103 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. The reaction mixture contained 0.2 mL of enzyme sample, 0.3 mL of buffer and 0.5 mL of p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1.0 mM) prepared in 100 mM buffer as the substrate. The reaction was terminated after 30 min of incubation at 70 °C by adding 2 mL of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (0.1 M, pH 10.0). The liberation of p-nitrophenol was measured at 400 nm and its yield was determined using a standard curve of p-nitrophenol (1-10 μg mL-1) prepared in sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer
    2. β-Glucosidase
    3. The activities ofβ-xylosidase, xylan acetylesterase and arbinofuranosidase were measured using 1 mM p-nitrophenylxylopyranoside, p-nitrophenylacetate and p-nitrophenylarabinofuranoside, respectively prepared in sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0). One mL of reaction mixture containing 0.2 mL of crude enzyme solution, 0.3 mL of sodium citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0) and 0.5 mL of substrate was incubated at 80 °C for 30 min. The reaction was terminated by adding 2 mL sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (1.0 M, pH 10.0). The activities were determined using p-nitrophenol standard curve (1-10 μg mL-1) drawn using absorbance values measured in spectrophotometer at 400 nm. One unit of the enzyme is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates 1μmole of p-nitrophenol mL-1min-1 under assay conditions.
    4. Assays for β-Xylosidase, acetylesterase and arbinofuranosidase
    5. Xylanolytic activity was determined according to Archana and Satyanarayana (1997). The reaction mixture containing 0.5 mL of 1% birchwood xylan in glycine NaOH buffer (0.1 M, pH 9.0) and 0.5 mL of cell free sonicated supernatant was incubated at 80 °C in a water bath for 10 min. After incubation, 1 mL DNSA reagent (Miller, 1959) was added to the reaction mixture and the tubes were incubated in a boiling water bath for 10 min, followed by the addition of 400 μL of 33% w/v sodium potassium tartrate. The absorbance values were recorded at 540 nm in a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Japan). The liberated reducing sugars were determined by comparing the absorbance values of these with a standard curve drawn with different concentrations of xylose. One unit (IU) of xylanase is defined as the amount of enzyme required for liberating one μmol of reducing sugar as xylose mL-1 min-1under the assay conditions. Composition of Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) reagent NaOH - 10.0 g Phenol - 2.0 g DNSA - 2.0 g Distilled Water - 1000 mL DNSA reagent was stored in an amber bottle at 4 °C till further use. Sodium sulphite (0.05 % v/v) was added just before the use of the reagent.
    6. Enzyme Assays
    7. A stock solution of xylose (1 mg mL-1) was prepared in distilled water. A dilution series ranging from 100-1000 μg mL-1 was prepared from the stock solution. To 1 mL of solution, 1mL of DNSA was added and kept in a boiling water bath for 10 min and then 400 μL of sodium potassium tartrate solution was added and kept it for cooling. The absorbance was recorded in a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV-VIS) at 540 nm
    8. The clear cell-free supernatants were used as the source of crude recombinant xylanase.
    9. Preparation of standard curve of xylose
    10. Quantitative screening for determination of xylanase in shake flask
    11. Sonicated cells of E. coli having recombinant vector was centrifuged. Supernatant was dispensed into 0.2 % v/v xylan agar plate and incubated for 4 h. The plates were then flooded with Congo red solution (0.2 % w/v) for 30 min and destained with 1M NaCl solution till a clear zone of xylan hydrolysis was visible. The plates were gently shaken on a shaker to accelerate the process of staining/destaining
    12. Qualitative detection of xylanolytic activity by plate assay
    14. Overnight grown cultures of E. coli DH5α, E. coli BL21 (DE3), E. coli XL1blue cells with and without constructs were preserved in 80 % v/v glycerol
    16. Metagenomic library obtained from various extracted DNA was screened by replica plating method on 0.3 % w/v RBB xylan containing LB-amp plates. The cells were allowed to grow for overnight at 37 °C and thereafter incubated at 4 °C till the appearance of zone of hydrolysis. A total of 36,400 clones from various environmental samples were screened.
