112 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2016
    1. MCVERRY

      Kuddos to you! This course has definitely made me "explore, build, and connect online." I am more versed on the web possibilities available to me. Still have a lot to learn!

    2. ocusing on practices of privacy and openness.

      sounds paradoxical

    3. descriptive , as opposed to prescriptive

      no limitations...I like it.

    4. I just figure out what I need to learn and then I go learn it

      This is the highest form of motivation. Garth was in "need" of something in his own learning journey. Because no one around him could fulfill that "need," he figured out how to fill that void for himself. Incredibly motivated! As a parent, I'd love to learn what sorts of restrictions he had with web access when growing up. How much time was he allowed? What sites were off limits? At what age did he have full access? It's the balance game...I don't want to offer too much too soon, yet I don't want to hinder or stunt their development either.

    5. Let us play, but guide us.

      Gee's philosophy is "Kids learn best through play," not through work as many believe.

    1. At the very least they may demand an argument for “Why school?

      Besides saying, "Going to school is your 'job,' like going to work is my job. It's where you learn and grow to become a citizen who can contribute to society." I've also resorted to saying, "If you don't go to school, mom and dad can go to jail. It's the law."

    2. Classrooms tend to encourage and reward individual knowledge stored in the head, not distributed knowledge

      Discourse is an essential piece of the puzzle. It is the driving force of the affinity space; it's how those with intensive knowledge can teach those growing their extensive knowledge.

    3. What is wonderful about computer and video games is that people can interact so directly with the content of the game

      Using the Smart Board in the classroom changed the way I teach and the way students learn. They are immediately engaged and love the interactive opportunities it provides.

    4. There are spaces that are mixtures of the real and the virtual, such as a meeting in which some people are physically together in a room and others are interacting with the group via the Internet or over a video conferencing system

      Our virtual alliance in this course makes us a community of practice, coming together for a common goal. Some are completely immersed wanting to gain knowledge, others are "playing the game" for a grade.

    5. This box is an excellent example of alerting players to the fact that they need to assess their own progress, desires, and learning styles. They need to be proactive, make decisions, think about what they are doing and learning, and take control of their own learning.

      Self-monitoring when reading is key and hard to teach. I can see that doing so via the "right" video games is more effective.

    6. Video games are nothing if not vivid.

      How much gaming is too much? My boys love to play video games and have learned a great deal of vocabulary from them. I limit their game playing, but what is the best scenario for children in the critical period (grades 3-6)?

    7. Let us use as an example experiences of weddings

      Gee's attempt to connect with his female audience...Pokemon wasn't doing it for me!

    8. experiences are stored in the mind/brain, not in terms of language but in something like dynamic images tied to perception both of the world and of our own bodies, internal states, and feelings: “Increasing evidence suggests that perceptual simulation is indeed central to comprehension” (Barsalou 1999a: p. 74).

      I have memories as a young girl that are tied to certain scents or specific scenes...."situated" memories.

    9. you have to just actively play the game and explore and try everything. Then, at last, the booklet makes good sense, but then too you don’t need it all that much any more.

      This is the whole to part to whole approach. You can't understand the parts until you've first seen the whole.

    10. the work of childhood is play

      This is why we have to make learning fun!

    11. knowing the general meaning is nearly worthless, unless you can recognize the word’s applications in specific cases.

      good point

    12. he only realistic chance students with poor vocabularies have to catch up to their peers with rich vocabularies requires that they engage in extraordinary amounts of independent reading.

      How can a child get better at playing the piano, the child needs practice. How can this child improve his/her reading? This child needs practice.

    13. Learning to read is about learning to read different types of text with real understanding. This is why learning to read and learning content can never really be separated. You can’t read a book if the content of the book is meaningless to you.

      If there is is no interest, there is no engagement. If there is no engagement, there is no TRUE reading taking place.

    14. Sometimes it is because instruction in school has made these varieties of language seem distant, irrelevant, and even frightening

      The ELL population feels especially alienated in every way: socially, culturally, emotionally. Transitioning to a new country to learn a new language with no friend base is not an easy feat! How do ELL children have any room to focus and attend with so many worries on their minds?

    15. By the mid-1980s integration increases ceased and the society became more segregated instead, a trend that continues today.

      So....we have the research, the data showing what works, yet still choose to do the opposite. Why? Is it not valued by government heads?

    16. she adopts a frame that mimics story book reading as it is often done by teachers and other teacherly adults: “You can read along in your story book. I’m gonna read aloud... Wasn’t it fun reading together? Let’s do it again, real soon.”


