350 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2019
    1. DXtera Institute is a non-profit, collaborative member-based consortium dedicated to transforming student and institutional outcomes in higher education.

      DXtera Institute is a non-profit, collaborative member-based consortium dedicated to transforming student and institutional outcomes in higher education. We specialize in helping higher education professionals drive more efficient access to information and insights for effective decision-making and realize long-term cost savings, by simplifying and removing barriers to systems integration and improving data aggregation and control.

      With partners across the U.S. and Europe, our consortium includes some of the brightest minds in education and technology, all working together to solve critical higher education issues on a global scale.

  2. Feb 2019
    1. Good online readers know the tools and strategies that can be used to search for and locate people, resources, and information. They then know how to judge the credibility of these sources.

      Using tools like hypothesis are a good example of this.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. A Rubric for Evaluating E-Learning Tools in Higher Education

      The Rubric for E-Learning Tool Evaluation offers educators a framework, with criteria and levels of achievement, to assess the suitability of an e-learning tool for their learners' needs and for their own learning outcomes and classroom context.

  4. Dec 2018
    1. Powered by Publics

      That’s why 130 institutions are joining together to increase college access, student, and postsecondary attainment. The initiative, called Powered by Publics: Scaling Student Success, represents the largest ever collaborative effort to improve college access, advance equity, and increase college degrees awarded.

    1. The Future of the Public Mission of Universities

      A compelling tour through the financial and human impacts of various initiatives to privatize public infrastructures — including public education.

  5. Nov 2018
    1. This article provides a map of the three-element conceptual set of the common (the common good, the commons, and the common) in reference to higher education.

      Compare to a facile and polemic post on K12 education as a public good, by Cato Instittute's Corey DeAngelis.

    2. Krystian Szadkowski

      Learn more about Krystian in his bio at Adam Mickiewicz University and at Academia. View Krystian on Google Scholar and Twitter.

    3. The common in higher education: a conceptual approach

      A thoughful exploration of education as a/the commons.

  6. Sep 2018
    1. Even if they had been able to w rite, pens and ink and paper w ould have been luxuries that few could afford.

      It is so interesting to think about this topic. We share our stories between our families and friends every day. Not only verbally but through written expression as well. We sometimes even take that for granted. We were thought to read and write in a language that others around us could also understand. These people were not as fortunate and needed to share stories verbally to allow them to live on in history and to be passed down to lower generations.

    2. M ost slaves could neither read nor write; and m any w hite A m ericans, acting according to law and custom , pre­vented the slaves from learning to read or write.

      Slaves were not taught to read or write to the benefit of the slave owners. Many viewed slaves that were literate as a threat. It would only make the slaves more difficult for them to control. Some slaves were taught to read for religious purposes.

    3. oral history has been dism issed by a younger generation

      This was discussed in language and literacy at NVCC. This is an ongoing issue as students just a few years ago could recite folk tales and nursery rhymes they were told to as a child. Most adults today no longer tell rhymes and oral stories very often. [yale study video made same observations]

    4. Fred­erick Douglass

      He is an example of a slave that taught himself to read & write with help from The Bible/ religion

  7. May 2018
    1. higher education has always existed in the complex domain because it is a human system rather than a mechanical one

      Yes: a human system. Not merely a set of tools and processes to optimize.

    2. George Siemens suggests that the Cynefin framework may be the "best guidance . . . on how to function in our current context."

      Not surprised to find both @kreshleman and @bonstewart talking about Cynefin.

    3. Although we graduate students into the larger economy, we educate them not to serve it but to shape it.

      Shape, not serve: this is a key distinction!

  8. Mar 2018
    1. e reaped great benefit when every member of the class was engaged in poetry at the same time. In a whole lan guage classroom each member constantly in teracts with the other members by sharing, responding, and conferring. W

      This is such a great point. While I like that in the past students were allowed a great deal of choice, in conducting the kind of poetry until that they have here, there is so much room for student choice. This is so important for actually getting students to be interested in the poetry.

    2. urther, the listening center was a popular

      I think this is also really great because for students, it is important to hear the poems in different forms. I think seldom do students get to hear selections read by people who sound like them (but more often, parents, teachers, etc.)

    3. ing reading time the children could sign up to tape a poem that they had practiced and felt comfortable reading.

      This is such a great way to not only motivate students to form interests in poetry, but to actually get involved with the poetry

    4. n addition to the daily minilesson we provided students with opportunities to illus trate poetry and listen to poetry selections on audio tap

      Different modes are so important not only for differentiation, but as we see here, for all students and exposing them to all the kinds of poetry that exist.

    5. ome of them had the following reactions to the p

      I really like the fact that the teachers built time into the lessons for students to share what their reactions to poems--this is a crucial part of reading poetry. I think it also gives meaning to the poems for students (and seeing that meaning can be different for all students)

    6. ur decisions about what to teach and how are based on the interests and needs of our indi vidual students

      This is crucial

    7. e made more than a day or two in advance. We found ourselves assessing what happened one day and using that infor mation to develop a plan for what to teach the next day

      This is good practice for all subjects not just poetry, but especially poetry. In finding out what students need to know and want to know, teachers can design the lesson.

    8. ince the teacher selects poems based on the needs and interests of students, the classroom anthology is different each year.

      this is a really important factor.. accounting for individual student preferences is crucial

  9. Feb 2018
    1. by re linquishing some control over the nature of the read-aloud experience

      This is really important. Even when I think of reading aloud to students, I think of myself as doing most of the talking. This doesn't, and really shouldn't, be the case. Students have brilliant minds and making the story their own is so important for understanding.

    2. cond theory that can help us understand these responses is Bakhtin's (1984) idea of the "carnivalesque." Bakhtin saw carnival as subver sive, a time when power relations are up-ended and humor becomes outrageous. Carnival often centers around the body and bodily functions. Its creative expression is wild and out of control rather than calm and logical. As children move along the continuum of expressive engagement, I suggest that their responses bec

      This and the paragraphs that follow sort of answer my question..

    3. stories as invitations to participate or perform. Stories are understood not as fixed and rigid but as changeable texts, and the reader's role is not simply to understand but to actively control stories. We can change stories, resist them, critique them, even use them for our own purposes. Th

      This is so important, and something that I think did not exist very often when I was in elementary school. Of course, we were asked to make predictions and write alternative endings, but our expressions were not accepted as "making the story our own."

    4. hris's intention here, it seems, was to take the bit in his teeth and run?the point was to perform for us, leaving the story in the dust.

      What I wonder is how teachers are supposed to address this kind of reaction. I think that it probably shouldn't be discouraged, because it is a student's response to what they are seeing, but at the same time, may upset other students and start a sort of chaos. How do we create a boundary where students can express themselves, and then deal with it when other students disagree?

