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  1. May 2019
    1. The bZP3 sequence was analyzed using PCgene and Lasergene DNA and protein analysis softwares. The alignment of the bZP3 aa sequence with the homologous sequences from other species was carried out using the Cluster V Multiple Alignment Programme (Higgins and Sharp, 1989).
    1. were stored at -70°C for at least six months without any significant loss in the competence.
    2. A single ~.coli colony taken from an agar plate was used to inoculate 10 ml of LB and incubated 0/N at 37°C in an incubator-shaker. Next day, 0. 5 ml of this freshly grown culture was used to inoculate 100 ml of LB in a 500 ml flask. The culture was incubated at 37°C in an incubator -shaker and absorbance of the growing culture was monitored at 620 nm. When the A620 reached 0. 4 -0. 5 ( in about 120 -150 minutes), the flask was rapidly chilled by shaking in ice. The cells were harvested in sterile, chilled centrifuge bottles at 4, ooog for 10 minutes at 4 °c. The pellet was gently resuspended in 50 ml sterile, ice cold 100 mM cacl2 and the cells incubated in ice for 30 minutes. The cells were again centrifuged as above and the pellet resuspended in 6.5 ml of sterile, chilled, 100 mM cac12 containing 15 % glycerol. The cells were resuspended very gently, and a 200 ul aliquot was transformed with a standard plasmid DNA to check the competence of the cells. Meanwhile, the rest of the competent cells were incubated in ice for 16 -18 hours, to increase the competence of the cells a further few fold. After ascertaining high transformation efficiency of the competent cells, the cells were dispensed as 200 ul aliquots into prechilled, sterile 1.5 ml eppendorf tubes. These cells
    1. collected by centrifugation at 12,000 X g for 15 min, and washed with 70% ethanol. The pellet was air-dried and resuspended in 20 Jll TE. The clones were checked for the pres~nce of the insert by restriction analysis. The digestion products were checked on 1% agarose gel for the release of the insert. One positive clone was selected from each set of transformations and the plasmid DNA was purified in large amount for the insert preparation.
    2. Transformants picked following blue-white selection were inoculated in 5 ml LB medium containing 100 j...tg/ml ampicillin (LBamp) and grown 0/N. Following day, 1.5 ml aliquots of 0/N culture were harvested by centrifugation at 10,000 X g in a microfuge. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet was resuspended in 100 j...tl of chilled TEG (25 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0, 10 mM EDTA and 50 mM glucose) and incubated for 10 min at RT. After incubation, 200 j...tl of freshly prepared alkaline-SDS (0.2 N NaOH, 1% SDS; sodium dodecyl sulfate) was added and the contents were mixed gently by inversion. This was followed by incubation on ice for 10 min. Post-incubation, 150 j...tl of ice-cold sodium acetate solution (3 M, pH 5.2) was added to the mixture and incubated on ice for 15 min. After incubation, the contents were centrifuged at 12,000 X g for 15 min at 4°C and the supernatant was carefully transferred to a fresh tube. DNA was precipitated by adding 0.6 volumes of isopropanol and incubating at RT for 10 min. The DNA pellet was obtained by centrifugation at 12,000 X g at RT for 15 min, air-dried and dissolved in 200 j...tl of TE. To remove RNA contamination, 50 j.lg of DNase free RNase was added and incubated for 1 h at 37°C. Plasmid DNA was then extracted once with an equal volume of phenol equilibrated with TE (I 0 mM Tris, pH 8.0 and 1 mM EDT A) followed by extraction with phenol : chloroform : isoamyl alcohol (25 : 24 : 1) and then with chloroform : isoamyl alcohol (24 : 1 ). DNA was precipitated by addition of 2 volumes of chilled 100% ethanol to the aqueous phase and incubating the contents at -70°C for 30 min. The DNA pellet was
    1. Theeffectof2%,5%and7%effluentexposureontheoxygenuptakewasmeasuredatexperimentalconditions,viz.,(a)whenaccesstoairwasprevented(aquaticconsumption),(b)whenitwasallowed(bimodalrespiration)and(c)underaerialconditions(aerialrespiration)
    1. The tannin sample (1.0 ml) was added to 2.0 ml BSA solution in a 15 ml glass centrifuge tube. The solution was mixed and allowed to stand at room temperature for 15 min and then centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 15 min to separate the precipitated tannin-protein complex as pellet. The supernatant was discarded and the pellet and the walls of the tube were washed with acetate buffer without disturbing the pellet. Now, the pellet was dissolved in 4.0 ml of SDS-triethanolamine solution and to this, 1.0 ml of ferric chloride reagent was added and was mixed immediately. After 30 min of addition of ferric chloride, the absorbance was noted at 510 nm on spectrophotometer. All observations were carried out in triplicates. The concentration of the tannin was determined with the help of tannic acid (Sigma) standard curve prepared in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml
    1. Growth curves were generated to compare the growth rates of E. coli test strains with control strains manually. The appropriate dilutions of the overnight cultures in desired media were made and allowed to grow at required temperature till faint turbidity was visible. At this point samples were collected every 30 minutes until stationary phase was attained. The growth curves weregenerated using Microsoft Excel or SigmaPlot software and growth rates were calculated from the slope of the graph which, in turn, was used to calculate generation time