    18. Transformation of calcium-competent cells was carried out by the procedure detailed below: •The competent bacterial cells were thawed briefly and 200 μL of cells was mixed rapidly with plasmid DNA (10-50 ng) in fresh, sterile microcentrifuge tubes and maintained on ice for 30 min. A negative control with competent cells only (no added DNA) was also included. •Cell membranes were disrupted by subjecting cells to heat-pulse (42 °C) for 90 sec. •After heat shock, cells were incubated on ice for 5 min. •Cells were then mixed with 1 mL LB medium and incubated with shaking at 37 °C for 1 h. •For blue/white screening 40 μL of X-gal solution (20 mg mL-1 in dimethylformamide) and 4 μL of the IPTG (200 mg mL-1) was spread on LB-ampicillin (LB-amp) plates with a sterile glass rod. The plate was allowed to dry for 1h at 37 °C prior to spreading of bacterial cells. •Bacterial cells (100-200 μL) were spread and the plate was incubated at 37 °C for overnight. •White colonies were picked from the plates and suspended into LB-amp broth and cultivated to OD600=0.5
    19. Transformation procedure
    20. 2 mL of an overnight culture of E. coli cells was inoculated into 100 mL LB medium and incubated with vigorous shaking at 30 °C until A600 of 0.8 was reached. •Cells were collected in 50 mL plastic (Falcon) tubes, cooled for 15 min on ice and centrifuged in a pre-cooled centrifuge (4,000 rpm for 10 min at 4 °C). •The pellet was suspended in 20 mL of ice-cold 50 mM CaCl2-15% glycerol solution, maintained on ice for 15 min and centrifuged again at 4,000 rpm for 10 min at 4 °C. •Pellet was resuspended in 2 mL of ice-cold 50 mM CaCl2-15 % glycerol solution, kept on ice for 30 min and aliquoted in 400 μL in microcentrifuge tubes. These were stored at -80 °C until required.
    21. Preparation of calcium-competent cells
    22. Preparation of electrocompetent cells (E. coli cells) A protocol was employed. The procedure was carried out in cold under sterile conditions as follows: •A single colony of E. coli DH10B/ DH5α/XL1blue was inoculated in 20 mL of LB medium and grown overnight at 30 °C. •500 mL LB medium was inoculated with 5mL of this overnight grown culture of the E. coli and incubated with vigorous shaking (250 rpm) at 30 °C until an A600of 0.5 - 0.8 was achieved. •The cells were chilled in ice for 10-15 min and transferred to prechilled Sorvall® centrifuge tubes and sedimented at 4,000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. •The supernatant was decanted and cells were resuspended in 500 mL of sterile ice-cold water, mixed well and centrifuged as described above. •The washing of the cells described above was repeated with 250 mL of sterile ice-cold water, following which cells were washed with 40 mL of ice-cold 10 % (v/v) glycerol and centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 10 min. •The glycerol solution was decanted and the cell volume was recorded. The cells were resuspended in an equal volume of ice-cold 10 % glycerol. •Cells were then dispensed in 40 μL volumes and stored at -80 °C until required.
    23. Electrotransformation
    25. PurifiedDNA fragments of size 2-8 kb were ligated to the treated vector using a 1:3::vector :insert ratio in a volume of 10 μL. The total amount of DNA was about 0.5 μg. Vector and insert DNA was heated to 45 °C for 10 min and the immediately chilled on ice for 5 min prior to addition of ligase and buffer. T4 DNA ligase (NEB, England) was added to a final concentration of 0.125 UμL-1 and reactions were incubated at 16 °C for overnight in a ligation chamber. Reaction mixture incubated under same condition without addition of the enzyme was used as control. A ligation reaction was also set up under condition with linear plasmid DNA containing the
    26. Ligation of insert DNA with dephosphorylated vector
    27. In order to minimize self ligation of vector during cloning experiments, the digested DNA was subsequently treated with calf intestinal phosphatase (CIP) [NEB, UK]. The reaction conditions and amount of CIP were optimized and varied from (0.06-1) unit/picomole DNA termini. The dephosphorylation reaction was carried out in 50 μL reaction as follows. Reaction mixture containing no restriction enzyme was treated as control. Reaction was incubated for 1 h at 37 °C and stopped by heat inactivation at 65 °C for 20 min. 2.5.5. Composition of restriction mixture (50 μL) Linearized Plasmid DNA X μL (1 μg) CIP 1 μL (0.06-1 U μL-1) Reaction buffer (10X) 5.0 μL Distilled water Y μL Total volume 50 μL Linearized and dephosphorylated plasmids from each reaction were purified from low melting agarose gel using gel extraction method according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Qiagen gel extraction kit, Germany). 100 ng DNA from each reaction was then ligated in15 μL reaction volume containing 1.5 μL of 10X ligation buffer (NEB, England) and 0.2 μL of T4 DNA ligase to check the efficiency of self ligation after dephosphoryaltion. The ligation mixture was incubated at 16 °C for overnight and transformed into E. coli DH5αcompetent cells.