    5. n a similar way to "talking back," this re sponse represents a curious blurring of the dis tinction between the primary world of reality and the secondary world of the story, a melding of text and life

      This is a perspective I had not considered, but this is exactly what teachers aim for when they read aloud to students.

    6. hen teachers read stories to children, they translate, as it were, the visual illustrations and the written language to expressive spoken lan guage

      This is so important

    7. performative. Children demonstrate this type of engagement with words and physical actions. They become active participants in the story

      Ideally...

    1. Because reading for enjoyment is a signifi cant reason for read-alouds, students need to be told often that one of the purposes of reading or be ing read to is enjoyment. T

      This is crucial. I know so many of my peers, and even my brother, did not enjoy reading growing up. This was probably because it was such a high stakes task. If they had been told that it is okay to read for pleasure, to just read and enjoy a book, they may have come to appreciate and enjoy reading more.

    2. he teacher provid ed each student with four index card

      This is a method I have not heard of before, but I think could be extremely useful.

    3. She reminded the students that they were focusing on two comprehension skills: inferencing and predicting.

      This is also really important for students and teachers. Teachers need to know why they are doing something, but so do students. I think it is much easier to get students interested if they know why they are doing something. I also like that this occurred before the reading took place, so that students weren't surprised when they were asked to use the skill.

    4. sticky notes on the pages with her questions and prompts written on them. She clearly has read this book before and thought about places to pause and engage her students.

      This is incredibly useful. This is a skill I learned in one of my past literacy classes, and is something I do when I am doing a read aloud. This is a great method for teachers.

    5. se effectively during the read-aloud to model fluency,

      I think pauses are so important for two reasons. First, not all students read at the same level. Some students need more time to understand than others. Pausing allows all students a "fair" chance at reading and understanding a story. Secondly, as the article states here, we cannot expect fluency from students if we are not also going to demonstrate fluency.

    6. an invitation to gather together in the front of the room

      While I understand why this was not included as part of the essential component list, I think it is essential. This is something that I always experienced in elementary school, still see today, and would like to use in my own classroom in the future.

    7. pecifically, they found that choice was a motivating factor for reading and that the choices children made were often related to the teacher read-alou

      I will always emphasize how student choice is so important, especially in reading.

    8. also found that middle school students reported similar favorites: They re ported that independent reading time and teacher read-alouds made them want to read more

      After recently visiting my own third grade teacher, she told me that she was being moved to sixth grade, but that she would not stop reading aloud to them, because she really values read alouds and sees the value in them. I think this article supports her attitudes, and also reminds me how sometimes teachers take adolescents so "seriously" but forget how useful the things we do in elementary school can be to students of all ages.

    1. ni-lessons allow teachers to ful fill local curriculum mandates regarding stu dent performance objectives a

      By teachers using mini lessons the students learning strategies can be much broader than doing a standardized lesson or test. Teachers can incorporate outside things to engage the students more, they can also change the level depending on their students. This will provide a comfortable working and learning space for all students.

    1. re also happy that they built on one another's responses, demonstrated lis tening behaviors, and referred back to one another's comments. T

      All of these things are the actual point of literature circles.

    2. ct as a gatekeeper and make sure that all the students' voices were heard.

      This is really important. I think that too often, as teachers, we want to just jump in as the teacher, when it really isn't even what students need. Sometimes, students could just use a guide, or a "gatekeeper" to keep them going, not someone barging in to redirect.

    3. e began to make a concerted effort to pick books that not only related to the students' lives and interests

      This is crucial. Students need books which are relatable. How can students be expected to talk about a book that is not even relatable or interesting to them?

    4. rted to give the students practice in compli menting one another.

      I think this is really important. When students are expected to do something, teachers cannot just expect that they have had previous experience with it before, no matter how simple it seems. Like in this case: giving a complement does not seem entirely difficult, but in this case, it was something that actually needed to be taught.

    5. ut also in the trans action between the text and the reader.

      I had never considered this perspective before. I think this is a really good way of putting what reading, at it's core, is supposed to be.

    1. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters,

      I noted this standard with the mind set of building on concepts. Since standards are supposed to be building every year, to reach the anchor standards, I looked at the first grade standard compared to the second. In first grade, students are expected to "describe" characters. In second grade, they are expected to "demonstrate an understanding" of the characters, which are two completely different tasks. Recognizing and being cognizant of these differences between standards will be important in creating our slide deck/ mini-lessons for teaching literary elements (and ensuring that we are teaching/expecting the right things by grade level).

    2. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters

      One of the elements of literature included on our list is "character." This standard would align well with an activity in which students have to identify characters (especially using illustrations and/or details).

    3. demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson

      I think this standard goes particularly well with one of the "literary elements" included in our list: moral. The moral of a story is the lesson the story aims to teach. This standard requires students to demonstrate that they understand the lesson, or moral, in a work of literature.

  10. Jan 2017
    1. Finally, the sophisticated contextual approach circles back around to unite the two previous categories, in a way. From this approach knowledge is seen as created by individuals to serve a purpose. What is true depends on evidence and a given context. There are authorities, but they are not absolute. Knowledge is always changing and you come to know by creating knowledge, collecting the most up-to-date and appropriate evidence.

      contextual personal epistemology defined

    2. In the subjective approach, the individual recognizes that not all knowledge is absolute but takes it to a position that there is no authority, knowledge depends entirely on what works for each individual. In the subjective approach the stance is often “If I believe something, it is true for me. You can believe something different, and that’s true for you.” Knowing comes from personal experience.

      subjective personal epistemology defined

    3. The simplistic and absolute approach is an outlook where knowledge is simple: there is a right and wrong. There is a Truth. Knowledge comes from some official authority, and you come to know when that authority transmits the information to you.

      absolute personal epistemology defined

    4. In talking back to something through annotation are we not inherently questioning some authority, immediately pushing ourselves out of an absolute stance?
    5. conversing with an author

      annotation as "conversing with an author" even when the author is not actively responding to annotations, but when one's annotations are a conversation with the author through their work

    6. you come to know by creating knowledge

      maybe more than anything, annotation is an invitation to actively create knowledge for oneself

    1. In case you're not up to date on the real scandal in weightlifting, it's how the tiny country of Bulgaria has been able to "trounce" every other nation at weightlifting and power sports.
  11. Jul 2016
    1. scores on most comprehension assessments do not tell us why a reader is struggling.

      doesnt the DRA give us a general idea as to where a reader is struggling?

  12. Jun 2016
    1. The Era of Conditioned Learning (1950–1965)

    2. Where there were problems in skill acquisition, the solution was likely tobe an individually paced training program (Glaser, 1978).

      Different levels of reading need different individualized instruction/training.