      This one minute video teaches us a lot of how much young children imitate the adults in their lives.

    17. When children watch television with an adult who gets them to think and talk about what they are watching, it can be good for the children’s cognitive growth.

      "active" watching - not passive

    18. often in affluent schools, and in fact get lots of practice with academic varieties of language at school starting in the early grades. By fourth grade they are doing middle-school work

      It's unjust... How does the poor student compete with the student who attends the affluent schools?

    19. they teach these children to “read” only in the sense of being able to do phonics and dealing with the superficial literal meanings of words mostly in the vernacular.

      Is it too late to "catch" these kids up, or is there a "window" of time to get out of the 4th grade slump?

    20. specialist languages use many devices to connect, contrast, and integrate sentences across stretches of text that are not used as frequently, nor in exactly in the same way, in vernacular varieties of language

      Is the goal to communicate lofty, elusive ideas? Or, is the goal to attain the reader's comprehension?

    21. People who learn to read the vernacular often have great trouble reading texts written in specialist varieties of language.

      Children who read too much fiction may have a hard time transitioning to nonfiction reads. The jargon is non-familiar and the reader can become easily frustrated and disengaged.

    22. experience cognitively challenging talk and texts on sustained topics and in different genres of oral and written language

      In a world where everyone's face is glued to a screen (gaming, TV, computer, iPads), it's a fight to get kids talking at length on any given topic. This is why the school setting is optimal. Class discussions can go a long way in deepening our students' comprehension.

    23. can’t “read” in the sense of understanding, in any deep way, informational texts written in fairly complex language

      It gets even more complicated when the subject material is of non-interest for the reader!

    24. taking on the emerging identity

      fully immersed (like when you just can't put that book down)

    25. turn learning physics into a cultural and not an instructed process (or not just an instructed process). Why? Because it is clear that deep learning works better as a cultural process than it does as an instructed process

      Decontextualizing the learning works!

    26. a cultural learning process

      This course is a cultural learning process for me. Even making this annotation is brand new for me.

    27. Advocates of Whole Language argue that learning to read is a “natural” process in the same way in which the acquisition of one’s native language is a natural process

      Learning to read is affected by many socio-cultural factors; not everyone comes with the same schema, which is why whole language must be balanced with explicit phonics instruction.

    28. School can’t compete with that

      I've thought this before... Kids are less focused due to video gaming and are over-scheduled, left with little time to devote to school work.

    29. many children’s Pokémon knowledge is deeper than even this implies

      interest level is a HUGE motivating factor!!

    30. You simply have to feel unaffiliated with school and formal schooling for any of a variety of reasons

      Many students in the ELL population feel excluded. Because they don't learn at the same pace as the "in group," they are marginalized as a "special needs" group.

    31. purpose of public schooling to create a level playing field for all children?

      this will NEVER happen

    32. the majority are poor or come from minority groups whose members have faced a history of prejudice and oppression

      Also children whose parents "just don't know" because English is not their native language.

    1. Another key task facing research and development in reading com-prehension is to understand how reading comprehension instruction is best coordinated across entire schools and districts.

      It doesn't work when only a few teachers are on board. Yes, change happens one person at a time, but consistency is the key.

    2. a student’s reading level varies depending on his or her interest in the text,

      This makes me wonder if we're getting students' levels right after all?

    3. representations are constructed, we can merge, or integrate, the information in those models with the knowl-edge stored in our minds.

      I tell my students to "make a movie" in their minds to help them visualize their thinking.

    4. Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, and Hemphill (1991) found that students whose home environments were poor with respect to promoting reading comprehension development nonetheless made adequate progress in reading comprehension if they had strong teach-ers of reading comprehension for two consecutive years.

      This is evidence that it doesn't matter where the child comes from or what is in their "backpack," ALL children can grow when given quality instruction.

    1. players argue and debate at a meta-level about game rules, strategies, and innovations they advocate.

      very sophisticated

    2. More-advantaged learners in our schools often cannot apply the knowledge they can write down on paper-and-pencil tests to real problem-solving in areas like history and physics

      What good is knowledge if one doesn't understand what to do with it?

    3. Digital technologies allow us to build worlds full of the sorts of content we have associated with books, but allow young people to enter these worlds and experience directly the connections between words and other symbols and the world. They can see how these connections can be used for problem-solving

      Awesome, but the fast-pace is overwhelming. When does it become too much too soon? Everything in moderation.

