360 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2017
    1. young people who are immersed in digital media do not speak with a pure voice when it comes to race and racism, but rather speak with an infected voice that both mirrors and shapes the culture and institutions in which they grow up

      I feel like this is a generality that applies to literally every living person, but I can see the author is trying to claim that it's a special case for this generation.

    2. The empirical findings show that social media is inevitably interlinked with the physical

      This seems to be tied to annotation 6, which she is probably using here as a theory text.

    3. racist and xenophobic conten

      What about sexist, ableist, and just all-around offensive content?

    4. this paper discusses how young people experience, reason around and react to racist and xenophobic online hate speech

      I think I'll take a similar approach for at least a part of my paper, examining how people have responded to hateful ways in which Pepe is being used by posting their own non-hateful Pepe memes.

    5. Whilst this is a term widely used, a variety of different interpretations are applied, very much depending on the time and space contexts

      There is so much disagreement about what constitutes as hate speech, especially in an age where certain political agendas are trying to claim that certain words are inherently offensive--which is, of course, impossible.

    6. evidence shows an immense underreporting

      And so contextually, young people tend to show passivity and don't take action to respond to these comments which is either because they don't like law enforcement or because they don't want to break the status quo. I'd agree that it's much easier to just stand back and wait for someone else to do something than to do something yourself which is the Bystander Effect.

    7. „young people who are immersed in digital media do not speak with a pure voice when it comes to race and racism, but rather speak with an infected voice that both mirrors and shapes the culture and institutions in which they grow up‟

      This is a bold claim that also addresses the issue of nature vs nurture where these people aren't inherently racist but act and speak in that manner because the environment cause them to do so and the norm is established that way.

    8. The web produces an "illusory" depersonalization in regards to reality

      This is another good point to add in regards to how online speech differs from real life because this anonymity and creation of a illusory self creates a medium for these people to carry out their actions.

    9. this paper discusses how young people experience, reason around and react to racist and xenophobic online hate speech

      So she is focusing on how young people experience hate speech but not why it happens. It seems she wants to set up a starting point for others to explore why hate speech arose.

    10. relation of youth and online hate material remains under-researched

      As far as background goes, it would be interesting to see how much research has been conducted since this article was written. She states that youth research is few but that seems strange compared to how many young people are out there. I could state in my own essay that there is a lack of discussion into the topic of youth and hate in the Internet.

    11. Ethnographic

      this means the researcher is a subject of the study

    12. being identified with a certain social or demographic group

      By this definition which is considered a legal definition hate speech addresses a certain type of group but of course it depends on context. The author argues that this definition doesn't address the complexity of the topic but I'd argue it's hard to nail down a legal definition which can be cited that's agreed upon by most people. It's hard to say what the scope of hate speech is but the phrase " incitement to harm" seems sufficiently agreeable.


      A LONG bibliography: many of you will note texts to follow up on....

    2. then it clearly takesan effort to appear authentic.

      Indeed in the case of online authenticity, the Internet is forever changing with information coming in and out and it can be hard to present a true self when it's so easy to make a fake persona. People can believe an internet celebrity is a role model but in real life this might not be the case.

    3. In this era of global homogenizing, the distinctive social and cultural char-acteristics of places are obscured, and tourism promoters engage in concertedefforts to recreate something that is taken to be ‘traditional’ especially for the sakeof tourists.

      Basically, since globalization exists places are becoming more similar to each other and losing that sense of uniqueness. Of course, these places try to recreate that appeal but it's hard to be authentic in this case if theyr'e doing it just for the sake of tourism.

    4. one needs to be told the background of the artist

      this shows how circumstantial (and maybe insignificant) authenticity judgements can be.

    5. Welch does not know who her parents were so she imagines a family back-ground in the Appalachian mountains and wonders whether her birth father wasBill Monroe, a widely reputed philanderer and legendary father of bluegrassmusic, or Levon Helm, drummer for the 1960s folk-rock group called the Band

      this could be used in my essay as it relates to how people use their family backgrounds- real or imagined- to enhance their own identity / justify their actions

    6. authenticity through ascribedgroup membership can be a cruel trap.

      the idea of group identity is really complicated because people can try to claim authenticity in some field (music, restaurants, etc) just because of they identify with a certain group. And then there's the question of who is actually authentically in that group/ can people achieve authenticity without bring born into the group?

    7. ‘collective memory’ in explor-ing the reinterpretation of past people or events to harmonise them with currentpolitical needs and cultural understandings.

      also could relate to my essay. Interesting how people change their perceptions of the past to fit more coherently with how they perceive or want to perceive the present. also goes with the idea that people only want to remember the details that make the best story

    8. the invention of traditional Scottish clan tartans

      this relates to my essay regarding how people make up an ancestry to identify with but justify it with something that seems "authentic" like a clan tartan or a family crest or some other symbol of their "heritage"

    9. associating them with the nameof a neighbouring country house or château.

      authentication by location was used to prove the superior quality of the wine.

