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  1. May 2019
    1. Strains were streaked on LBON agar plates and after an overnight incubation at 42°C growth was monitored (compared to that on LBON at 30°C as control). Absence of single colony growth was taken to reflect temperature sensitivity. Whenever needed the phenotype was also quantitatively assessed by plating dilutions of cultures on LBON agar plates and the drop in plating efficiency was scored after overnight incubation at 30°C and 42°C
    1. fluorescence by excitation at 440 (pH-independent) and 490 nm (pH-dependent) with emission at 535 nm. Ratio offluorescence intensity at 490 to440 nm was used tocalculatethe vacuolar pH. Background fluorescence was removed by subtracting the fluorescence intensity values of cells without BCECF-AM from the fluorescence intensity values of the probe-loaded cells
    2. Vacuole pH inyeast cells was determined asdescribed previously (Padilla-López and Pearce, 2006). Briefly, log-phase,YPD medium-grown yeast cells were harvested and suspended in 200 μl YPD medium containing 50 μM 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM; Invitrogen # B1150) to the final cell density of 4 x 107 cells. Cells were incubated at 30 ̊C for 30 min at room temperaturefollowed by three washeswith YPD medium. Washed cells were resuspended in 1 ml YPD medium and 200 μl cell suspension was used for recording
    1. After restriction enzyme digestion, digested products wereresolved on agarose gels and desired DNA fragmentswereextracted from the gel. Concentration of gel-extracted DNA fragments was determined usingspectrophotometerand ligation reactions were set up using a molar ratio of vector to insert of 1:3 and 1:1 for sticky and blunt end ligations, respectively. Ligation mixwas incubatedeither at 22ºC for 4 hor at 16°Cfor 14-16 h. After incubation,T4DNA ligase was inactivatedat 65ºC for 20 min
    1. grown culture was inoculated in fresh PS medium with or without 50 μM 2, 2’-dipyridyl and grown at 28°C. At regulartime intervals, 1 ml culture was removed to determine OD at 600 nm. Furthermore, for GUS assay, 1 ml culture was centrifuged to obtain the pellet, which was washed once in sterile miliQ water, and resuspended in 250 μl volume of 1 mM MUG (4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide) extraction buffer (50 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate [pH 7.0], 10 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton X-100, 0.1% sodium lauryl sarcosine, and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol),and incubated at 37°C (Jefferson et al., 1987). After appropriate time intervals, 75 μl aliquotes were taken from each reaction mixture, and reaction was terminated by adding 675 μl Na2CO3 (0.2 M). Fluorescence was measured against 4-methyl-umbelliferone as the standard at excitation/emission wavelength of 365/455 nm, respectively. Likewise, GFP activity was measured in Varioscan flash (Thermoscientific) at exitation/emission wavelength of 472/512 nm, respectively by taking 200 μl of culture directly
    2. For reporter assay, GUS and GFP marked Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzicolastrains and control strains were grown overnight in PS medium. 0.2