    4. The group lagging furthest behind in digital media access is Hispanics.


    5. One key reason that some children — often, but not always more privileged children — are successful in school with academic language is their early home-based preparation. Many successful students enter kindergarten with a large and varied vocabulary acquired through regular dialogue with parents or grandparents, being read to frequently, and exposure to a wide variety of experiences in the world. Such interac-tions are crucial

      This information should be delivered through a training to ALL parents at the hospital BEFORE they even bring baby home!!

    6. Stated simply, if we don’t create a different approach to literacy in the primary grades, millions of children will never overcome the “slump” that prevents them from becoming fully productive citizens.

      This is scary! Teachers would stop "teaching to the test" if the teacher evaluation system changed. We could focus on teaching what children need at their instructional level if there were changes in evaluation policies.

    7. White children spend less time playing video games than Hispanic or African American children.

      It would be neat to find out if video game companies purposely target minority audiences. Hmm...

    8. many of our schools into test-prep academies focused on assessing standardized skill sets

      Teaching to the test is not a new practice, but it's finally rearing its ugly head as something that's actually hurting - not helping - our students.

    9. ” Teachers will do this by working with digital media, in particular multiplayer games, that invite students into an environment that teaches skills, vocabulary, facts, and different ways of thinking

      Sounds exciting, but there will have to be a window for a learning curve period for PD in working with digital media.

    10. Sesame Street

      Another more modern "Sesame Street" for older audiences is "Electric Company." The famous Lin-Manuel Miranda, prodigy rapper and author of the popular musical Hamilton, debuts his talent in this learning program.

    1. Word knowledgeaccumulates as students develop orthographic understandings at the alphabetic level,the pattern level, and the meaning level in overarching layers of complexity.

      What of the student whom is a great speller and has mastered English orthography, yet lacks motivation to read, so they limit their own potential for further learning? Any suggestions?

    2. Developmental spelling theory suggests that invented spelling is a window into achild’s knowledge of how written words work and can be used to guide instruction

      A writing sample is just as important as a reading record. So much information is presented about what the child's instructional level should be based on student work.

    3. There is converging evidence that reading, writing, and spelling developmentare integrally related

      Educators who don't know this research separate the instruction into distinct "disciplines," and don't integrate the learning, thus hurting the learner.

    4. With plenty of reading, writing, and word study, students’ vocabularies continue togrow and branch out into specialized disciplines and interests

      This is the precursor to learning academic language.

    5. As word study proceeds in this stage, the examination of accent or syllable stress be-comes a more central interest

      struggling readers and ELL groups have a challenging time with changes in syllable stress

    6. students may substitute a /b/ sound for a /p/ sound, be-cause they are made with the lips in the same way except for one feature: In making the/p/ sound, air comes out of the mouth in an explosive way, whereas with the /b/sound, there is no accompanying explosion of air.

      The study of phonetics.... Some consonant sounds are voiced like /p/, and others are unvoiced like /b/.

    7. When students are instructed within their own zone of proximal development—at theirown level of word knowledge—they are able to build on what they already know, tolearn what they need to know next, to move forward.

      Often teachers miss the ZPD and incorrectly instruct students at their independent level (which over time leads to boredom) or their frustration level (which eventually makes the student shut down and tune out). Finding the instructional level for all students is best, but tricky when delivering whole group instruction.

    8. similaritiesin the spelling

      Cognates are words that look very similar (sometimes identical) in the 2nd language as they do in the 1st language. The meanings are the same as in "confirm" and "confirmar" in Spanish.

    9. The Historical Development of Spelling

    10. Teachers must be clearthat in written English,patterns refer to vowelsounds

      Key point!

    11. In teachingthe alpha-betic code to EnglishLanguage Learners,teachers are sensitive tothe English sounds thatmay not exist in students’native languages, and toletters that may be pairedwith different sounds indifferent orthographies
    12. Eachlayer provides information, and in mature readers and writers,there is interaction among the layers

      A helpful graphic from Words Their Way

    13. Wordstudy also comes from what we have learned aboutthe orthographic structure of written words.
    14. Thebetter our knowledge of the system, the better we are at decoding an unfamiliar word,spelling correctly, or guessing the meaning of a word.

      This increases a students' vocabulary knowledge and ability to read multisyllabic words. Knowing the system improves a reader's fluency and comprehension.