    28. Dephosphorylation of the restricted plasmid
    29. The vector isolated as above was digested with BamHI to generate the cohesive ends. The reaction was performed in 1.5 mL Eppendorf tubes as described below. Composition of restriction mixture (100 μL) Plasmid DNA X μL (20 μg) Bam HI 8 μL (10 U μL-1) NEB buffer 4 10.0 μL BSA (100X) 1 μL MQ water Y μL The reaction mixture was incubated at 37 °C for 3 h. The digestion was stopped by heat inactivation at 65 °C for 20 min. The digestion of plasmid was checked using 1.2 % (w/v) agarose gel electrophoresis for linearization of the plasmid. The digested plasmid was purified from low melting agarose gel using gel extraction method according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Qiagen gel extraction kit, Germany).
    30. Restriction digestion of plasmid DNA
    31. Two hundred μL of alkaline-SDS solution was added to the above suspension, mixed by inverting the tubes up and down 3 times and incubated for 5 min at room temperature. ƒTo the above mixture, 250 μL of 3 M Na-acetate (pH 4.8) was added, mixed by inverting the tubes up and down 3 times, and centrifuged at 12,000 x g for 10 min. ƒThe supernatant was collected in another micro centrifuge tube (MCT), 200 μL of phenol:chloroform solution was added, inverted two times and centrifuged at 12, 000 x g for 8 min at room temperature. ƒThe aqueous phase was transferred to new tubes and 500 μL of chilled (-20 °C) ethanol (96 %) was added. ƒThe tubes were centrifuged at 13,000 x g for 25 min at 4 °C, supernatant discarded and pellet dried for 15 min at room temperature. ƒThe pellet was washed with 500 μL of chilled 70 % (v/v) ethanol and centrifuged at 13, 000 rpm for 4 min at 4 °C. ƒThe pellet was dried at room temperature and dissolved in 50 μL of 1X TE buffer (pH 8.0) containing RNase and stored at -20 °C till further use.
    32. The cells of E. coli DH10B having p18GFP vector were cultivated for overnight at 37 °C in LB medium containing ampicillin (100 μg mL-1). ƒThe E. coli culture having p18 GFP vector (~1.5 mL) was taken in Eppendorf tubes and centrifuged at 10, 000 x g for 5 min. ƒThe pellet was homogenized by vortex mixing in 100 μL of homogenizing solution
    33. Plasmid isolation from miniprep method
    34. The metagenomic DNA extracted from above defined protocol was digested with Sau3A1 at conditions optimized to generate maximum fragment in the size range of 2-6 kb. Different concentration (0.05 to 1 unit) of enzyme was used to optimize the digestion of 1 μg of DNA. Reactions were carried out in a final volume of 30 μl each in an Eppendorf of 1.5 mL. Reaction mixture (1 μg DNA having 3 μL NEB buffer 3 and 0.3 μL of 10X BSA) were kept at 37 °C for 10 min and stopped by heat inactivation at 80 °C for 20 min. Different digested reactions were checked for the desired fragments using 0.8 % (w/v) agarose gel electrophoresis. After optimization of DNA fragments for the appropriate size, a large scale digestion was carried out and the fragments (2-8 kb) were purified from low melting agarose gel using gel extraction method according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Qiagen gel extraction kit, Germany)
    35. Insert DNA preparation
    37. An attempt was made to study the effect of storage of DNA extracts on DNA yield and purity. The DNA extracts were centrifuged and the supernatants were dispensed into 2.0 mL Eppendorf tubes and stored at -20 oC for a month. DNA precipitation and its quantification were carried out at a week intervals.
    38. Effect of storage on soil/sediment DNA extracts
    39. Attempts have been made to amplify the signature sequences of bacterial, archaeal and fungal specific regions by using respective sets of primers shown in Table2.2. The reactions were carried out in 50 μL reaction mixtures in a Thermal Cycler (Bio-Rad, USA) using respective primers (Table 2.2). The PCR conditions were optimized as follows: for Bacterial 16S rDNA, initial denaturation of 3 min at 94 oC followed by 30 cycles of 30 sec at 93 oC, 60 sec at 55 oC and 90 sec at 72 oC; Archaeal 16S rDNA, 5 min at 95 oC, 35 cycles of 50 sec at 94 oC, 60 sec at 62 oC and 60 sec at 72 oC; fungal specific ITS regions, 3 min at 95 °C, 30 cycles of 60 sec at 94 °C, 56 °C at 45 sec and 50 sec at 72 °C. Final extension time was 7 min at 72 °C in all PCR runs. Amplifications were visualized on 1.2 % w/v agarose gels
    40. PCR amplification of microbial population
    41. Purity of the DNA extracted from various environmental samples was confirmed by subjecting the extracted DNA to restriction digestion. DNA was digested with Sau3AI (New England Biolabs). One μg of metagenomic DNA in 20 μL reaction mixture was treated with 0.5 U of Sau3AI and incubated at 37 °Cfor 10 min. The reaction was terminated at 80 °C for 20 min and the digested DNA was fractionated on 1.2 % (w/v) agarose gel.