    10. ethnic authenticity but on certifiable knowledge, skill, and expe-rience

      a change in the idea of authenticity

    11. Catholic officials who certified the relic

      I can use this in my essay

    12. , are able to grant or reject the authenticityclaim

      the other half of authenticity

    13. Hank Williams Jr

      love this guy

    14. provides an excellent exampleof remaining true to the authentic self one has create

      country music and authenticity ... hmmm

    15. presentation of self one claims and

      this is what I want the core of my argument to be in my essay. that what one says ought to be what one does and behaves as.

    16. people can join without having any of these characteristics

      I think the argument here is that people are more authentic now because they can better chose the groups that they identify with

    17. authenticity by immersing them-selves in what they take to be authentic experiences

      authenticity is subjective to the person

    18. whether the artist is untouched by influ-ences from the fine art world

      in this context authenticity = originality

    19. Authenticity through group identity is a construct that is elastic.

      this could definitely be used in my essay. this idea that authenticity in a groups identity is critical. That each individual can decide or find their identity through the group as it is either inauthentically or authentically identified.

    20. 950s commercial country musi

      we've talked about this already. could be a good spot to go back to in the essay.

    21. For example, in the case of opera and theatrical per-formances, the criterion of excellence is not whether an actor is authentic butwhether she can sublimate her own personhood in order to act the part demandedby the particular role.

      it seems that is the way the media is covered today. who cares if it is authentic news when it could be "FAKE NEWS" instead

    22. The debate over authenticity or contrivance of teen-oriented rock bands hasraged ever since the Beatles became famous for singing their own songs

      to say there is a "new" Beatles band such as "one direction" or boy bands such as this implies a sense of inauthenticity. For something to be authentic there is an implied originality to the thing such as a band. this could also be used in my essay.

    23. Such fabrications are hardly unique to the contemporary era. As the authorsanthologized by Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983) show, similar large scale efforts tofabricate authenticity took place in the 19th century.

      This is an interesting concept. I think a big problem with authenticity today is there is an increase in polemics of authenticity because we are so often fooled by lies of being true. This accounts for my upbringing of being weary of ads and salesmen. All claim to have an authentic product but not telling the truth when they say it. This could definitely be used in my paper.

    24. Fans of the musicalso considered authenticity to be of central importance, but they paid no atten-tion to the folklorists. Rather, they made judgments on very different grounds, sothat what folklorists would call authentic, fans wouldn’t consider at all relevant tocountry music as they understood it

      Peterson suggests that it is the fans who determine the text!

    25. Authenticity through group identity is a construct that is elastic.

      This idea is an interesting take on group-identity authenticity--that it is only loosely defined, and subject to fluctuation and change. Authenticity is more fluidic than we believe.

    26. uch tactics of asserting authenticity by saying that the new authentically repre-sents the old are used in selling a wide range of products.

      Although Peterson doesn't mention it here, I think I could use this idea in my research paper as a "Argument" source, perhaps, offering a way to think about how fans interact with authors. Fan-fiction is a good example of this phenomenon of a new authenticity that represent the old--fans are building their writing popularity by using characters and places that potentially already "belong" to the author.

    1. they should rally around personalities.

      As the article stated earlier, the market is more diverse than ever. Allow your brand to have a distinct identity - it can appeal to its own niche by crafting its image rather than pandering to the widest demographic. Could this mean that true authenticity necessitates not being universally accessible or likable?

    2. Trump is authentic. He seems genuine to a large portion of the American electorate.

      Many argue that this is how he won the presidency. His unconventional statements and views made people believe he was unfiltered and authentic; yet perhaps they were specifically filtered to create this effect.

    3. It's not very authentic to spend huge budgets talking about how authentic your brand

      This is arguing that authenticity cannot require effort. It is inherently natural to whatever is characterized by it.

    4. most valid automobile, genuine pair of sneakers ordependable bottle of vodka.

      How are we being graded on the "quality" of our annotations - what if something that is low in quality is high in authenticity?

    5. Not only are we not smarter than them,we're falling into rhetorical pits that they've dug for us.

      Ironically, the former clause in this sentence sounds like a rhetorical pit for its audience - conceding the audience's authority and superior capacity to create a sense of trust.

    6. progressive marketing acknowledges the wildly advanced state of mindtoday's consumer possesses and, furthermore, pays respect to it

      "Pays respect to it"? Or finds alternative ways to manipulate it?

