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  1. May 2019
    1. To assess the activity of plasma membrane proton pump, CgPma1, in cells grown in differentexternal pH environment,whole cell acidification assaywas carried out.This assay is a measurement of glucose-responsive proton pump activityin live cellsand is based on a decrease inthe pH of a weakly-buffered solutionupon extrusion of H+ions from thecell. The amount of change in the pH of the medium represents a crude measurement of the activity of functional plasma membrane proton pump in live cells. Whole cell acidification assay was conductedwithcellsgrown in YNB pH 5.5 and YNB pH 2.0medium as described previously (Martinez-Munoz and Kane, 2008) with slight modifications.After growth at30 ̊C for 2 h, cells were harvested, washed and resuspended(1.5-3.0 mg wet weight/ml) in 15ml MES/TEA (1mM; pH 5.0) buffer. Cell suspension was kept at 25 ̊C with continuousagitation. Extracellular pH of the buffer solution was recorded at 1 mininterval for 20 minwith the help of a pH meter(BT-600, BoecoGermany). To activate plasma membrane proton pumping, glucose and KCl were added to a final concentration of 40mM after 3 and 8 minincubation, respectively. Plasma membrane proton pump activitywas plotted as a change in the pH of the extracellular solutionversustime
    2. 5-10 ml saturated bacterial culture harboring the desired plasmid was harvested at 5,000 g for 3 min. Plasmid DNAwas isolated using QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen, USA) or GenElute™ HP Plasmid Miniprep kit (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) as per manufacturer’s instructions
    1. undertissueculture conditionsfor 45-60min andfixed in 3.7% formaldehydeas described earlier.For DAPI staining, Vectashield mounting medium containing DAPI was used and slides were visualized under confocal microscope.For heat killing, yeast cells were harvested from 1 ml culture, washed, resuspended inPBS andwere incubated at 95°C for 5 min
    2. PMA-treated THP-1 macrophages were infected with C. glabratacells to a MOIof 1:1 in four-chambered slides and incubated at 37°C and 5%CO2. After 1 hcoincubation, each chamber was washed thrice with PBS to eliminate extracellular yeast cellsand medium was replaced with fresh prewarmed RPMI medium containing100 nM Lysotracker Red DND-99.Infected THP-1 macrophageswere incubated
    1. Themixture is incubated in a water bath at 37⁰C for 15 min and afterwards transferred on ice and 4μl of DNA loading buffer is added. The samples were then run on a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which had been pre-run for 30 min. Electrophoresis was carried out at 4⁰C for 3h till the bromophenol blue migrated to 2cm above the bottom of gel. The gel was taken out and kept on Whatman filter paper sheet and covered by saran wrap followed by drying in a gel dryer at 80⁰C for 1h under suction. The dried gel was exposed to phosphoimager screen by keeping in phosphoimager cassette overnight
    2. A binding reaction mixture was prepared by adding the following components to a microcentrifuge tube on ic
    3. The reaction was carried out by incubating at 37⁰C for 30 min. The reaction was stopped by adding 2μl of 0.5M EDTA, pH 8.0 and keeping on ice. A spin column was prepared using 1ml syringe and packed with sterile Sephadex G50 slurry and reaction mixture is applied on the top. The eluate is collected in different microcentrifuge tubes and radioactivity was counted using Geiger counter. The tube showing 7 to 9X106was used for experiment. The column containing the unincorporated [γ-32P] ATP was discarded in radioactive waste bin. The radiolabelled oligonucleotides were annealed with their corresponding complementary unlabelled oligonucleotides. A 50 fold molar excess of the latter was used for annealing for conversion of labelled single strand to double strand. Thetubes were kept in boiling waterbath for 3 min followed by room temperature for 30 min. The tubes were transferred to ice and the oligonucleotides were diluted to 4fmoles/μl using sterile H2O
    4. The oligonucleotides were labelled at their 5'end with 32P using T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) enzyme in a reaction given belo
    1. A microtipful cells of bacterial strain from appropriate medium was resuspended in 20 μl sterile water and incubated at 98°C for 10 min for cell lysis. 2 μl of heat-lysed cell suspension was used as template in 25 μl PCR reaction