  13. May 2016
    1. began to develop a framework to encompass indi- vidual, communal, and civic grievances and/or re- sponsibilities necessary for social change

      This is great that not only were the boys able to connect the stories and situations to their won lives, but they were also able to come up with responses that worked towards something meaningful.

  14. Apr 2016
    1. Students should also be cautioned that the person telling the story is acting as an observer and an interpreter of emotions and events

      Students must realize that the person telling the story is not the same person the events happened to. The author trying their best to emulate the emotion the person was feeling during what was happening.

    2. Readers should understand that such stories are not meant to replace factual material but are aimed at sparking interest in what is real

      Great point that these stories are not to meant to make up things about someones life, but rather to say what happened in a more interesting way.

    3. in first person narration, bring history to life on a more personal level than nonfiction material such as textbooks

      I think that this is especially more important for kids at younger ages. It will keep them more engaged and wanting to read pieces like fictionalized biographies.

    1. It is no longer a fable about the importance of honesty. Instead, it is a fable about the villagers unjustly accusing the shepherd boy of dishonesty

      This is a very good point. I would have ever thought about it this way, that the villagers just jump to the conclusion that boy was lying.

    2. Aesop's fables are timeless treasures that have been taught to children for many centuries.

      I think this is true because of how great not only the stories are, but the lessons that they teach are. The lessons themselves are timeless.

    3. That is because fables are allegorical stories that teach lessons about life.

      Fables are great ways of teaching life lessons to kids! The stories always result in learning a new lesson

    1. with young children can increase their word banks, widen their background of experiences, extend their listening and comprehending ability, and ex pand their capacity to relate to the environment

      This is a great point that shows how great reading to young children is. It expands their vocabulary and also their reading and listening comprehension.

    2. , they are written with a controlled vocabulary and are de signed to be read independently.

      This is very important that the books have a controlled vocabulary because it will make the book a lot easier for the kids to understand, thus letting them read it independently.

    3. They are written for the young child's interest and apprecia tion level, not his reading ability level.

      This is a very good point made, that picture books are made to interest the kids not to really measure their reading ability. Picture books will get kids interested in reading, and then from there they can move to more advanced books to measure their reading ability.

    1. n the Writing portion of the balanced literacy block, teachers scaffold their instruction along the continuum of teacher directedness so that students are increasingly responsible for demonstrating their ability to use writing skills and strategies. Similar to quality reading instruction, excellent writing instruction begins with the teacher modeling a skill or process, moves to the teacher guiding students to use those skills or processes, and culminates in students writing independently. The purposes of writing instruction are:

      I personally think scaffolding is a very effective method.

    2. During Independent Reading, students put all that they’ve learned about decoding and comprehension into action as they choose and read books on their independent level

      Independent reading is something I feel a lot of children enjoy because they get to read on their own and use everything that they know and put it to the test. While its important sometimes to let the children pick the book they want to read, it's important that the books are at their independent reading level so they can read them with accuracy.

    3. Creating Literacy Centers.

      Literacy centers are something simple, but important. I think every classroom should have one.

    4. Guided Reading can serve a variety of purposes, depending on the needs of students:

      Guided reading, is something I think is important because it helps you get closer to a group of students when reading something and its more "personal" so you can see first hand if kids are understanding what they are reading.

    5. In order for students to increase their literacy skills, teachers should consider the following when planning and conducting Shared Reading

      Engaging the children is probably the hardest part. I agree with the text when it's mentioned to use a variety of instructional methods. If it's done the same way, then the kids will lose interest.

    6. Shared Reading has several purposes:

      All of these purposes as well are good enough reasons to do shared reading. It can be helpful to all students and help them build many skills.

    7. Teachers who lead effective and purposeful Read Aloud plan and execute them with the following in mind

      It is important to choose the right text. If it's something not age appropriate or something the kids will enjoy, then you will loose their attention.

    8. An effective Read Aloud has several instructional purposes, with some variance by grade level. These purposes include

      All of the purposes listed are valid purposes and are important

    9. e that the context in which students learn and practice comprehension strategies differs

      This makes total sense. Obviously as the years go by, the material is different and harder so it will differ.

    10. writing instruction so that they model excellent writing for students, share the pen with students during Shared and Interactive Writing, and conference with students as they write independentl

      These methods are excellent!

    11. Read Aloud, read with students during Shared Reading and Guided Reading, and listen to and assess students’ reading during Independent Reading.

      All of these are very important. I work at an after school program, and we have the kids read to the "class" as well as us reading to them.

  15. Mar 2016
    1. Buddy Reading

      I remember doing this in school and it was something different than reading alone or all together as a class. Reading with a buddy can be very effective because you can be more focused on the reading/ what is being read.

    2. Repeated readingis one of the most effective ways to offer lots of practice to students; this instructional method has been proven to help students recall information from their reading, improve their comprehension, increase their reading rates, and change from word-by-word reading to reading with meaningful phrases

      Totally agree with this ! I remember reading something one time and something more than once and saw how reading a text more than once was truly helpful in many ways.

    3. By pointing to each word as you are reading, you can show students where and how you are pausing and how the text shows you when to raise and lower your voice. Occasionally, you can also explain to your students why you are reading in a certain way:

      When I read with the kids at work who are younger, I point to the words as I read them. Sometimes they point to the words for me if I forget. I can see how pointing to each word as we read and explain why we read something a certain way is helpful.

    4. The more that students hear a reader using appropriate phrasing, reading quickly and accurately, and using expression in his or her voice, the more quickly students will understand what fluent reading actually is.

      I agree with this statement. If students listen to a teacher who models all these things correctly, then there is no doubt it will help their students read properly. It is important that a teacher does this.

    5. fluency is the bridge that takes readers from simply decoding words to understanding and enjoying whole texts.

      If a child can't read fluently, then reading might seem like a "task" for them and then they will not enjoy it. But when they can read fluently, they can easily enjoy what they are reading

    6. if a student spends time sounding out words or stringing syllables together, her slowed pace prevents her from being able to focus on the overall meaning of what she is readin

      I totally agree with this statement.

    7. reading fluency is the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with expressio

      It's one thing for a child to learn how to read words and write, but its a completely different thing when it comes to them reading fluently.

    1. rite a poem. Look at the poem you read again. What did you like about it? Was it the length of the lines? Was it the sub ject matter? Or was it something else? Try out one of the poet's ideas, borrow a line from the poem, or write your own poem in the same style as the poet you've just read. This will give you insight on whether a poetry prompt will work or not.

      aside from knowing for yourself if a prompt is good, children love to hear their teachers work. this would grab and keep the students attention.

    2. ead great poetry. Use your own definition of "great" poetry. It doesn't matter what sort of poetry you read, just pick some thing that you enjoy. The most important thing you can do is get to know a poem yourself and understand why it speaks to you before attempting to use it in your classro

      I agree! If teachers are well versed in reading powerful poetry than they will be more confident in teaching it. Students notice if teachers believe what they teach.

