serve to remind us that today’s research and practice are a legacy withroots that reach into the past.

      Today's research will also be tomorrow's legacy.

    14. shifting emphasis on the physi-ological, psychological, and the sociological. While reading always involvesphysiological, psychological, and sociological dimensions, each era weighs thesedimensions differently. When we look across the eras of reading research de-scribed in this article, it becomes apparent that each is distinguished by the rela-tive weight placed on body, mind, or society when understanding the nature oflearners and learning.

      holistic approach to learning about learning

    15. the most obviousrecurrence is the shifting emphasis on whole-word or phonetic instructional ap-proaches

      the pendulum keeps swinging

    16. accountability, primarily in the form ofhigh-stakes testing, and the drive for national standards

      all propelled by global competition

    17. effectivereaders must become capable of assessing credibility, identifying possible biases,analyzing persuasive or literary techniques, and locating and selecting optimalsources.

      In this age of technology and information overload, readers can readily access information but must exercise caution when reading materials.

    18. they continue to growas readers as their linguistic knowledge, subject-matter knowledge, strategic ca-pabilities, and their motivations expand and mature

      Maturity has everything to do with learning. One must be ready and willing to receive knowledge.

    19. In this most recent era ofliteracy research, the learner is conceptualized as a motivated knowledge seeker

      We are always striving to learn, although our motivation for seeking knowledge vary vastly.

    20. as these alternative forms of text become more prevalent, literacy researchers andpractitioners may need to reconsider fundamental concepts such as learning, mem-ory, and strategic processing

      online classes is an example

    21. by social experiences and interactions, but actually existed in those interchangesrather than in individual minds

      ...I tagged the rest of the sentence... We are primarily social beings.

    22. Schools clearly functioned as social institutions centeredaround the interactions of students and teachers.

      The social structure of schools is what raises the level of interest for students. Inevitably, they learn as a result of being there.

    23. Literacy research now sought to capturethe shared understanding of the many, rather than the private knowledge of theone.

      The "group" project in businesses and education was born. Let's "put our heads together." The logic that a variety of ideas was better and more efficient than the one.

    24. The goal of learning was no longerseen as the development of an individually held body of knowledge, but rather thecreation of a mutual understanding arising in the social interaction of particularindividuals in a particular context at a particular time.

      This makes sense because we wear a variety of hats throughout the day, learning different topics in different settings with interactions with different people.

    25. the goal was tolose oneself inthe text and not specifically to learn fromit

      much like watching a movie...just for enjoyment

    26. the residue afterthe reading

      The "residue" is the information that is left floating inside the mind after reading (receiving input). If it's important, it gets stored in the long-term memory; if it's not important, it will remain in the working memory to be forgotten over time.

    27. aspectrum of general text-processing strategies, including summarization, map-ping, self-questioning, and predicting

      ...and the explicit teaching of comprehension strategies was born

    28. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this research period was its fo-cus on the individual mind

      specifically the input and output of information and processing

    29. Conditions for that change included the growing atten-tion to the structure and processes of the human mind and increased U.S. federalfunding for basic reading research

      I was born at the beginning of the information processing era (1976), yet didn't have formal computer instruction until 1996 as a sophomore in college. What took 20 years back then, would take less than a year today.

    30. Researchers studied the knowl-edge and processes of expert chess players to understand how experts visualizetasks, anticipate the moves of their opponents, and act to counter those moves.


    31. In effect, these individuals were interested in creating “intelligent machines” thatmimicked the problem solving of intelligent humans

      so were the scientists in the movie, "Planet of the Apes"...

    32. The groundbreaking work by Goodman andcolleagues on miscue analysis was prototypic of this reconceptualization occur-ring in reading diagnosis

      the inception of reading specialists

    33. meaningful use

      when something is not relevant, interest wanes

    34. increased inter-est in internal mental structures and processes sparked by advances in neurologyand artificial intelligence (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Both of these movementsturned attention back inside the human mind and away from the environment.

      Now the focus was becoming more abstract (inside the mind) and less concrete (behavior)

    35. According to James (1890), reading would be best de-scribed as mindful habit.

      This is what we consider as "close reading" today.

  5. Jun 2016
  6. networkedlearningcollaborative.com networkedlearningcollaborative.com
    1. recalled effortlessly and automati-cally in future work.

      This is evidence that something has been truly learned or mastered - when information can be recalled with automaticity or when the application of such knowledge is used in other disciplines.

    2. When too muchinformationis presented at once, or when theprocessing demands are too great, ourworking memory becomes swamped.

      Overwhelmed!! This is kind of how I felt prior to the tutorial sessions we received teaching us how to navigate our way through this course!

    3. it ismore efficient to return tosmall-stepinstruction when thematerial be-comes difficult.

      Small steps are easier to recall. I think of the systematic steps to long division, for example. Having a sequential system allows the student (and teacher) to backtrack and figure out where they went wrong.

    4. Itis most important foryoung learners, slow learners, and forall learners when the material is new,difficult, or hierarchical

      New information is difficult to grasp for ALL learners. Repeated practice is key, especially for the young and delayed. Chunking information into small bits yields successful learning!

    5. systematic method forpresenting materialin small steps,pausing to check for student under-stand-ing, and eliciting active and suc-cessful participation from all students.

      This IS best practice, but difficult to accomplish for each discipline every single day - especially for elementary teachers in primary grades. Engaging ALL students for EVERY lesson is an art form!

    1. middle-class mother-infant dyad ill joint picture-book reading

      where's dad?

    2. the bedtime story is a major literacy event whieh helps set patterns of behavior that recur repeatedly through the life of mainstream chil­dren and adults.

      Only those in the "mainstream" culture understand the value of this. If the Trackton group understood the importance of bedtime stories, would they esteem it as "valuable" as their counterparts do?

    3. Familiar literacy events for mainstream preschool­ers are bedtime stories, reading cereal boxes, stop signs, and television ads, and interpreting instructions for commercial games and toys

      Already the playing field is uneven...not all children have access to books, TV, games or toys. Many will fall short of this "mainstream" requirement.

    4. way~of taking from books are as much a part of learned behavior as are ways of ( f eating, sitting, playing games. and building houses

      This is an interesting perspective...to "take" from books. The way we each "take" from books is directly related to how we have learned to interact with books.

    1. reciprocal models of reading development
    2. What worked? Today, we use modeling, cues, technology, etc. for reading/training.

    3. One of the groundbreaking but controversial publications of this periodwas Why Johnny Can’t Read—And What You Can Do About Itby Rudolf Flesch(1955). This book exemplified a growing interest in reading research and its rel-evance to educational practice

      This is interesting. This controversial book came about to help with the "problem" in reading.

    4. hus, earlier dichotomization of reading into“learning to read” and “reading to learn” stages (Chall, 1995) is shifting to a moreintegrated and developmental perspective.
    5. e learner was cast in the role of an active par-ticipant, a constructor of meaning who used many forms of information to arriveat comprehension (Halliday, 1969). Learning to read was not so much a matter ofbeing taught, but a matter of arriving at facility as a result of a predisposition toseek understanding within a language-rich environment.