    7. Furthermore, some of the most authentic people in the world are also the most self-absorbed.

      A dangerous assumption here that ALL people are inherently self-infatuated. Is Donald Trump the best synonym for humanity? Do benevolent, selfless people exist?

    8. This is why they're winning millennial hearts and minds.

      But are they? Claims like this are subjective when some consumers genuinely don't appreciate the true authenticities of Vice or Kanye. Sometimes, we don't like it when we see someone's true colors. A later Trump example in this article further highlights my argument. Is it better to be authentic if the reality stinks?

    9. Would you rather have dinner with the most dependable man in the world or the most interestingman in the world?

      This is my modern dating crisis. All men are pigs anyway though, so does it really matter?

    10. : Semantics, Messaging and Targeting

      why are these capitalized

    11. Not only are we not smarter than them

      I definitely appreciate the compliment and attention, but I'd say this might need a source and evidence.

    12. n today's complicated media mix, it's imperative we embrace the art of messaging as a form ofpopular psychology
      1. The psychology of cosmetics is something that I will research more into. Society has created the "need" for women to wear makeup, so that is something engrained into their way of life.
    13. By being "about" authenticity, a brand ironically loses most of itstemperament. It's not very authentic to spend huge budgets talking about how authentic your brandis
      1. Brundage is very upfront about how he views the problem of authenticity as it relates to marketing. His stance is very clear that using "authenticity" as a branding tactic is a poor idea. He instead suggests letting people create the brand's image.
    1. a primary consequence of polarization is that it underminescitizens’ trust in the capacity of government to solve problems.

      This roots back to Congress' inability to pass an adequate amount of legislation as polarization also produces gridlock between parties.

    2. more than willing to engage in polarization tactics asone of the necessary costs of being heard

      One of the few positive proponents to engaging in polarization

    3. Finally, whereas in previous high-conflict eras in the United Statespolarization tended to be rooted in only a few and often related issues—

      I plan to use this paragraph as theory in my essay as it takes the older examples of polarization in American history and compares them to the polarization we are experiencing currently. Blankenhorn proposes a possible explanation to the intensity of polarization today as he claims it has become "less issue-specific and more generalized."

    4. don’t imagine that polarization is the same as strongdisagreement

      I think this is a very important distinction. By immediately establishing this difference, Blankenhorn shows that the issue is not with disagreement in general, but instead our allowance of disagreement to justify the belief that our opposition is wicked and corrupt.

    5. an intense commitment to a candidate, a culture, oran ideology that sets people in one group definitively apart from people inanother, rival group.

      This is the definition of polarization I plan to use in my research paper.

  2. Oct 2017
    1. Here are annotation instructions for Peterson's essay, a survey of the problem of authenticity that attempts to synthesize a wide range of material:

      1) Please make at least one annotation that focuses on one of the aspects of the essay listed in our "Writing With Sources" handout (rhetorical; argumentative; paraphrase/summary; context/motive; disposition/stance). Use this notation to do something you think will be generally useful to the class / your own group as readers of this text.

      2) Please make at least one annotation where you engage with the essay from the perspective of your own particular research idea: how will this essay help clarify/develop your thought process? Try to use the vocabulary from the "B-TEAM" handout ("Kinds of Sources").

      3) Please response at least once to each of your group members! Give them feedback on how they are presenting their own perspective, on what they say about their project

    1. This is the final reading in our "food & authenticity" mini-unit. I've provided it because it offers a new kind of perspective, a sociological understanding of the problems of understanding authenticity as a problem in both economic and political terms.

      Annotations on this text are optional; those of you who have fallen behind, I encourage you to ask questions and make comments, focusing particularly on howItalic** the article works with the concept of authenticity, and the extent to which its key concept of "ghosts" might be helpful to you in your own developing research project...

    1. The title says it all. But maybe Donald Trump just can't help it. He was born this way - with an unsophisticated flavor palette, I mean. https://jezebel.com/donald-trump-eats-his-steak-well-done-with-ketchup-lik-1792770173

    2. sight of the 'naturalness' with which newspapers, art and common sense constantly dress up a reality which, even though it is the one we live in, is undoubtedly determined by history.

      This is a rather disheartening assertion to make about our world, but it is hard to refute satisfactorily. We like to feel that civilization has progressed past misrepresentation and into an age of opportunity, but perhaps we have simply made this misrepresentation more subtle and more acceptable.

    3. I was of course guided by my own current interests

      Like in the Washington Post's article about ethnic food, we remain ignorant to the generalizations we make about cultures until we actually gain an interest in them.