    3. ect (1999) explained why: It nurtures a love and appreciation for the sound and power of language. Poetry can help us see differently, understand ourselves and others, and validate our hu man experience. It...enhances thinking skills, and pro motes personal connections.... Such attributes deserve a closer look.

      This explanation pulled on my heart strings! I have always been so fond of poetry and I could not have elaborated on the amazing personal benefits more perfects than Perfect.

    1. epetition was something the children could immediately ap preciate in their reading of poetry and then ap ply in their writing of poetry. W

      By giving children an easier skill to master (such as using repetition) poetry will seem less daunting and they will be more focused in future lessons.

    1. I highly recommend storyscape.io for all levels of education

      This would be great for teachers and students because it will be something that they both become familiar with. As students progress through school they can challenge themselves through the tool because they will be comfortable with all of its possibilities.

    2. I highly recommend storyscape.io for all levels of education.

      I think this is a great idea. Although it may have more of an effect at an earlier age, it doesn't mean it cannot be used throughout all levels of education. In higher grades it can be used for creative writing or design classes as well as reading.

    1. whole, teacher judgment must be exercised. The instructional progression detailed in this article should not be used for all phonic elements, with all children, or with all literature selections

      This is a goop point that you should not use this all the time. Only use this strategy if you think it will work well with your students.

    2. Essentially, the whole-part-whole framework connects learning to pronounce words with real read ing.

      I like this whole-part-whole approach because it allows for the children to get a phonics lesson with real text, rather than just random words or letters on a worksheet.

    3. "Research evidence over the past 70 years indicates over whelmingly that direct instruction in phonics is needed and contributes to better develop ment of decoding, word recognition, and com prehension

      It is proven that phonics instruction will help our students with their word decoding, recognition and comprehension. I think that phonics instruction is very important at a young age and would be very beneficial to our students.

  16. Feb 2016
    1. arious research studies in dicated that children in typical primary grade classrooms read independently only 7 to 8 minutes per day;

      Reading for 7 to 8 minutes a day is not beneficial. This is not enough time for students to even become engaged in what they are reading, let alone learn anything. Students should be given the opportunity to read for At LEAST 30 minutes per day.

    2. om concern centers on making sure that students use their time wisely during the reading perio

      As long as students are engaged in their reading, and they are able to have meaningful discussions about what they read, than they are using their reading time wisely. There should not be such an emphasis on structured learning during reading instruction because it will make students dread it. Let them have fun. Let them be engaged. And let them learn to love reading,

    3. o read for their own purposes and participate in reading with the children.

      This is so important. Students learn by example. If teachers are not implementing what they teach in their own lives students won't take them seriously. Reading is a way of life-long learning, and students should be able to see their teachers taking advantage of that.

    4. y this we mean that children should make these choices within a reasonable and responsibly managed classroom structure

      I like this approach to reader's workshop because it allows students to take responsibility for their own learning. I have learned through experience that students love being given independence (don't give too much) because they feel trusted and mature. However, I think this would only work well in upper elementary and higher grades because younger students need more instruction and guidance.

    5. n short, workbooks and practice books have become, in large measure, the ma jor means of managing reading instruction

      I was really upset when I read this because that means that the majority of reading instruction is not actually spent reading. Students should learn to love reading, not hate it because they are forced to complete boat loads of worksheets every time they read something. Teachers should instead, allow students to do hands on projects or work in small groups to discuss books.

    6. r. Sheets also notes that mini-lessons force him to be concise in his demonstrations of skills in real reading situations.

      When Mr. Sheets is forced to be concise it can be very beneficial for the students. Since he has to be short and to the point the children are given the information right away and not given too much all at once to take in.

    7. ome teachers like to act in the role of "recorder" for the group or "wait in silence."

      I like the idea of the teacher as the "recorder" for the group. This allows for the kids to all stay engaged in what everyone is talking, while you get to write down what everyone is saying so you can reflect on it later.

    8. elf-selected reading. During SSR stu dents may become involved in one or more ac tivities (see Figure 1). To begin the workshop, students and teachers spend 10 minutes en gaged in free reading of a book they have cho sen for recreational reading or they may be reading goal pages established in their litera ture response group.

      I like that kids are able to read books of their choice so that they are more engaged. It will help keep them more interested in reading and help with their reading skills.

    1. any educators saw the need to move away from traditional teacher centered instruction in favor of creating more student centered opportunities for learning in their classroom

      I love this approach to learning because it is the way that I learn best. I do not think that it is beneficial for teachers to simply lecture students all day. Students need to learn to work with one another through problem solving and hands on activities.

    2. iterature circles provide for great discussions about books and get students to want to read."

      Literature circles are a great way to get students engaged in their reading, but this is only beneficial if students are able to work appropriately and efficiently with one another.

    3. n another group, two students continued kick ing each other throughout the meeting, which caused both students to miss questions asked by other mem bers and impeded their ability to engage with the text, not to mention disrupted other members.

      It seems to me that this class is not ready to work in groups. Direct instruction would be the most beneficial for this class because it would not give them the opportunity to work with one another. This privilege needs to be taken away until the students know how to appropriately behave with one another.

    4. he teacher and I thought we had given the stu S dents the skills to productively discuss a text, but as soon as we pulled away to let them lead the group on their own instances like the previous example became far too frequent.

      This is an important lesson to learn as a teacher. The directions and guidance that we give students does not always prepare them as much as we think it will. If this is the case, teachers must redirect their lesson to teach students the skills that have not yet been mastered. This is not a failed lesson, just a modified one.

    5. he boys in this group were supposed to be dis cussing their role sheets that they had prepared on Freak the Mighty. Instead, however, Evan used this op portunity to bully Dale about his shoes.

      This example shows just how easily a well planned lesson can go off track because of a student's behavior. As future teachers it is important to be prepared to go into school with one plan, but be able to redirect that plan in a minutes notice to accommodate what is currently going on in the classroom.

    1. riting complete sentences writing sentences that ask a question

      These are two very important skills that kids should learn at a young age. I think it is great that the kids learn these things so they can better develop their writing from an early age. Complete sentences will also help them in oral language as well.

    2. any op portunities for connecting reading de coding skills with writing occur during these sessions.

      decoding skills for children are so important especially at a young age. If they can "learn to read" earlier then later on they will be "reading to learn" a lot more.

    3. ost of my direct writing instruc tion takes place during these brief ses sions, which may last up to 15 minutes.

      Personally I learn better from direct instructions rather than a big long lesson where some information may be lost. This is a good idea to have these mini lessons, as they are very beneficial to the kids.

    1. “begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development’. (p. 33).

