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  1. May 2019
    1. Log-phase yeastcells were collected, washed and suspendedin 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) containing 50 mg/ml zymolyase-20T. Cell suspension was incubated at room temperature and absorbance was monitored at 600 nm every10mininterval. Initial absorbance of the cultures at 0 minwas normalized to 100%and the graph was plottedas%decrease in the absorbance with respect to time
    2. Resultant precipitate was dissolved in 3 N HCl and reprecipitated in methanol:acetic acid (8:1) solution. Following 16 h incubation at room temperature, the precipitate was washed withmethanol:acetic acid (8:1) solution till green colour of the supernatant disappeared.Finally,pellet was washed thrice with methanol and air dried. Driedpellet was resuspended in 0.5 NHCl and total mannan content was quantified with phenol-sulphuric acid carbohydrate estimation method as described earlier.Commercially available purified glucose was used as the standard
    3. Total mannan from 3% NaOH-extractable supernatant of cell wall was precipitated by Benedict’s solution.Reducing sugars(mostly mannan) from alkali-extractable supernatant reactwith copper(II) sulphate present in Benedict’s solution and forms red copper(I) oxide precipitate.Briefly, equal volume of Benedict’s solution was added to 3% NaOH-extractable cell wall supernatant fraction and heated at 99 ̊C for 10 min
    4. Cell wall β-glucan measurement was carried out as describedpreviously with some modifications(Kapteynet.al.,2001). Briefly, cell wall fractions were washed multiple times with 1 N NaCl. Washed cell walls were boiled twice in 50 mM Tris-HCl(pH 7.8) containing 2% SDS, 100 mM Na-EDTA and 40 mM β-mercaptoethanol for 5 min to remove non-covalently linked proteins and other contaminants. SDS-treated cell wall fraction was collected and rinsed thrice with water. For β-glucan isolation, cell wallswere extracted three times, each for 1 h, in 0.5 ml 3% NaOH at 75 ̊C and centrifuged at 1,200 g.All 3% NaOH supernatant fractions were saved for isolation of mannan as described below. 3% NaOH-extractable cell wall pelletwasneutralized twice in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) and once in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) and digested with 5 mg/ml zymolyase-20T in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) for 14-16 h at 37 ̊C. This treatment liberates approximately 90-95% glucose into the supernatant. Total glucan content in the cell wall was measured by estimating glucose from both the solubilised supernatant and zymolyase-20T insoluble pellet fractions with phenol-sulphuric acid carbohydrate estimation method using purified glucose as the standard
    5. Yeast cell wall was isolatedas describedpreviously(De Groot et al., 2004). Briefly, cells grown underdifferent environmental conditions were harvested at 5,000 g for 5