    42. Restriction digestion
    44. The isolated DNA was diluted (1:100) with MQ. The concentration (mg mL-1) of the DNA [N] was determined spectrophotometrically by recording absorbance at 260 nm (A260) as: A260 = ε 260[N]where ε 260 is the extinction coefficient of DNA (50 for ds DNA) [N] = concentration (mg mL-1) of DNA The concentration of ds DNA [N] was calculated as [DNA] (mg mL-1) = A260/ε 260 [DNA] (μg mL-1) = A260 × 50 × dilution factor Purity of DNA was checked by measuring absorbance at 260 and 280 nm and calculating the A260/A280 ratio (Sambrook et al., 1989). A DNA sample was considered pure when A260/A280 ranged between 1.8-1.9. An A260/A280 < 1.7 indicated contamination of the DNA preparation with protein or aromatic substances such as phenol, while an A260/A230 < 2.0 indicated possible contamination of high molecular weight polyphenolic compounds like humic substances.
    45. Determination of DNA quantity and purity
    46. as well as commercial methods (MN kit, Germany; Mo-Bio kit, CA, USA; Zymo soil DNA kit, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocols and compared in terms of DNA yield and purity.
    47. The soil DNA from Pantnagar and Lonar soil samples were also extracted by various manual (Desai and Madamwar, 2007; Agarwal et al., 2001; Yamamoto et al., 1998
    48. Alternatively metagenomic DNA was extracted from the alkaline soil samples by using different commercial kits (UltraClean™, PowerSoil™ [Mo Bio Laboratories Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA], Nucleospin kit [Macherey-Nagal, Germany] and Zymo soil DNA isolation kit [CA, USA]). The DNA was finally suspended in 100 μL of sterile Milli Q water for further analysis.
    49. Commercial kits
    50. Comparison of yield and purity of crude DNA
    51. Soil (1 gm) was suspended with 0.4 gm (w/w) polyactivated charcoal (Datta and Madamwar, 2006) and 20 μL proteinase K (10 mg mL-1) in 2 mL of modified extraction buffer [N,N,N,N cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) 1% w/v, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) 2% w/v, 1.5 M NaCl, 100mM EDTA, 0.1 M TE buffer (pH 8.0), 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) and 100 μL RNaseA] [Zhou et al., 1996] in 20 mL centrifuge tubes to homogenize the sample and incubated at 37 °C for 15 min in an incubator shaker at 200 rpm. Subsequently, 200 μL of 10% SDS was added to the homogenate and kept at 60 °C for 2 h with intermittent shaking. DNA was precipitated by adding 0.5 V PEG 8000 (30 % in 1.6 M NaCl) and left at room temperature for an hour (Yeates et al., 1998). The precipitated DNA was collected by centrifugation at 8000 x g at 4 °C. The supernatant was discarded and pellet was dissolved in 1 mL of TE buffer (pH 8.0) and then100 μL of 5 M potassium acetate (pH 4.5) was added and incubated at 4 °C for 15 min. The supernatant was collected after centrifugation at 8000 x g and treated with equal volumes of phenol: chloroform (1:1) followed by chloroform: isoamylalcohol (24:1) at 8000 x g for 15 min
    53. Various strains of Escherchia coli (DH5α, XL1Blue, DH10B) were used as hosts for the propagation of recombinant vectors. In addition, Bacillus subtilis was used as a host for the expression of xylanase gene from the recombinant vector pWHMxyl. Different vectors used in this investigation are listed in
    55. Soil, sediment, effluent, and water samples have been collected from various hot and alkaline regions of India and Japan in sterile polyethylene bags/bottles. The samples were transported to the laboratory and preserved at 4 °C. Temperature and pH of the samples was recorded.