      This is so important for people to realize. Children are born with the ability to understand anything that is taught to them whether it is sophisticated or not because they have open minds. Educators need to keep this in mind so that they stop sheltering children from abstract concepts and ideas that will actually help them in the future.

    2. Yet a growing body of research makes it clear that children begin to internalize dominant beliefs about gender as early as preschool

      This was very interesting to read because it puts the way we act about certain things in front of children into perspective. My mother is an educator and the entire time I was growing up she never assumed that I was heterosexual (though I am). She would always say things like "when you grow up and have a husband or a wife..." She would also never make me wear a dress if I didn't want to. If we were going somewhere formal she would let me wear pants and a nice shirt if that's what I wanted to do. After reading this it made wonder if my mom did this because she knew how quickly children learn to internalize dominant gender beliefs. I think this is important for all people to know, not just educators, because it will help children to feel more comfortable about being true to themselves.

    3. Cultural expectations about gender are folded into, for example, the spoken and tacit rules for how women and men, girls and boys, should dress and carry their bodies and engage with others and make decisions about relationships, family, and careers.

      This is something that definitely needs to be addressed in schools. Most schools require that girls wear dresses to dances and boys wear suits, or that at graduation girls wear one color gown while the boys wear another. Schools need to stop dividing students based on gender so that no student is singled out. Instead, guidelines for sports teams, dress codes, and dances should be generalized to apply to all students no matter their gender.

    4. The project of this dissertation is to transform the social order with the aim of achieving increased support for those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA), but it is equally about dismantling misogyny, homophobia, and transphobia so that all people, regardless of their sexual or gender identity, can be free

      This is something that I feel very strongly about. I don't think society should continue to normalize heterosexual relationships. Instead, homosexual and heterosexual relationships should be treated equally. Children should not only read books with heterosexual relationships, and they should not learn only about heterosexual people that have changed the world. There should be an equal amount of same-sex relationships and homosexuals taught in the classroom so that students will realize that one is not superior to the other. It sickens me that society has looked down upon the LGBTQIA community for so long. Everyone should be loved without being judged and it is so important to teach this to children starting at a young age.

    5. The first emergency that drives this dissertation is the need to create livable educational spaces for queer bodies.

      A student's education experience should be a safe and welcoming one. No child should feel like he/she cannot be themselves when they are in school because it will greatly hinder his/her learning. Giving children the opportunity to fully be themselves, and showing children that their sexuality is accepted, will allow them to focus on their learning instead of getting distracted trying to hide who they really are.

    6. The first emergency that drives this dissertation is the need to create livable educational spaces for queer bodies.

      I find it horrible that some students do not receive a quality education because of their sexuality. Teachers need to be fully prepared and qualified to teach all students regardless of their race or sexual orientation.

    7. Appropriate cultural tools for interrogating gender include transmedia narratives and platforms, which can enable learners to develop an attunement to, appropriate, and reinscribe messages about gender in a personally and culturally meaningful way.

      Knowledge really is power. Students need to be educated about gender and gender differences early on in a non-accusatory or judgmental way in a way that is suitable for their age/place in life.

    8. Money was apparently the first to propose a distinction, in the late 1950s, between sex and gender (Money & Ehrhardt, 1972; Udry, 1994).

      I think that today some people still are unaware of the distinction. As a future teacher knowing this distinction is key being a socially competent teacher.

    9. inquiry into race and racism (Tatum, 2003; Van Ausdale & Feagin, 2007), sexual orientation and heterosexism (Ryan, Patraw, & Bednar, 2013; Sapon-Shevin, 1999; Swartz, 2003), and gender and sexism (Bryan, 2012; Ryan et al., 2013)

      Wow! I find this to be very interesting. I think that racism in the home definitely can leave children more sensitive to seeing differences early on.

    10. Further, recent work with young children suggests they have a greater capacity for abstract reasoning and engaging with sophisticated concepts than is typically assumed

      Children are very brilliant. I think at times teachers can underestimate what their students can understand and think. It is our job as teachers to see the full abilities of both academic and emotional sects, and provide accordingly.

    11. implicit in larger symptoms of cultural dysfunction, as in ongoing efforts to silence, bully, intimidate, and threaten women who speak up against sexism in video games and other popular media, as well as in cultural messages about masculinity that lead male-identified people to distance themselves from their emotional experiences and to engage,

      I think that teachers have a crucial role in future society. By not allowing these "cultural dysfunctions" in the classroom, students learn early on that bullying for any reason is not accepted or tolerated.

    1. In contrast, the transactional perspective is based on the belief that meaning is constructed in thetransaction between a particular reader and a particular text

      I really like this view. People come to a text with a suitcase full of memories and experience so a text could mean many different things to many different people. With this view the reader is an active participant in what is being learned.

    2. teachers may lack the appropriate preservice coursework and in-serviceprofessional development necessary for effective implementation of quality literature-based readingprograms

      This is a huge problem. If teachers are unable to know what literature to pick and how to teach it, children are going to suffer greatly. Courses in literature are crucial to expose teachers to what is available to teach and learn.

    3. “child-centered” approaches (Atwell, 1987), in which students andteachers select literature to read and to discuss in groups, and respond to the literature by drawing onthe experiences they bring to the texts and the meanings they construct during reading

      I think that this "child-centered" approach is really crucial for the children to be exposed to. It is when they can interpret a book for themselves using their own lives and experience that a book can become a real, valuable experience.

    4. Children’s literature may be regarded as a space for constructing critical conversations andinterpretations, where both teachers and students negotiate meanings, discuss the systems of powerinherent in the meanings available, and share experiences of how these stories relate to their lives andcommunities (Serafini, 2001a).

      I really like this point! As a future teacher I think that students coming up with ideas is necessary for not only learning to read a text but learning to respond to a text (without someone telling you what it means right away).

    5. Many proponents of thisapproach suggest that in order to balance reading instruction, it is necessary to “inject” some direct,systematic phonics into a whole language classroom (Adams & Bruck, 1995; Honig, 1995).

      This way of talking about reading instruction is very scientific. It seems that with this view there is a step by step procedure for success. I find this very interesting in comparison to looser views.

    6. Meaning is located in the text and can be uncovered through close textual analysis

      I agree with this! In order to discover meaning in a text teachers must show students how to look into a text and find what it is really meaning (especially if there is more than just what is written implied.)

    1. This change in our classroom libraries will also allow children of the dominant culture to see literature about others who look different and live differently.

      Not all students are exposed to different cultures and ethnicities at home. As teachers, it is our job to educate students about diversity so that they are not misinformed about people who may look differently than they do. A great way to teach students about different cultures is through literature.

    2. They must also see African-American artists, writers, political leaders, judges, mathematicians, astronauts, and scientists. The same is true for children of other ethnicities. They must see authors and illustrators who look like them on book jackets.