    1. Phonemic awareness supports reading develop-ment only if it is part of a broader program that in-cludes—among other things—development ofstudents’ vocabulary, syntax, comprehension,strategic reading abilities, decoding strategies, andwriting across all content areas.

      holistic approach

    2. teachers should avoidrigid adherence to a sequence

      interesting -- there should be variety AND consistency

    3. “You may jump the number of times as there aresyllables (some teachers say “beats” or “chunks”for syllables)

      All teachers should use the same academic language "syllables" and not "dumb it down" for young kids. They will learn what they are taught.

    4. clapping when taking attendance for severaldays, clapping the number of syllables as you calleach child’s name. And at dismissal time youmay clap once and anyone with a one-syllablename may leave

      nice idea for classroom management with incorporating phonemic awareness

    5. Develop a bar graph reflecting the number ofstudents that have a given number of syllablesin their names

      cross-curricular lesson - incorporating math with graphing

    6. In linguistically rich classrooms, phonemicawareness activities will be incorporated inten-tionally into literature sharing experiences, musicexperiences, movement experiences, and otherexperiences throughout the day

      decontextualizing the learning for the learner

    7. hecombination of phonemic awareness activitiesand letter-sound instruction has been found to beparticularly supportive of children’s emerging un-derstanding of the alphabetic principle

      matching a letter symbol to sound

    8. matchingsounds (especially initial sounds) is one of theeasier tasks, and more difficult may be the abili-ty to blend sounds together to form words

      difficult task especially when the child approaches words with long vowel patterns

    9. planto move from larger to smaller units of sound.

      from the more concrete to the more abstract

    10. to overemphasize this component of litera-cy instruction in the initial years of schooling isto limit children’s opportunities for more com-prehensive literacy development.

      The child needs a balanced approach to literacy -- whole language is also important.

    11. phonemic awareness instruc-tion should be intentional, not incidental

      Have a lesson plan and stick to it. Yes, enjoy the teachable moment, but get back on track with the lesson. The teaching of phonemic awareness requires systematic, focused instruction in a fun learning way.

    12. prioritygoal in kindergarten classrooms. Every ChildReading: An Action Plan of the Learning FirstAlliance(1998) identifies phonemic awarenessas one of the most important foundations of read-ing success and recommends that its developmentbe addressed in prekindergarten and kindergarten

      Many children don't attend preschool because of the costly fees or ignorant parenting. Grade school hasn't even begun and already the achievement gap is widening.

    13. English is considered funda-mentally alphabetic

      a bit amusing, since we have some crazy spelling patterns, including trigraphs (igh) and quadragraphs (eigh)

    14. metalinguistic awareness entails thinking aboutone’s language.

      I often find myself using metalinguistic awareness when thinking of how to translate an English word into Spanish.

    1. a glance backward at where reading research hasbeen may serve to remind us that today’s research and practice are a legacy withroots that reach into the past.

      Today's research will also be tomorrow's legacy.

    2. shifting emphasis on the physi-ological, psychological, and the sociological. While reading always involvesphysiological, psychological, and sociological dimensions, each era weighs thesedimensions differently. When we look across the eras of reading research de-scribed in this article, it becomes apparent that each is distinguished by the rela-tive weight placed on body, mind, or society when understanding the nature oflearners and learning.

      holistic approach to learning about learning

    3. the most obviousrecurrence is the shifting emphasis on whole-word or phonetic instructional ap-proaches

      the pendulum keeps swinging

    4. accountability, primarily in the form ofhigh-stakes testing, and the drive for national standards

      all propelled by global competition

    5. effectivereaders must become capable of assessing credibility, identifying possible biases,analyzing persuasive or literary techniques, and locating and selecting optimalsources.

      In this age of technology and information overload, readers can readily access information but must exercise caution when reading materials.

    6. they continue to growas readers as their linguistic knowledge, subject-matter knowledge, strategic ca-pabilities, and their motivations expand and mature

      Maturity has everything to do with learning. One must be ready and willing to receive knowledge.

    7. In this most recent era ofliteracy research, the learner is conceptualized as a motivated knowledge seeker

      We are always striving to learn, although our motivation for seeking knowledge vary vastly.

    8. as these alternative forms of text become more prevalent, literacy researchers andpractitioners may need to reconsider fundamental concepts such as learning, mem-ory, and strategic processing

      online classes is an example

    9. by social experiences and interactions, but actually existed in those interchangesrather than in individual minds

      ...I tagged the rest of the sentence... We are primarily social beings.

    10. Schools clearly functioned as social institutions centeredaround the interactions of students and teachers.

      The social structure of schools is what raises the level of interest for students. Inevitably, they learn as a result of being there.