    57. disodium hydrogen phosphate, glacial acetic acid, glucose, glycine, iodine, magnesium sulphate, potassium chloride, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, potassium iodide, potassium nitrate, silver chloride, silver nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium acetate, sodium molybdate, sodium nitrate, potassium sodium tartarate, and sulphuric acid, yeast extract, beef extract, peptone 7. Kanamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol tryptone, urea, guanidine HCl, Luria Bertani medium, Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)HiMedia, India 8. Restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase and buffers used in cloning experiments, Taq polymerase, dNTP solution, PCR buffers, PCR grade water, 1 kb and 100 bp DNA ladders, pGEM-Teasy cloning kit New England Biolabs and Promega 9. Isoamyl alcohol, methanol, trichloroacetic acid and Tris, lysozyme, acetone, acetyl-methylcarbinol, anthrone’s reagent, Folin & Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent SRL, India 10. Wheat bran, corncob, rice straw, Prosopis juliflora, Lantana camara and sugarcane bagasse Local market, New Delhi 11. Plasmid isolation, Gel extraction and PCR cleanup kits Machery Nagel, Germany
    58. 1. Agarose, polyacrylamide, ammonium persulphate (APS), N’,N ́-Methylene-bis-acrylamide, bovine serum albumin (BSA), chloroform, β-mercaptoethanol, phenol:chloroform (1:1), protein molecular weight markers (SDS), N-bromosuccinimide (N-BS), Woodwards reagent K (W-RK), dithiothreitol (DTT), iodoacetic acid (IAA), EDTA, EGTA, amylose, amylopectin pullulan, rice starch, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), N',N',N',N'- tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED), Xylan, 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan-remazol brilliant blue R (RBB- xylan), xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose and xylopentaose, p-nitrophenylxylopyranoside, p-nitrophenylacetate and p-nitrophenylarabinofuranoside, oligonucleotides synthesis (primers)Sigma Aldrich Pvt. Ltd., USA 2. Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS), malachite green sodium sulphite and Congo red, Poly activated charcoal (PAC), Central Drug House, India 4. Agar, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, citric acid, diethyl ether, diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate, ethanol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glycerol, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, manganese chloride, perchloric acid, potassium iodide, phenol, sodium chloride, sodium citrate and sodium acetate, X-gal (5 -bromo-4-chloro-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside), IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside), Imidazole Merck, India 6. Acetic acid, Coomassie brilliant blue, calcium chloride, copper sulphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, Qualigens, India
    1. Identification of selected micro-organism
    2. 3.0–5.0, phosphate buffer for pH 6.0–8.0 and Tris-HCl buffer for pH 9.0) were used. •pH stability: The pH stability of the selected tannases was examined in the range of 3.0–9.0 by incubating the enzyme samples for 6 h in different buffers. Tannase activity was estimated under standard assay conditions. •Temperature tolerance: Temperature tolerance of the tannases was examined by assaying their activity at different temperatures in the range of 20 to 80ºC. •Temperature stability: Temperature stability of the tannases was determined by incubating them in the temperature range of 20 to 70 ºC for 6 h. After the incubation tannase activity (%) was determined under standard assay conditions. •Organic solvent stability: In order to determine the suitability of the selected tannases for organic synthesis, their stability was determined in different organic solvents. Experimentally, 10 mg of each of the crude lyophilized tannase from the selected cultures were mixed with 1.0 ml of the following organic solvent: a) Hexane b) Methanol c) Propanol d) Isoamyl alcohol e) Petroleum ether f ) Chloroform The mixture was incubated for 6 h at optimal temperature and the organic solvents were then decanted and the residues were dried in a vacuum desiccator. These dried samples were dissolved in 1.0 ml of citrate phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.0) and the tannase activity was determined under standard assay conditions. The tannase activity thus obtained from each culture were compared with initial tannase activity. Finally, on the basis of tannase titres produced per ml and desirable biochemical properties, the best tannase producer was selected for further investigations
    3. The tannases obtained (at high titres) from selected cultures were evaluated for the following important biochemical properties. 1. pH tolerance and stability 2. Temperature tolerance and stability 3. Organic solvent stability •pH tolerance: pH-tolerance of the selected tannases was examined in the range of 3.0–9.0. Buffers (0.05 M) of different pH (citrate phosphate for pH
    4. Preliminary biochemical characterization of tannases from the potent tannase producers
    5. The reaction mixture contained 10 μl of culture filtrate, 490 μl of double distilled water (DDW) and 300 μl of methanolic rhodanine solution. This mixture was incubated for 5 min at 30°C in a water bath. The reaction was stopped by adding 0.3 ml of methanolic rhodanine solution (0.667 %), which resulted in the formation of complex between gallate and rhodanine. This was followed by the addition of 0.2 ml of KOH solution (0.5N) and the tubes were further incubated at 30°C for 5 min. The total reaction mixture in each tube was diluted with 4.0 ml of distilled water. Tubes were further incubated at 30°C for 10 min. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm against a control having distilled water in place of culture filtrate. The absorbance thus obtained was used to calculate the amount of gallic acid present in the culture filtrate, from the standard gallic acid curve prepared in the range of 100-1000 μg/ml.