      It is so important for students to feel like they have the ability to accomplish their dreams. What better way to do this than to provide books for students to read that portray characters of their own race or background that overcame struggles and successfully accomplished their own dreams. Students should not feel like they cannot be successful because of the color of their skin. Allow students to learn that the color of one's skin does not determine their success. The drive and dedication that one possesses does.

    3. They found that good readers make connections to themselves and their communities. When classroom collections are largely by and about white people, white children have many more opportunities to make connections and become proficient readers.

      This part of the article helped me to realize just how important it is for students to have the opportunity to read books that they can relate to. One of the reading techniques that I was asked to use all throughout school was making connections to the texts that I read. In order to do this, I had to think about how my life was similar to that of the character's in a particular story. I never seemed to have a hard time doing this because I grew up as a middle class white child reading stories about other middle class white children. How are minority students supposed to make connections to stories that are not at all similar to their own lives? If we want all children to be proficient readers than it is imperative that we give them all an equal opportunity to become such. All classrooms should have libraries that contain books with diverse characters.

    4. In July 2013, CELL presented SAP with a list of 150 multicultural titles, which were recommended by educators from across the country and by more than thirty award committees. All the books were annotated and excerpts were provided. The 700+ PowerPoint slides of the project can be found here. SAP then sent the project to Stanford University’s Understanding Language Program for validation of text complexity. The Council of Chief State School Officers has yet to make the addition to the CCSS website

      Reading this was very unsettling. The Common Core State Standards were created so that all children are required to learn the same material in each grade level. Therefore, one can assume that the goal of the standards is to provide the best possible education for all students. If this is the case, then why has the Common Core not updated their website to include multicultural titles? These books would help many students to connect to literature in a more personal way because the characters are similar to them, but they would also help all students to better understand different ethnicities and backgrounds. Adding these titles to the Common Core website would only be benefit students.So why is the Council of Chief State School Officers so hesitant to do so?

    5. When the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were introduced in 2009—2010 , the literacy needs of half the children in the United States were neglected. Of 171 texts recommended for elementary children in Appendix B of the CCSS, there are only 18 by authors of color, and few books reflect the lives of children of color and the poor.

      Unfortunately, this statistic did not surprise me. My four year old little brother is half white and half black, growing up in a biracial household. I am constantly looking for books with characters that he can relate to, but never seem to have any luck. Diversity is all around us, yet children's literature doesn't seem to portray this. I don't think that students should only read books that have characters that are similar to them, but I do believe that children should be given an opportunity to read a variety of books with characters of many different backgrounds.

    6. Why does seeing themselves in books matter to children? Rudine Sims Bishop, professor emerita of The Ohio State University, frames the problem with the metaphor of “mirror” and “window” books. All children need both.

      I really like this point that all children need "mirror" or "window" books. I have never heard this reference before reading this article but I could not agree more with it. It is so important for students to be able to read books that reflect things that may happen in their own life or see characters who may act or look very similar to them.

    1. demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

      An adequate story to use to convey this reading standard for Literature K-5 would be The Snitches by Dr. Seuss, for the central message is about getting along and respecting one another, despite physical differences. This should be easy for students to understand based on character emotions and major events in the story.

    2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text

      At this point in reading, first graders should be able to make predictions and inferences, prior to, during, ad after the reading of a text. First graders will be able to do this by using key information as well as context clues from the text, such as descriptive details, punctuations denoting voice inflections, pictures, etc.

    3. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text

      Fourth grade students must have knowledge about what a theme is. They must be able to use this knowledge to identify the themes of multiple pieces of literature.

      They must also have the skill to pull out key details of texts in order to summarize story-lines.

    4. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

      Fifth grade students must know the definition of third-person point of view omniscient, third-person point of view limited, first person point of view, and second person point of view.

      Students must also have the skill set that allows them to understand how these different points of view effect the way a particular text is told.

    5. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

      A third grade students must have the skill to understand that some words have multiple meanings. They must also have the skill to use a dictionary so that they can look up the definitions of words.

      These students also need the knowledge that allows them to understand that things are not always meant literally.

    6. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

      A second grade student must know the definition of characters, challenges, and major events.

      They must have knowledge about reactions and how events play a role in how characters develop throughout a story.

      They must have the skill to identify the actions of characters and what events or challenges occurred in a story.

      A good lesson to go along with this standard would be to read a book and then make a cause and effect chart as a class. This can help students identify the reactions of a character and what caused them to react this way.

    7. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text

      This would require that students have the knowledge of different points of view in a text and how to identify when the point of view changes.

      A good story to help practice this skill is Me First by Helen Lester. Most of this story is told by the narrator, but there are parts of the story that switch and are told from Pinkerton's and the Sandwitch's point of view. The classroom teacher can have students identify when the story changes point of view and how they knew that this was happening.

    8. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

      In younger grades it is very important for teachers to pause periodically while reading a story so that students have an opportunity to ask questions that they may have or make predictions about what they think may happen and what details in the story make them think this. Teachers can help students to come up with predictions by asking them questions about things that have already happened in the story. This helps students to stay engaged in and will also help them to answer questions that the teacher asks after the story is over.

      In order to do this skill students must have knowledge about what key details are. Without this knowledge, students may try to retell the story using details that are not important to the plot.

      A good story to exercise this skill is Goldilocks and the Three Bears because there are three key details that lead to the bears discovering Goldilocks in their bedroom. As the story is being read, the teacher can pause after Goldilocks tries all of their oatmeal and have students predict what might happen next. The teacher can also have students talk about how they would feel if they were the bears and discovered that someone had been in their home.

      After the story is over, the teacher can ask the class to describe the three things that Goldilocks did in the bears' home.

    9. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

      Kindergartners must be able to retell a story that has been read to them in the past that includes key details.

      To help students exercise this skill, teachers can read two books from the same series. For example, "Mrs. Bindergarten Gets Ready for Kindergarten" and "Mrs. Bindergarten and the 100th Day of School." These books would be read at separate times, but after the second book is read, the teacher can ask students what Mrs. Bindergarten did in the first book, and then have them explain what she did in the second book. I believe these books would be useful for this skill because they share the same character which will help to spark the students' memories.

      In order for students to master this skill they must have knowledge of different stories so that they can retell them. They also must have the knowledge of what it means to retell a story.

    10. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

      1st Grade students must have the knowledge of what makes a character different than a setting. Knowledge of these definitions and parts of a text is crucial to being able to describe what is going on.

      Looking at a Strega Nona book that has many elaborate characters and scenes could be very helpful. Ask students who is the character on this page? What is the setting on this page?

    11. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters,

      Like in life, characters In texts have different perspectives and teaching this is crucial! 2nd grade student must be able to look at individual characters and where they are coming from. A good example to use would be the text My Mouth is A Volcano because the teachers view of the boy is different that the classes view of the boy, and the boys perceptions of what he is feeling.

