13 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. treatment were harvested by centrifugation at 250 x g for 5 min following which they were resuspended in 1x PBS (pH 7.5). PI was added at a final concentration of 1 J.tg/mL and incubated for 5 minutes following which the cells were pelleted by centrifugation and washed once with PBS. These cells were analyzed for uptake of PI by either flow cytometry in FL2 channel (570 nm) or by fluorescence microscopy using a G2A filter block.
    2. Propidium iodide (PI) is a DNA intercalating fluorescent dye which is excluded by viable cells with intact membranes, however, dead and dying cells with damaged membranes take up the dye. To assess viability, cells after appropriate
    1. mounted on goniometer heads, which were in turn fixed on the oscillator dial of the image plate. However since our crystals suffered significant radiation damage at room temperature we decided to attempt cryo-crystallography and collected data at low temperature. Radiation damage to protein crystals is greatly reduced at lower than room temperatures (D. J. Haas, 1970; Low et al., 1966). Primary radiation damage is largely caused by interactions between the molecules in the crystal and the beam. This energy is dissipated in at least two ways; it produces thermal vibrations (heat) and it provides the necessary energy to break bonds between atoms in the molecules. Secondary damage to the crystals is caused by the diffusion of reactive radicals produced due to damage to the protein. This diffusion is aided by the presence of thermal energy. At cryo-temperature of around 1 OOK, thermal damage is limited and also the reactive products are immobilized and do not cause extensive secondary damage in areas of the crystal which are not exposed to the beam (Garman, 1999). For low temperature data collection, the crystals were initially soaked in a cryo-protectant, which was basically the mixture of the mother liquor and antifreeze. We added 30% glycerol to our mother liquor, in which the crystals were soaked from between 1 to 5 minutes to achieve cryo-protection. The crystals were then picked up using a 20Jl nylon loop, which was immediately flash frozen in a stream of nitrogen at 120k at a flow rate of 6 liters/min (Oxford cryo-systems). The crystals were centered in the beam using the two arcs and translations on the goniometer head and by viewing the crystal on the monitor of the attached CCD camera. The collimation, crystal to detector distance, oscillation angle and the exposure time per frame were optimized after a few trial frames in each case.
    2. Data collection for macromolecular crystallography involves exposure of the crystal to X-rays and recording the intensities of the resultant diffraction patterns. Rapid advances in this field have made available sophisticated electronic detectors like the Image plate detector, high power X-ray generators and synchrotrons. Successful data set collection is followed by data processing to extract the hkl indices with corresponding intensities, along with an estimate of the errors involved. At the core of the Image Plate detector is an amorphous thin film made of Barium, Europium and Bromium. This material that is coated on to a motorized plate absorbs X-rays to form F-centers. These F-centers are the regions that store photon energy as excited electrons. After the exposure is complete the plate is read by a He-Ne (2eV) red laser. Absorption of photons induces excited electrons to return to ground state with the emission of blue light (4eV) which is quantitatively read by a photomultiplier. Exposing it to intense white radiation erases the plate. While the basic technology behind the image plates remains the same, improvements in electronics and computers has led to greater automation and faster data collection cycles. The X-ray intensity data for various Fab-peptide complexes of 36-65 were collected on the Mar345dtb, installed on a rotating anode X-ray source (RIGAKU, Japan) operating at 50kV and 1 OOmA (CuKa. radiation) with Osmic mirrors (RIGAKU, Japan). While the Mar225 image plate installed at BM14 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) was used to record three Fab-peptide complexes of BBE6.12H3. Data for antigen free BBE6.12 H3 Fab and its complex with Ppy peptide was recorded on Mar345dtb image plate (Mar research, Germany), installed on the home source. For data collection at room temperature, the crystals were mounted in 0.5 mm quartz capillary tube along with some mother liquor. The capillaries were then
    1. administered at two sites. In addition, the primary dose also contained 500 J..Lg of SPLPS as an additional adjuvant. This was followed by 2 booster at 4 weekly intervals with an equal amount of r-bZP3-DT conjugate.
    2. Female New Zealand White rabbit (Small Animal Facility, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India), 6 months of age was immunized intramuscularly with r-bZP3-DT conjugate equivalent to 125 Jlg of r-bZP3 (expressed in SG13009[pREP4] cells) in 0.9% saline emulsified with Squalene and Arlacel "A" in a ratio of 4: I and
    1. Membrane protein suspension (5.2 x 109 cells) was centrifuged (3000 g, 4°C, 10 min). The debris was discarded and the supernatant was subjected to ultracentrifugation (100000 g, 4°C, 1 h). The pellet thus obtained was dissolved in 400 ~L of loading buffer (50 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH = 7.4, 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM ATP,1 mM EOTA, 2 mM OTT, 2 mM leupeptin, 0.2 mM TLCK, 0.1 mM PMSF), and loaded onto a linear sucrose gradient. The gradient was prepared by layering eight 200. ~L fractions (0.25-2 M sucrose in 25 mM HEPES-NaOH, pH = 7.4) over a sucrose cushion (2.5 M) in Ultraclear centrifuge tube (Beckman) followed by centrifugation at 218000 g for 1 h. Organelles in the buffer were fractionated by centrifugation at 218000 g for 4 h at 4 °c in a Beckman L-80 Ultracentrifuge using a SW41 rotor. Each layer was carefully separated out and diluted with 500 ~L of 50 mM HEPES-NaOH buffer. Protein was estimated for each fraction separately using standard BCA assay. ~-1 ,4 Galactosyl transferase was used as a positive marker for golgi and vesicle integrity was determined by measuring the latency of galactosyltransferase catalyzed transfer of [3H] galactose from UOP-[3H]-Gal to GlcNAc
    2. mixture was concentrated and the residue was repeatedly lyophilized to yield 7S; ESMS (mlz): 263.1 (M-Hr. Guanosine 5'-diphospho-4,S-di-deoxy-4,S-difluoro-a-D-talose mono triethyl amine salt) 77. A mixture of 4-morpholine-N,N'-dicyclohexylcarboxaminidium guanosine 5'-monophosphomorpholidate (27 mg, 34.4 Ilmol) and 7S (10 mg, 21.5 Ilmol) was coevaporated with anhydrous pyridine (3 x 500 Ill). 1 H-tetrazole (5 mg, 68.7 Ilmol) and anhydrous pyridine (1 ml) were added and the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere for 2 days. Water was added and the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 77; ESMS (mlz): 608.3 (M-Hr.