    6. The procedure of Sharma et al. (2000) was used to estimate the gallic acid in the culture filtrate. Reagents: Methanolic rhodanine solution (0.667% w/v): Prepared by dissolving 0.667 g of rhodanine in 100 ml of methanol.Potassium hydroxide (0.5 N): 2.8 gpotassium hydroxide dissolved in100 ml of distilled water.
    7. Gallic acid estimation (Sharma et al., 2000)
    8. The tannin sample (1.0 ml) was added to 2.0 ml BSA solution in a 15 ml glass centrifuge tube. The solution was mixed and allowed to stand at room temperature for 15 min and then centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 15 min to separate the precipitated tannin-protein complex as pellet. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet and the walls of the tube were washed with acetate buffer without disturbing the pellet. Now, the pellet was dissolved in 4.0 ml of SDS-triethanolamine solution and to this, 1.0 ml of ferric chloride reagent was added and was mixed immediately. After 30 min of addition of ferric chloride, the absorbance was noted at 510 nm on spectrophotometer. All observations were carried out in triplicates. The concentration of the tannin was determined with the help of tannic acid (Sigma) standard curve prepared in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml
    9. The procedure of Hagerman and Butler (1978) was used to estimate the tannin content in different tannin sources. Reagents: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) 1.0 mg/ml: 10.0 mg of bovine serum albumin was dissolved in 10.0 ml of 0.2 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, containing 0.17 M sodium chloride. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-triethanolamine solution: The solution contained 1.0% SDS and 5.0% (v/v) triethanolamine in distilled water. Ferric chloride reagent (0.01 M): 1.62 g of ferric chloride was dissolved in 1.0 L of 0.01 N hydrochloric acid.
    10. Tannin estimation (Hagerman and Butler, 1978)
    11. To 1.0 ml of suitably diluted culture filtrate, 5.0 ml of solution C was added. It was incubated for 10 min at room temperature. To this, 0.5 ml of Folin Ciocalteau’s reagent (diluted 1:1 with distilled water) was added. The solution was vortexed and kept in dark for 30 min. After incubation, absorbance was read at 660 nm against a reagent blank. Protein content was calculated (in mg/ml) using standard curve of bovine serum albumin (BSA) prepared in the range 100-1000 μg/ml
    12. The total protein content in the culture filtrate was estimated by Lowry’s method as described below: Reagents: Solution A: 2.0% Na2CO3 in 0.1 N NaOHSolution B: 0.5 % CuSO4 in 1.0 % Sodium potassium tartarate Solution C: 50.0 ml of solution A was mixed with 1.0 ml of solution B Folin Ciocalteau’s reagent
    13. Protein estimation (Lowry et al., 1951)
    14. For estimation of tannase activity the reaction mixture (4 ml) contained 1.0 ml of 1.0% tannic acid (prepared in citrate-phosphate buffer, pH 5.0), 2.0 ml of citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) and 1.0 ml of appropriately diluted culture supernatant. The reaction mixture was incubated at 40°C for 30 min in a water bath. The reaction was stopped by adding 4.0 ml of 2.0% BSA solution. In the control reaction, BSA was added prior to incubation. Now the tubes were left for 20 min,at room temperature, for precipitating the residual tannins and subsequently centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min. The end product, gallic acid thus formed was estimated by diluting 20 μl of the supernatant to 10 ml with DDW. Now, the absorbance at 260 nm was read against a blank (DDW) in a UV spectrophotometer (1601, Shimadzu Corporation, Japan). One unit of tannase: One tannase unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that releases 1 μmol of gallic acid from the substrate (tannic acid) per ml per min under standard assay conditions
    15. In this method, tannase activity was estimated through spectrophotometric method by determining the concentration of the end product i.e., gallic acid, by estimating the absorbance at 260 nm. Reagents: •Tannic acid (1.0%): The solution was prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of tannic acid in 100 ml of citrate-phosphate buffer of the desired pH.•Bovine serum albumin (BSA): BSA (2.0%) was prepared in citrate phosphate buffer (pH 5.0)
    16. Estimation of tannase activity (Deschamp et. al., 1983)
    17. For bacterial isolates, a single colony from a nutrient agar slant was inoculated into 50 ml of nutrient broth in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in a incubator shaker till an optical density of 0.6 at 660nm. Now these cultures were used to inoculate 50 ml of the tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using 2% v/v inoculum. These flasks were incubated at 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (Multitron AG-27; Switzerland) at 200 rpm for 72h. The experiments were carried out in triplicates. Samples (2.0 ml for bacteria and same for fungi) were withdrawn at regular intervals of 12h upto 72 h. The samples thus obtained were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm in a refrigerated centrifuge (SIGMA 4K15 Germany) for 10 min at 4°C. The supernatant/s were analyzed for tannase activity