    12. Ask and answer questions

      Kindergarten students must be able to identify that they do not know certain words, and then know to ask for help or ways to get to know words. Having everyone in the class underline 3 words they do not know in a text and then going around and talking about them could be helpful

    13. With prompting and support, r

      Teachers of 1st graders must provide appropriate instruction on how to read different pieces of literature. Exposure to different types of literature such as poetry is important. 1st graders must be able to read texts and know how to approach reading them even if they struggle. And teachers need to know how to prompt them without doing the work for the students. Having a weekly "poem in my pocket" could be helpful if teachers go over it and refer back to it/do activities with it throughout the week.

    14. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics

      5th grade students must be able to look at books of the same genre and compare the texts within that genre to each other. It is here they can make connections between how plots of different stories have similar makings within that genre. An activity a fifth grade teacher could do would be to look at the magic tree house series (pick one of the books) and the A to Z Mysteries series (pick one of the books. Although they are different series how they develop the stories (exposition/settings/characters) are very similar. Making a T-chart with the order in which events happen could be very helpful!

    15. read and comprehend

      3rd grade students must be able to read and understand different types of literature appropriate to 3rd graders independently. Having SSR sessions and then journaling about what was read, and then sharing could help greatly in understanding/getting better at reading.

    16. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

      5th grade students must be able to look at a text and what the words imply, especially in figurative language. An awesome example show students figurative language would be any of the books in the Amelia Bedelia series, because she is constantly misreading figurative language and would be a great start/talking point for looking at figurative language, plus they are all great reads!

    17. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

      5th grade students need to know how to look at texts as a whole and how they interconnect. An example could be looking at The Orange Tree Poem (John Shaw Neilson) and look at how it would be hard for the stanzas to make sense without all of them there.

    18. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e

      4th grade students must be able to compare and contrast different themes in texts because it is what makes them different. Example Question: A good question in all texts would be "what do you think the author wanted to teach us". Here the themes of the texts could be talked about and contrasted by students.

    19. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

      5th grade students must be able to look at a text as a whole in order to fully understand the meaning of it. By looking at the smaller parts that make up a story (such as characters and what makes them different from each other/why they are included) is crucial in reading, not just staring, at literature. Making a venn diagram with two characters and seeing how they are different and how they are connected could greatly help 5th graders see how characters interact and contrast.

    1. it is important that correct information be transmitted in the classroom. If we allow errors to go uncorrected, the remainder of the class either thinks you did not hear the mistake or thinks what the student said was correct.

      Even though it might makes us uncomfortable, I agree that it is important to correct our students because if another student thinks what the student said was correct when it wasn't then they will think no one made a mistake.

    2. Remember that we teach students these meaningful word parts to increase their stock of information so that they will be able to make intelligent choices when decoding and pronouncing unfamiliar words

      This is important and I agree that if we teach them these meaningful parts then they can use it to decode and pronounce new words in the future.

    3. Kindergarten students should read and hear lots of nursery rhymes, common songs, and poems

      Rhymes and Songs are activities that may not seem important when it comes to a kindergarten class, but these everyday activities are exposing them to phonological awareness in a fun and productive way.

    4. Kindergarten students need to learn to discriminate categories of sounds

      This activity is something that is very simple to do with the kids and I can see how this is something important when it comes to exposing the kids to phonological awareness

    5. One of the first tasks of school is to show students how books work. Throughout Kindergarten and first grade, teachers constantly review the elements of books and the concepts of print

      This is very important especially to kids who are in Kindergarten and First Grade like mentioned. The first step is to show children how books work so they can build upon that and when they learn to read they know how to go through a book.

    6. Explicit and systematic phonics instruction is the most efficient and effective way to teach students to decode, and thus to read independently.

      Once children learn to decode then they can stop wasting time trying to decode the words and will be able to read by themselves and understand what they are reading.

    7. Remember that our explanations of these spelling patterns are suited to the learning capacities of adults, not children.

      This is important to keep in mind because as teachers we need to find different ways to explain these spelling patterns so that the children can understand.

    8. This is the basis for the familiar old phonics rule, “when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking

      This is a rule I never heard of and I think it could actually come in handy when it comes to helping kids pronounce words and know which sounds to pronounce.

    9. Many sounds can be spelled in multiple ways, and some graphemes (letters or letter combinations) can represent more than one sound.
    10. iphthongs are sounds produced when the mouth moves from one formation to another within a single syllable.

      This is fascinating and I never took the time or had any reason to realize that when saying certain sounds it can cause our mouths to change shape.

    11. Now that you know which consonant sounds are likely to be confused, you can be on the lookout for students who struggle to hear or articulate them. Help students to “feel” how sounds are different by thinking about the different speech organs that are used to make each one

      After reading this section, I feel more prepared on how to help my future students pronounce and distinguish the difference between certain consonants.

    12. The Groupsof phonemes cannot be as easily distinguished as the pairs, but there is a clear logic to their grouping. The nasalsinclude consonant phonemes that are produced by exhaling all of the air through your nose. All of the nasal sounds are voiced; you can feel the vibration of the vocal chords through the nose if you hold a finger beside your nose.

      I am eager to learn the nasal sounds that are made when certain constant phonemes are pronounced. I myself have never noticed my nose making certain sounds when pronouncing words.

    13. Some of these are stop pairs, meaning that the production of the sound completely stops the flow of air through the mouth at some point.

      After reading the chart showing examples of the "Stop Pairs", I didn't realize until now that certain constants stop the flow of air though the mouth at some point when pronouncing words with these constants in them. I learned where the tongue ends up when pronouncing certain stop pairs in w

    14. We all know that English is comprised of consonants and vowels, but many of us may be unaware that this classification has nothing to do with the letter symbols per se, but instead what our speech organs do to produce the sound.

      I was unaware that when a letter is considered a vowel or constant, it has nothing to do with the letter but the sound it makes. I am curious to learn more.

    15. Understanding how our mouths work as we pronounce soundshelps us to listen and watch our students more critically. In a room of children reading chorally, it’s easy to spot those who cannot decode or articulate by the formation of their mouths

      If we can understand how mouths work as we pronounce sounds, then we can listen and watch our students more closely because we will be able to see right away who is struggling based on their mouth formations. This is an important piece of knowledge and will help make sure all the students are pronouncing words corectly.

    16. Once you know the precise method of articulating these sounds, you will be able to provide explicit corrective feedback to improve students’ phonological awareness and phoneme production.

      I agree with this statement 100%.

    17. As a writer of English, you may occasionally refer to spelling conventions (such as “i before e, except after c”) but probably generally rely upon memory and constant repetition to cue spelling patterns.

