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  1. Jan 2023
    1. Facing the Philistine army is King Saul, his general Abner, son of Ner,and the Israelite warriors. They gather between Socoh and Azekah, at theplace referred to as “Ephes-dammim,” or, in another tradition, “Pas-dammim.” Various battles in which David’s heroes were involved (1Chronicles 11:13) occurred at this place. The name Ephes-dammim doesnot appear in the list of the cities of the tribe of Judah, or in traditions laterthan the time of David. Recently, David Adams, who has worked at KhirbetQeiyafa, has proposed understanding the word “Ephes” in this context asthe border, while “dammim” means blood in Hebrew. He therefore explainsthe name as meaning the “border of blood,” in other words, the bloodybattle zone.3