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  1. May 2019
    1. 1X PBS diluted in distilled water 1X fixative solution diluted in distilled water Staining Solution25 μl Solution A 25 μl Solution B 25 μl Solution C 125 μl 20 mg/ml X-gal in DMF
    1. 10 min at 4 ̊C and gently resuspended in 20 ml ice-cold Inoue transformation buffer. To this cell suspension, 1.5 ml sterile DMSO was added and swirled gently. Cell suspension was kept on ice for 10 min and 50 μl volume was aliquoted to chilled sterile microcentrifuge tubes. Cells were immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 ̊C
    2. A single colony of E. coli DH5α strain was inoculated in 10 ml LB medium and incubated at 37 ̊C for overnight. 4 ml overnight culture was inoculated in 2 lt SOB medium and incubated at 18 ̊C till the OD600 reached to 0.5. Cultures were centrifugedat 2,500 g for 10 min at 4 ̊C and harvested cells were washed gently with80 ml ice-cold Inoue transformation buffer. Cells were collected by centrifugation at 2,500 g for
    1. respectively. The resulting constructs pRR14 and pRR15 were transferred in E.coliDH5α. Through triparental mating using pRK600 helper plasmid the construct were transferred in E.coliS17-1. After confirming pRR14 and pRR15 constructs by sequencing, the constructs were then introduced into BXOR1 strain through biparental mating using E. coliS17-1. X. oryzaepv. oryzicolaGUS and GFP reporter strains were selected on PS medium plates containing suitable antibiotics. Since pVO155 cannot replicate in X. oryzaepv. oryzae, ampicillin and kanamycin-resistant colonies were obtained upon chromosomal integration of the plasmid using the cloned DNA sequence as a region of homology. pProbeGTcan replicate independently in Xanthomonasand report for the gene expression
    2. Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fusion and GFP reporter fusion was created by using the suicide plasmid pVO155 having a promoterless gusAgene (Oke and Long, 1999), and pProbeGThaving a promoterless GFP (Miller et al., 2000). To construct the xsuA::gusAand xsuA::gfptranscriptional fusion, a 611-bp DNA fragment containing the putative promoter of the xssoperon (+213 to −398) was amplified by using the SCRsid_ pProbeGFP_F and SCRsid_ pProbeGFP_R primers (Table 2.2). This promoter fragment was subsequently digested with HindIII and BamHI,and directionally cloned upstream of the promoterless gusAand gfpgene in pVO155 and pProbeGTplasmids to create the xsuA::gusAand xsuA::pProbeGT(gfp) reporter constructs pRR1
    1. the selection marker.Knockdown was confirmed by immunoblot analysis with an IP6K1 specific antibody (Table 2.3) as described in Section 2.2.10
    2. lines were used for stable knockdown of IP6K1 expression. Viral particles harboring either non-targeting control or IP6K1directed shRNA were used to infect HeLa or HCT116 cell lines at 0.5 MOI, following treatment with polybrene (8 μg/mL)for 2 h.After 48 h, transduced cells were selected with 2 μg/mL puromycin. Medium was changed twice a week and observed for colony formation. After reaching the optimum growth, selected cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and 1 μg/mL puromycin as