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  1. May 2019
    1. lectrophoresed on 0.7 % -1.2 % agarose gels in TAE or TBE buffer. Choice of the percentage of agarose and the electrophoresis buffer system was made following the guidelines of Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ). In general, upto 1 kb fragments were resolved on 1.2 % agarose gels using TBE buffer. For most other purposes, TAE buffer was used. Agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out as described by Maniatis et al., ( 1982 ) . The run was stopped when the bromophenol blue dye migrated to within 1 em -1.5 em from the edge of ' the gel, except when the sample had fragments smaller than 500 bp, in which case the elctrophoresis was terminated at an earlier stage. The gel was immersed in water containing 0.5 ug I ml ethidium bromide, for 30 minutes, to stain the DNA. When detecting very low amounts of DNA, the staining was done for 60 minutes followed by destaining in 1 mM Mgso4 for one hour at room temperature. The DNA bands were visualised on a short wavelength UV transilluminator ( Fotodyne, Inc., USA and photographed with a Polaroid MP-4 camera using Polaroid type 667 film.
    2. DNA digested with restriction enzymes was
    1. The membranes were suspended (1.4 x 108 cell equivalent) in 250 III of incorporation buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH = 7.4, 25 mM KCI, 5 mM MgCb, 5 mM MnCI2, 0.1 mM TlCK, 1 Ilg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM ATP, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol and 0.4 Ilg/ml tunicamycin). Each assay tube was prepared by adding 12.5 III of 1 % Chaps, 2.8 III of 200 IlM GOP-Man, 10 III of GOP-[3H]-Man (1IlCi) and 25 nmol of synthetic substrate (49). The contents were lyophilized and 250 III of membrane suspension (1 .4 x 108 cell equivalent in incorporation buffer) were added to each tube. The tubes were incubated at 28°C for 20 minutes, cooled to 0 °C and the membranes were pelleted at 4 °C for 10 minutes in a microcentrifuge. The eH] mannosylated products, that were recovered in the supernatant, were mixed with 0.5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate and applied to a C18 Sep-pak cartridge that had been washed with 5 ml 80% propan-1-01 and 5 ml 100 mM ammonium acetate. The cartridge was washed with 1.5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate and then the eluate was reapplied to the same cartridge. The cartridge was subsequently washed with 5 ml of 100 mM ammonium acetate, after which the bound material was eluted with 5 ml of 60% propan-1-01. The final eluate was concentrated and redissolved in 100 III of 60% propan-1-01. One tenth of this volume was taken for scintillation counting. The above assay was then carried out with a range of concentrations of OMJ to assess it's effect on the activity of eMPT enzyme parse.
    2. eMPT inhibition assay
    1. For bacterial isolates, a single colony from a nutrient agar slant was inoculated into 50 ml of nutrient broth in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in a incubator shaker till an optical density of 0.6 at 660nm. Now these cultures were used to inoculate 50 ml of the tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using 2% v/v inoculum. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (Multitron AG-27; Switzerland) at 200 rpm for 72h. The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Samples (2.0 ml for bacteria and same for fungi) were withdrawn at regular intervals of 12h upto 72 h. The samples thus obtained were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm in a refrigerated centrifuge (SIGMA 4K15 Germany) for 10 min at 4°C. The supernatant/s were analyzed for tannase activity