    3. 6 Hz), 4.85 (1H, s); 13C NMR 853.28,65.12 (15 Hz, C3), 67.3 (24 Hz, C5), 69.72 (C2), 81.1 (JCF = 168 Hz, C4), 89.9 (JCF = 171 Hz, C4), 101.47 (C1). 1 ,2,3-Tri-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talopyranoside (73). To compound 72 (100 mg, 0.543 mmol) was added 2% sulfuric acid solution in acetic anhydride (1.2 ml). The mixture was stirred at rt for 90 minutes. The contents were diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was thoroughly washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford 73. 2,3-Di-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxY-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talo-di-O-benzyl phosphate (75) : Compound 73 ( 70 mg, 0.225 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH3CN saturated with dimethylamine (5 ml ) at -20°C and stirred for 3h after which TlC confirmed the disappearance of starting material. Excess of dimethylamine was removed under reduced pressure at 30°C and the reaction mixture was concentrated to afford 2,3, di-O-acetyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difloro-a-D-talopyranoside (74). To a stirred solution of compound 74 and 1 H-tetrazole (21 mg, 0.3 mmol) in anhydrous CH2CI2 (400 Ill) was added dibenzyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (99.4 Ill, 104.3 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere for 2 h at rt. Subsequently, the reaction mixture was cooled to -40°C and m-CPBA (87 mg, 0.504 mmol) was added and stirring was continued for another 30 minutes at rt. The reaction was quenched by the addition of a solution of saturated sodium bicarbonate. The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2. The organic phase was thoroughly washed with water, dried over Na2S04 and concentrated to afford 75, which was purified by running a silica coated preparative TlC plate; Rf = 0.24 (50% ethyl acetate in hexane); 1H NMR characterstic ¢ 5.67 (1 H, dd, J = 6.3 Hz and 1.8 Hz, H-1); 13C NMR: ~ 20.5-20.6 (OAc), 64.77, 64.99, 66.28, 66.43, 69.9 (24 Hz, C5), 79.96 (JCF = 169 Hz, JCH = 7.1 Hz, C6), 84.08 (JCF= 180, JCH = 5.4 Hz, C4), 95.68,126.85-128.7,169.50,169.77; 31p NMR 8 -3.03; ESMS (mlz): 551.2 (M+Nat. 4,6-Di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talosyl phosphate (76). To a solution of 75 (30 mg, 0.056 mmol) in CH30H (1 ml) was added palladium on charcoal (10%, 280 mg) and formic acid (100 Ill). The mixture was stirred at 50°C for 3h. The catalyst was filtered off and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was taken in a mixture of CH30H:water:triethylamine (5:3:2, 1.6 ml) and stirred for 2 days at rt. The reaction
    4. Methyl-4,6-di-deoxy-4,6-difluoro-a-D-talopyranoside (72). DAST (750 j.!L, 5.6 mmol) was added with stirring at -40 °c, to a suspension of methyl-a-D-mannopyranoside 62 (200 mg, 1 mmol) in anhyd CH2CI2 (4 mL). The mixture was stirred at -40 °c for another 30 minutes and then at rt for 3 h. After cooling to -200C, the excess of reagent was destroyed by addition of CH30H (600 j.!L) and sodium bicarbonate (200 mg). The cooling bath was removed, and the mixture was filtered once effervescence ceased. The filtrate was concentrated, loaded onto a silica column and eluted out with CH2CI2 to yield 72; Rf= 0.7 in 12.5% CH30H in CH2CI2; 1H NMR (CDCI3) 83.40 (3H, s, OCH3), 4.19 (1 H, m), 4.52 (1 H, d, 6 Hz), 4.68 (1 H, d,
    1. Semi-dry transfer apparatus (Bio-Rad trans blot semi dry transfer cell)was used for the transfer of RNA from the gel to the membrane. The Hybond-N+ membrane from Amersham biosciences was used which was cut as per dimensions of the gel containing the RNA samples. For each transfer 6 pieces of Whatman3mmsheets of the size of the membrane were used. The membrane was soaked for 30-60 minutes in 0.5XTBE before transfer. The transferapparatus was set up as describedby the manufacturer. Transfer was done in 0.5XTBE buffer at 20V, 400mA and 100W for 1.15 hours
    2. DNA fragments to be used for specific purposes like ligation or radioactive labellingwere eluted from the agarose gel after electrophoresis. The gel piece containing the desired band was sliced out from the gel and the DNA was purified using commercially available purification kit (Qiagen)for this purpose. The efficiency of elution was determined by checking a small aliquot of DNA sample on the gel
    3. Around 0.5-1μg DNA was regularly used for each restriction digestion. 2 to 5 units of restriction enzyme were used in the total reaction volume of 20μl containing 2μl of the corresponding buffer supplied at 10X concentration by the manufacturer. The reaction was incubated for 3hours at the temperaturerecommended by the manufacturer. The DNA fragments were visualized after electrophoresis on 0.8 to 1.5% agarose gels. Commercially available DNA size markers were run along with the digestion samples to compare with and to estimate the sizes of the restriction fragments