      I always find myself referring to spelling conventions in my head when I write words. I agree that writers generally rely upon memory and constant reputation to cue spelling patterns. This takes time, but once you got that down, writing is a breeze.

    18. George Bernard Shaw once ridiculed the English language by saying that you could spell fish GHOTI, using the gh in rough, the o in women, and the ti in caution.

      I took the time to try this and while the new spelling didn't sound exactly like fish, it was pretty close. It makes me wonder what other words could be spelled differently and sound the same.

    19. This chapter will also show you how to assist students so far below grade level that the word study content of your program’s lessons is effectively unintelligible to them.

      This information is important because every teacher is going to have students who are far below grade level and we should know how to help them.

    20. Most reading programs are written by highly skilled educators with extensive knowledge of the English language and of current research. Unfortunately, their teachers’ manuals do not explain why the word study activities they require are effective or how they match the linguistic underpinnings of our language

      I'm curious to learn the reasoning behind reading programs because as a future teacher, this information can help us understand more of how we are teaching.

    21. Writing Workshops

      I used to do these when I was in 6th grade and they helped tremendously when it came

    22. Vocabulary, background knowledge, and the use of comprehension strategies all impact how well we understand what we read.

      All of these come to play in terms of reading comprehension. I feel like all of these are important and play their own role in helping us understand what we read.

    23. Research has shown that students who can read with accuracy and fluency are better able to comprehend the material because they are spending the majority of their time thinking about the text and not deciphering the words.

      This is a valid point and drives home the point that I made earlier about spending too much time decoding words takes way from a story or text.

    24. Have students read the same passage repeatedly to improve rate and accuracy Monitor and track speed and accuracy

      This is another thing teachers have their students do for homework that I noticed at the after school program I work at. I have witnessed students reading a passage 3 times and indeed their speed and accuracy greatly improved after reading it for the third time. The teachers have their parents I've them a score on how they did.

    25. For example, students who encounter the word “ungrateful” will be able to decode it quickly if they can recognize the words’ three meaningful parts (its prefix, root, and suffix) and comprehend it easily if they understand the meaning of each part.

      I work at an after school program and sometimes the kids for homework have to identify prefixes and suffixes as well as put parts of words together to create words.

    26. To this end, the teaching of both phonological and phonemic awareness and phonics and the alphabetic principle are very important in Kindergarten. In the phonological

      Alphabetical Principle: is the understanding that words are made up of letters and letters represent sounds. If a child understands these letter-sound associations, he is on the way to reading and writing words.

    27. Thus, one key task of the kindergarten teacher is to build students’ motivation to read books by building their foundational reading skills and exposing them to a wide variety of texts through the Read Aloud.

      I want to be a kindergarten teacher, so this is something I will keep in the back of my mind if I get the opportunity to teach that grade level.

    28. “First grade is the time when children bring together the many language and literacy skills they have been attaining—book and print awareness, phonemic awareness, letter and word knowledge, background information about different topics—and start getting comfortable with the conventions of associating letters and sounds.

      A kindergarten teacher has a very important job because the skills their students acquire are very important to them in first grade

    29. For many children, first grade is the time when they move from “pretend reading” to conventional reading

      I work at an after school program and noticed that kindergarteners pretend to read when they "read" to me while first graders can actually read.

    30. Unfortunately, disparate quality of past literacy instruction begins to evidence itself quite dramatically in second and third grade

      A kindergarten and first grade teacher have a very important job when it comes to instructing kids to read

    31. Third grade students learn to write in cursive

      I was in third grade when I learned to write in cursive. I've noticed that the younger grades are fascinated by cursive and sometimes try to write in it at work.

    32. Excellent teachers of literacy recognize the high returns that come from careful and constant assessment of their students’ literacy skills.

      It is important to assess the students literacy skills so as a teacher we can recognize what we need to do to help.

    33. One of the most profound and personal connections that young children make to print involves their names. The presence of students’ names in several locations around the elementary classroom (on classroom management charts, reading group lists, classroom job boards, etc.) is of great importance as an instructional tool for new readers.

      I will keep this in the back of my mind and think of this when I am setting up my own classroom in the future. I never really thought of this as book and print awareness until now.

    34. Without quick, accurate reading, comprehension is near impossible. We simply cannot focus on understanding a story if we must spend all of our time decoding the words on the page

      This is so true. If we spend a lot of time trying to decode words, then less time will be spent focusing on understanding the story and we will miss the meaning. I felt like this when I took Spanish and did not know many words, by the end of the story after looking up all the words, I had no idea what I had just read.

    35. word and structural analysis skills.

      Definition: "The process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words."

    36. phonics and the alphabetic principle

      Definition: "The goal of phonics instruction is to help children to learn and be able to use the Alphabetic Principle. The alphabetic principle is the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds."

    37. phonological and phonemic awareness

      Definition: "Identify and manipulate individual sounds of spoken words. Both phonics and spelling focus on the letter sound relationship in WRITTEN words."

    38. book and print awareness,

      Definition: "Print awareness is a child's earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon this knowledge."

    39. beginning readers who receive explicit, systematic phonics instruction and practice decoding simple words and reading easy books will eventually find that their ability to decode has become so automatic that they have to expend little cognitive energy on the process.

      This is great but I feel like readers shouldn't just read "like robots". The students should be thinking about the words and what they are reading. This way of reading might not always work.

    40. children master the important skills, strategies, and knowledge they need to become successful readers and writers most quickly and effectively if their teachers integrate both systematic instruction in letter-sound relationships and critical thinking about literature in to their literacy classrooms Researchers and educators often refer to this multi-faceted approach as “balanced literacy” instruction.

      I am curious to find out what these systematic instructions are

    41. The emphasis on teaching students to recognize whole words automatically and to use clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words became known as the whole language approach.

      I never heard of this approach before and it actually makes a lot of sense to have the students do it this way and not have them decode words.

    42. A landmark study conducted at the University of Kansas examined the exposure to verbal language of children in several socio-economic settings and found a dramatic difference in the total number of words heard by children at the high end of the socio-economic scale (45 million words over four years) and the children in the lowest sector of the socio-economic scale (13 million). All children will show up for Kindergarten on the same day, but one may have heard 32 million fewer words in his or her lifetime, a fact that will almost certainly affect how quickly a child can decode and understand words.9 Clearly, environmental factors—including those at play before children ever arrive at school—have an enormous impact on students’ literacy development.

      I never really thought about how many words children are being exposed to before starting kindergarten could have such a big impact on how quickly they can decode and understand words. But after reading about this study, it makes sense to me now.

    43. the literacy skills of students in the under-resourced schools where we teach often lag well behind those of children in wealthier areas.

      This point in particular stuck out to me because it's true and it's not okay that some students don't get the same opportunities as other children when it comes to learning to read and write.