- Oct 2020
As these instances make clear, the creature works tounderstandself andothers bymeans of interspecies contact: identification, taxonomy, andanalogy
I think this sentence would be the topic sentence of the paragraph, as it shows how the creature wants to understand himself and how he is different and similar to the rest of society. It gives an insight into what the rest of the paragraph is going to talk about, and it also gives us a idea of what the creature could be thinking.
he creature’s first fieldnotes replicate the structure andterms of Englishtranslations of Buffon’s multi-volume Natural History(begunin1749). As hecomes intoconsciousness, he moves fromvague descriptions of “pleasantsound” and “little wingedanimals”toaccurate ornithologicalclassifications—“I foundthat the sparrow utterednone but harshnotes, whilstthose of the blackbirdandthrushwere sweet andenticing”; “sweeter thanthevoice of the thrushor the nightingale” (68, 69, 72)—thatreplicate thetaxonomic sequence of Buffon’s volume, whose first three headings were “Ofthe Sparrow Kind,” “The Blackbird,” and“The Thrush” (“The Nightingale”appears sixth). Shelley also aligns the creature’s empirical observations withthose appearing inBuffon’s Natural History. His “sweet and enticing”descriptions of the blackbird and thrush allude to Buffon’s respective entriesonthe blackbirdandthe “sweet modulationof his tuneful accents,” as well asthe thrushthat “sings most sweetly” (2:20, 25). WhenconsideredalongsideBuffon’s comments that the sparrow lacks “anypeculiar beauty” and “anymelodyof song,” the creature’s remarkthat “thesparrow utterednone butharshnotes” becomes a tragic allegory. AccordingtoBuffon, the sparrow’sapparentdefects do“not arise fromwant of powersinthis birdtoimitateothers, but because he onlyattends tothe parental note” (2:184-85). Lackingeventhe “parental note” that Buffonassociates withthe sparrow’s failedmimicry, the creature seeks “toimitate the pleasant songs of the birds,” butis “unable” (69). Frankensteinlaterliteralizes this cross-species comparisonwhenthe creature depicts his ownvoice interms of the sparrow’s “harshnotes”: “Myvoice, although harsh, hadnothingterrible init” (89). Bycontrast, throughthe creature’s characterizationof Safie’s song—that “flowedin a richcadence, swellingor dyingaway, like a nightingale” (79)—Shelleyapproximates Buffon’s classificationof the nightingale’s “melodious voice”:“now stealingoff intoa different cadence, now interruptedbya break” (2:35-36).
Although the paragraph only references one other book, we can still see how 'Natural History' impacted the creation of the creature. This paragraph is all about how the vocabulary and the creature view of the things around him changed throughout the book. It becomes more advanced the more time passes, thus leading to the creature we see at the very end of Frankenstein.
As these instances make clear, the creature works tounderstandself andothers bymeans of interspecies contact: identification, taxonomy, andanalogy.Frankensteintherefore provides further confirmationof Theresa M. Kelley’sclaimthat “Romantic attentiontotaxonomy” became “a vehicle for askingquestions about parts andwholes,the problemof species, andalienormonstrous kinds” (“Romantic Exemplarity” 232). If Kelley’s Romantic plantsconduct “clandestine marriages,” blur animal andmineral lines, andexert “thepull of singularityagainst supposedsecure categories” (Clandestine5, 8), thensotoo does the creature’s anomalous formputscientificsystems underpressure. Positioninghimas workingtodefine the limits of his species, Shelleyassigns the creature ataxonomic model that rejects the hierarchyof the greatchainof being. Noless thanKelley’s monstrous, mimickingplants, thecreature’s bodypresents “a material invitationtofigure” that cuts acrossbotanical andliterarylines (Clandestine13). His composite form
This paragraph focuses on the monster in a way of self discovery, and discovery of species and the others around him. It explains how Shelly presented the creature in a certain way to display him as parts of people, but the creature comes to the idea that he is whole.
As hecomes intoconsciousness, he moves fromvague descriptions of “pleasantsound” and “little wingedanimals”toaccurate ornithologicalclassifications—
I think this would be the topic sentence for this paragraph, because it highlights the idea that will be talked about throughout it. Bringing up how the creature goes from basic descriptions of the world around him, to the advanced smooth talking creature we see at the end of the book.
He uses this outside source of 'Natural History' to show the development and provide background as to how the creatures vocabulary and thought process became so advanced without much help from other people Reading on he talks more and more about how 'Natural History' would have affected the creature out look on life, and his view on different animals that surrounded him.
