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  1. May 2019
    1. AutoDock tools 1.5.6 (Morris et al., 2009) and PyMOL (Sanner, 1999) was used to prepareand analyze the docking simulations.Preparation of protein structures for docking:The three dimensional structure of PTEN (PDB ID: 2PBD) (Lee et al., 1999)and profilin-1 (PDB ID: 1D5R) (Ferron et al., 2007)were obtained from protein data bank, PDB (www.rcsb.org).Prior to initiating the docking simulations, all non-protein molecules were removed from the intact PTEN and only the chain P was retained. In the same way, we retained (‘chain A’) for profilin-1. All the non-protein molecules were removed usingChimera(Pettersen et al., 2014).Protein PTEN was used as receptor and profilin-1was used as ligand. Kollman united atom charges and polar hydrogen were added to the receptor protein. Receptor protein was kept rigid in docking process, assuming there is no induced conformational change upon ligand binding. In contrast to the protein, torsional flexibility was permitted for the ligands via the side-groups and backbone of protein was kept rigid.Atomic affinity and electrostatic potentials were computed for a grid boxand positioned around the approximate centre of the binding site. The grid box size was set at 58.0 X 76.0 X 58.0 Å (x, y, and z) with the spacing between grid points at 1 Å and the center at 36.253 X 82.395 X 31.728 for x, y and z coordinates, respectively. All other docking parameters remained as the Autodock default settings.Analysis of docking data:AutoDockVina (Trott and Olson, 2010) software was used for docking simulations. The resulting docked conformations were clustered into families of similar conformations, with the root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d.) clustering tolerance of 2.0 A ̊. As a rule, the lowest docking-energy conformations were included in the largest cluster. The process was repeated for each remaining conformation, until all the conformations belonged to a single cluster. A new reference conformation was defined every time a new cluster was created. Following this, the best-docked conformation is selected as the lowest energy pose in the most populated cluster, i.e., the cluster with the highest convergence out of the 100 trials. This differs from the practice of simply choosing the overall lowest energy pose. Thus, we avoid picking lower energy ranked poses belonging to sparsely populated clusters, which can be considered as ‘chance-hits’ given that the docking algorithm was unable to converge to similar poses in other independent trials
    1. The pyrophosphorylation reaction was performed with proteins on beads in presence ofIP7 reaction buffer(Werneret al., 2010). 10X IP7 reaction buffer (Section2.1.6.7)was prepared, aliquoted andstored at 4°C. For the reaction, 30 μLof purified protein on GSH beads(1:1 beads in PBS suspension), 3.5μLof 10X buffer and 1 μCi of 5[β-32P]IP7were added, and made up to afinal volumeof 35 μL, and incubated at 37°C for 15 min. A 50 μLreaction was performed for proteins with low expression levels such as A190. To the reaction mix, 4X LDS sample buffer (Invitrogen) was added to a final concentration of 1X and incubated at 95°C for 5 min. The reaction mix was centrifuged at high speed and resolved on a 4%-12% gradient gel by Nu-PAGE(Invitrogen) using 1X MES buffer (Invitrogen). Proteins were transferred to a Hybond-P membrane (GE Lifescience) and the radiolabelled proteins were detected using a phosphorimager (Fuji Film FLA-9000). The membrane was blocked with 5% non-fat dry milk (Rockland)in 1X PBST(pH 7.4)for 2 h at room temperature followed by washes with 1X PBST at room temperature for 10 min three times.Proteins were detected by western blot using a rabbit anti-GST antibody. 1:5000 dilution of anti-GST antibody in 1X PBST containing 0.2% BSA, was added and incubated overnight at 4°C on a rotating platform. The membrane was washed in 1X PBST for 10 min three times, followed by incubation with HRP conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG at 1:20,000 dilution in 5% non-fat dry milk (Rockland)in 1X PBST, for 1 h at room temperature. Membrane was washed with 1X PBST at room for 10 min three times.Protein bands were detected by using Super Signal West pico chemiluminiscence substrate (Perkin Elmer)