    18. For fungal cultures, spores were harvested from 72 hour old cultures grown on PDA/Tannic acid agar slants by adding 10 ml of sterilized normal saline and a few drops of sterilized Tween-80 followed by vortexing. The spore suspension was filtered through sterile cotton filter to ensure that mycelial filaments are removed. The spores were counted using a haemocytometer (Neubaeur). Approximately, 5X106 spores were inoculated in 50 ml of tannase production medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. These flasks were then incubated at 30±1 and 37±1°C in an incubator shaker (model G25KC, New Brunswick Scientific, NJ, USA) at 200 rpm
    19. Quantitative assay
    20. was observed by the formation of a clear zone of hydrolysis around the bacterial/fungal colony. Tannase production, in terms of the diameter of the zone of hydrolysis around the colony, was measured (in mm) after 24 (bacteria) and 48 hours (fungi) of incubation. The diameter of the hydrolytic zone was measured at three points and the average was calculated. The microorganisms showing a zone of tannic acid hydrolysis were considered as tannase producers. The potent tannase producers were further tested quantitatively for the amount of enzyme produced in broth.
    21. The procedure of Bradoo et al. (1996), involving point inoculation of the microorganisms on tannic acid agar plates was followed. The plates were incubated at 37 and 30±1°C for bacterial and fungal isolates. The presence of tannase activity
    22. Qualitative screening for tannase producer/s
    23. A total of 150 fungal and 150 bacterial isolates were screened qualitatively and quantitatively for their ability to produce the enzyme, tannase.
    24. Screening and selection of potential tannase producers
    25. Microorganisms were isolated from the above mentioned sources using direct plating method. Serial dilution of the different soil samples with normal saline was carried out and the different dilutions were spread plated on to potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi and on to nutrient agar (NA) for the isolation of bacteria. The plates were incubated at either 30 or 37±1°C in a bacteriological incubator so that the different organisms could grow and form visible colonies. The different fungal and bacterial colonies isolated by the procedure mentioned above were purified by subculturing on respective media, and subsequently screened for tannase production. The new isolates, alongwith different cultures obtained from laboratory stock culture collection, were revived on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. These cultures were regularly subcultured and stored at 8±1°C in a BOD incubator. Their purity was periodically checked by microscopic examination.
    26. Isolation of bacteria and fungi from the samples
    27. In the present investigation, microorganisms including both bacteria and fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different geographical locations in India. Microorganisms were also isolated from the bark of trees as well as from the soil near the roots of those trees. Some cultures were also procured from the laboratory stock culture collection.
    28. Collection of samples
    29. Isolation of tannase producing microorganism/s
    30. Nutrient agar (NA) medium The composition per litre of the medium is as follows: Peptone : 5.00 g Sodium chloride : 8.00 g Beef extract : 1.50 g Yeast extract : 1.50 g Agar-agar : 20.0 g Double distilled water : to make the final volume 1000 ml (iii) Tannic acid agar (TAA) medium This medium was used for screening of tannase producers. The composition per litre of the medium is as follows: Tannic acid : 10.00 g Agar-agar : 30.00 g Citrate phosphate buffer : to make the final volume 1000 ml (0.1M, pH 5.0) 30.0 g of agar-agar was melted and subsequently autoclaved. Citrate phosphate buffer and 0.1% (w/v)tannic acid, filter sterilized through 0.22μmembrane filters, were added to the sterilized molten agar and the final volume was made 1.0 L. (IV) Czapek Dox minimal medium (modified for tannase production)The composition per litre of the medium is as follows: Ingredients Fungi Bacteria Tannic acid : 10.00 g 10.00 g D-Glucose : 10.00 g 0.50 g NaNO3 : 6.00 g – NH4Cl : – 1.0 g KH2PO4 : 1.52 g 0.50 g K2HPO4 : – 0.50 g KCl : 0.52 g – MgSO4.7H2O : 0.52 g 0.50 g CaCl2 : – 0.01 g Cu(NO3)2.3H2O : trace – FeSO4.7H2O : trace – ZnSO4.7H2O : trace – Double Distilled water : to make 1.0 L to make 1.0 L pH : 5.0±0.2 5.0±0.