- Sep 2020
4 “You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman.(AR) 5 “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God,(AS) knowing good and evil.”
This verse is referenced heavily throughout contemporary literature. The idea of being tricked or pressured into something you are told is wrong.
the intertextual connection is to the classic tale of, "Little Red Riding Hood." The girl is strictly instructed by her Grandmother to stay on the path to her house. Instead, naive Little Red is tricked by the Wolf to telling her where she is going. The Wolf goes to the Grandmother's house and eats her.
6 When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable(AT) for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. S
An intertextual connection to the "forbidden fruit" referenced in classical literature is William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." In the play, their love for each other is forbidden by both of their families. Just like how God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Romeo and Juliet pursue their love interests for each other even with their families disapproval. They both end up sacrificing themselves for each other.
When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable(AT) for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it.
Despite being told by God that she and her husband were not allowed to eat the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Eve gave into her temptations. The idea of the "forbidden fruit" has been carried into other pieces of literature, using an apple to symbolize a character's temptation leading to downfall.
For example, in the fairy tale, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, when Snow White eats the poisoned apple, offered by the evil witch, who parallels the serpent, she falls into a death-like sleep.
he will crush[j] your head,(BL) and you will strike his heel.”
God curses the serpent after deceiving Eve in the garden, and creates "enmity between [the serpent] and the woman." In the "Harry Potter" series by JK Rowling, the serpent is a symbol of evil, and near the end of the books, is the only piece of evil left to destroy before good can truly be restored.
tree of life
The "tree of life" is used as a symbol in the Bible as the only thing that sets Adam and Eve apart from God, (eternal life), after they come to know good and evil. This, "tree of life" is also an important symbol in Islam beliefs, however, here it is represented as the "tree of immortality", and is known as the "only tree in Eden".
- Source: Wikipedia
legacy of poor Eve’s exile from Eden: the land shows the bruises of an abusive relationship. It’s not just land that is broken, but more importantly, our relationship to land.
This is an example of intertextuality, a connection/reference to the ancient story of Adam and Eve. Although "Skywoman Falling" is a contemporary text and does not influence the story of "Adam and Eve," this quote affects the way the reader may view the other story now. From an Indigenous perspective, Eve's exile is directly related to breaking a relationship to the land rather than to God (as many others would see). Another perspective is developed for the reader through this use of intertextuality.
Gary Nabhan has written, we can’t meaningfully proceed with healing, with restoration, without “re-story-ation.”
This is an example of allusion- Robin Kimmerer is referencing Gary Nabhan's literature known as "Food from the Radical Center" without directly naming the text. This book relates how we eat with stories of collaboration, calling on each of us to restore the nation's capacity to feed and nourish. This is a connection to the message behind "Skywoman Falling."
Western tradition there is a recognized hierarchy of beings, with, of course, the human being on top—the pinnacle of evolution, the darling of Creation—and the plants at the bottom
This is referenced to Scala Naturae. This is a concept that was derived mainly by Aristotle during the Middle Ages; a hierarchy of life based on perfection with "man on top". Clearly this Western tradition of thinking heavily contrasts traditional Indigenous perspectives on their relationship to plants and animals.
Despite our fears of falling, the gifts of the world stand by to catch us.
Really speaks to the real world and draws the readers in, making them feel connected to the work, and finding a deeper thought process for the story.
green” means an advertising slogan, not a meadow
Really interesting perspective on how certain words have changed within our vocabulary, and not always in a good way.
"Mother Earth" has been seen throughout many cultures and religions and has been called by many names. She has been called Gaia, Terra Mater, and Parvati from the Greek, Roman and Hindu religions respectively. "Mother Earth" can symbolize the earth itself, nature, or abundance.
Tree of Life
The 'Tree of Life' has been present throughout many cultures and religions across history. It has been known by many different names but the meaning is always a source of life or a creator. The ancient Egyptians, Christians, Myahs, and Assyrians all believed in this 'Tree of Life.'
These instructions are about creating peace with ourselves, others, and the land. The idea of pacifism and hospitality were encouraged. These are teachings that are passed down generation to generation among many Indigenous groups.
woman with a garden and a tree.
Reference to the story of Adam and Eve, talking about the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
Turtle Island is based on the belief that the land was created on the shell of a turtle. Hinduism also has the similar belief that the world is built on a turtle
- Source: link.springer.com