    11. Literacy research now sought to capturethe shared understanding of the many, rather than the private knowledge of theone.

      The "group" project in businesses and education was born. Let's "put our heads together." The logic that a variety of ideas was better and more efficient than the one.

    12. The goal of learning was no longerseen as the development of an individually held body of knowledge, but rather thecreation of a mutual understanding arising in the social interaction of particularindividuals in a particular context at a particular time.

      This makes sense because we wear a variety of hats throughout the day, learning different topics in different settings with interactions with different people.

    13. the goal was tolose oneself inthe text and not specifically to learn fromit

      much like watching a movie...just for enjoyment

    14. the residue afterthe reading

      The "residue" is the information that is left floating inside the mind after reading (receiving input). If it's important, it gets stored in the long-term memory; if it's not important, it will remain in the working memory to be forgotten over time.

    15. aspectrum of general text-processing strategies, including summarization, map-ping, self-questioning, and predicting

      ...and the explicit teaching of comprehension strategies was born

    16. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this research period was its fo-cus on the individual mind

      specifically the input and output of information and processing

    17. Conditions for that change included the growing atten-tion to the structure and processes of the human mind and increased U.S. federalfunding for basic reading research

      I was born at the beginning of the information processing era (1976), yet didn't have formal computer instruction until 1996 as a sophomore in college. What took 20 years back then, would take less than a year today.

    18. Researchers studied the knowl-edge and processes of expert chess players to understand how experts visualizetasks, anticipate the moves of their opponents, and act to counter those moves.


    19. In effect, these individuals were interested in creating “intelligent machines” thatmimicked the problem solving of intelligent humans

      so were the scientists in the movie, "Planet of the Apes"...

    20. The groundbreaking work by Goodman andcolleagues on miscue analysis was prototypic of this reconceptualization occur-ring in reading diagnosis

      the inception of reading specialists

    21. meaningful use

      when something is not relevant, interest wanes

    22. increased inter-est in internal mental structures and processes sparked by advances in neurologyand artificial intelligence (Ericsson & Smith, 1991). Both of these movementsturned attention back inside the human mind and away from the environment.

      Now the focus was becoming more abstract (inside the mind) and less concrete (behavior)

    23. According to James (1890), reading would be best de-scribed as mindful habit.

      This is what we consider as "close reading" today.

  2. Jun 2016
  3. networkedlearningcollaborative.com networkedlearningcollaborative.com
    1. recalled effortlessly and automati-cally in future work.

      This is evidence that something has been truly learned or mastered - when information can be recalled with automaticity or when the application of such knowledge is used in other disciplines.

    2. When too muchinformationis presented at once, or when theprocessing demands are too great, ourworking memory becomes swamped.

      Overwhelmed!! This is kind of how I felt prior to the tutorial sessions we received teaching us how to navigate our way through this course!

    3. it ismore efficient to return tosmall-stepinstruction when thematerial be-comes difficult.

      Small steps are easier to recall. I think of the systematic steps to long division, for example. Having a sequential system allows the student (and teacher) to backtrack and figure out where they went wrong.

    4. Itis most important foryoung learners, slow learners, and forall learners when the material is new,difficult, or hierarchical

      New information is difficult to grasp for ALL learners. Repeated practice is key, especially for the young and delayed. Chunking information into small bits yields successful learning!

    5. systematic method forpresenting materialin small steps,pausing to check for student under-stand-ing, and eliciting active and suc-cessful participation from all students.

      This IS best practice, but difficult to accomplish for each discipline every single day - especially for elementary teachers in primary grades. Engaging ALL students for EVERY lesson is an art form!

    1. middle-class mother-infant dyad ill joint picture-book reading

      where's dad?

    2. the bedtime story is a major literacy event whieh helps set patterns of behavior that recur repeatedly through the life of mainstream chil­dren and adults.

      Only those in the "mainstream" culture understand the value of this. If the Trackton group understood the importance of bedtime stories, would they esteem it as "valuable" as their counterparts do?

    3. Familiar literacy events for mainstream preschool­ers are bedtime stories, reading cereal boxes, stop signs, and television ads, and interpreting instructions for commercial games and toys

      Already the playing field is uneven...not all children have access to books, TV, games or toys. Many will fall short of this "mainstream" requirement.

    4. way~of taking from books are as much a part of learned behavior as are ways of ( f eating, sitting, playing games. and building houses

      This is an interesting perspective...to "take" from books. The way we each "take" from books is directly related to how we have learned to interact with books.