    31. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium The composition per litre of the medium is as follows: Ingredients g/l Peeled and sliced potatoes : 200.0 Dextrose : 20.0 Agar-agar : 20.0 Double Distilled water : to make the final volume 1000 ml pH was adjusted to 6.2 ± 0.2 using 1N NaOH / HCl
    32. Medium Compositio
    33. Buffer pH range Stock Solutions Volume of Stock A + Stock BCitrate Phosphate 3–5 A: 0.1M solution of citric acid B: 0.2M solution of Na2HPO4pH 3: 39.8 ml A + 10.2 ml B made up to 100 ml pH 4: 30.7 ml A + 19.3 ml B made up to 100 ml pH 5: 24.3 ml A + 25.7 ml B made up to 100 ml Phosphate 6–8 A: 0.2M solution of NaH2P04 B: 0.2M solution of Na2HPO4 pH 6: 87.7 ml A + 12.3 ml B made up to 200 ml pH 7: 39 ml A + 61 ml B made up to 200 ml pH 8: 5.3 ml A + 94.7 ml B made up to 200 ml Tris - HCI 9 A: 0.1M solution of (HOCH2)3CNH2B: 0.1M HCI solution (16.16 ml of 11.35N HCI /L) pH 9: 70 ml A + 30 ml B made up to 200 ml Glycine - NaOH 10 A: 0.1M glycine B: 0.1M NaOH solution pH 10: 50 ml A + 32 ml B made up to 200 ml Phosphate hydroxide 11 A: 0.05M Na2HP04B: 0.05M sodium hydroxide pH 11: 91 ml A + 9 ml B Hydroxide Chloride 12 A: 0.05M KCI solution B: 0.05M KOH solution pH 12: 82 ml A + 18 ml B
    34. Composition of buffers
    35. 1N Hydrochloric acid (HCl)* One normal hydrochloric acid was prepared by adding 1.0 ml concentrated HCl to 10.0 ml of double distilled water. •1N Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)* One normal sodium hydroxide was prepared by dissolving 4.0 g of NaOH in 100 ml of double distilled water. *: These were used for adjusting the pH of the medium. •Tween-80Tween-80 used as surfactant was prepared by adding 100 μl of concentrated Tween-80 to 100 ml of double distilled water and autoclaved.
    36. tock Solution
    37. Pharmacia (Uppsala, Sweden).Column chromatography matrices (Sephadex G series), DEAE-Cellulose E-Merck Germany Silica Thin Layer Chromatography Plates 60 F254, All solvents used in the present investigation were purchased from E-Merck Sisco Research Laboratories (SRL), SD fine chemicals Ltd, Qualigens, Central Drug House (CDH), Thomas BakerChemicals/components used in the preparation of various media were obtained from these companies Local commercial sourcewheat bran, rice bran, wheat straw, corn cob, acacia arabicajambula leaves, aamla, Indian plum, jowari, black tea, kangra orthodox black tea Double distilled water (DDW) was used for preparation of reagents, stock solutions, buffers and different media. All glass and plastic wares used were from Borosil, Schott Duran and Qualigens.
    38. Tannic acid, DEAE-cellulose, phenyl sepharose, acrylamide, bisacrylamide, TEMED, ampholine PAG plates, bromophenol blue, chitosan, chitin, silica, celite, DEAE-sephadex, amberlite XAD-7, glutaraldehyde, cholic acid, saponin, sodium taurocholeate, SDS, tauro cholic acid, sodium choleate, triton X-100, Tween-80, EDTA, phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride, p-Chloromercuric benzoic acid, N bromosuccinimide, Phenyl boronic acid, O-phenanthrolin, sodium deoxycholate, phenanthrolin, N-ethylmaleimide, dithiothreitol, β- Mercaptoethanol, bromoacetic acid. gallic acid and its esters (methyl, propyl, ethyl, butyl gallate), epigallocatechin gallate , epigallocatechin, caffeine, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (E)-2-hexenal (Z-3-hexenol), 1-penten-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-1,5,7-octatrien-3-ol, linalool, linalool oxides (furanoid), geraniol, methylsalicylate, epoxylinalol, α-irone (2,5-dimethyl-α-ionone),2,7-epoxymegastigma-4,8-diene and 1,3-dioxolane
    39. Chemicals and Reagents