    4. heart of meat, it is meat in its pure state; and whoever partakes of it

      Says who? Are references to mythology or to literary symbolism/allusions really credible and valid sources? Never have I ever experienced bull-like strength.

    5. ornamentation. Glazing,

      two words that have links to the words inauthentic or myth. not necessarily false but not completely true at the same time. its like gilded jewelry

    6. The 'substantial' category which prevails in this type of cooking is that of the smooth coating:

      This is the author making note of the inauthenticity in cooking food for its appearance.

    7. To eat steak rare therefore represents both a nature and a morality.

      So what does it say about Donald trump?

    8. ntellectualism to the level

      Thus one of the criticisms of Trump's preferences are that it shows a low level of intelligence and class which the French favor in the rarity of steak.They seem to emphasize the softness and wetness of a good steak which is nonexistent in a well done steak.

    9. saignant (when it recalls the arterial flow from the cut in the animal's throat), or bleu (and it is now the heavy, plethoric, blood of the veins which is suggested by the purplish colour - the superlative of redness).

      I started to get hungry until this part...

    10. t exalts all climates, of whatever kind: in cold weather, it is associated with all the myths of becoming warm, and at the height of summer, with all the images of shade, with all things cool and sparkling. There is no situation involving some physical constraint (temperature, hunger, boredom, compulsion, disorientation) which does not give rise to dreams of wine.

      This is the myth he was talking about earlier. The grass is greener on the other side

    11. ornamentation

      I'd definitely say that how the food looks is one of the biggest factors into preparing something, which does question how real something looks vs how it tastes. Certainly all those sauces and swirls could look cool but it could just taste like blended mush.

    12. Other countries drink to get drunk, and this is accepted by everyone; in France, drunkenness is a consequence, never an intentio

      I would argue that a lot of European countries are this way. You drink for the taste of a beer in Germany. Scotch is fabulous in Ireland. Maybe in America the idea is to get drunk when drinking but this seems to me to be an extremely European value.

    13. advertisement,

      The modern day example is fast food commercials where the burger looks way better than what you get at the counter.

    14. he power of wine is never separated from its modes of existence

      I'd agree that wine seems to have a kind of power in the act of drinking it as much as its contents which is most unlike other liquor which is drunken mostly for the induced state.

    15. emove some of his intellectualism

      This is a strange thought because usually upper class people tend to stray away from the lower classes especially in the case of intellect. Barthes seems to suggest that pressure from class forces them to relieve themselves through a "lesser drink"

    16. weak man strong or a silent one talkative. He

      But does it make strong men weak or talkative people silent? And even so, does this always happen? I'd say this is a contradiction which does counter his belief that wine doesn't have contradictions.

    17. This particular author clearly emphasizes that she doesn't support Trump and lambasts him on his unclassy preference for steak. She does acknowledge the counter-argument about how cooking a steak enough is more beneficial to health though.

    18. salade niçoise

      A simple salad made of local ingredients, mainly in Nice, France.

    19. hose consumption can perfectly well be accomplished simply by looking.

      I love the phrasing of this, because it so eloquently encapsulates that the food has no substance or value other than how it looks.

    20. ridled beautification: chise

      I think it's funny that putting a glaze on a food can be seen as a commentary on authenticity.

    21. morality of effort and solitude. Travel

      I wonder if the solitude is related to authenticity, in the sense that one can be pressured into inauthenticity by societal pressures.

    22. General de Castries asking for chips for his first meal has not always been understoo

      I think this is so funny. I like that his "authenticity" can't necessarily be translated by someone who is not a part of this culture.

    23. expropriation

      This absolutely came out of left field, and I think it is absolutely unfair of the author to do this. The author gave a brief history of wine and its importance in French society and how it is unique to France, and quickly, suddenly stated essentially "oh, by the way, wine production is awful and hurts tons of people." I think it unfairly characterizes French people as indifferent to injustices surrounding wine. I don't think he gave justice to the situation, although I'm sure he would disagree.

    24. water as the opposite of wine

      I would argue that the opposite argument has been made. Wine seems to be portrayed as the "water" (fundamental basis, necessary for survival) of the social scene of France.

    25. But this very universality implies a kind of conformism: to believe in wine is a coercive collective act.

      This sentence annoyed me, frankly, because I've heard similar sentiments in sociology before, and I'm annoyed by those who consider every single choice we make to be coerced by larger society. I understand that the environment we grow up in shapes us to an extent, but I also believe that we are all individuals and have our own personalities, and are thus capable of being unique. All this is to ask, why can't we all just like wine without having larger society twisting our arm to do so?

    26. ex nihilo

      I didn't see a footnote, so according to the dictionary entry Google pulled up, ex nihilo means "out of nothing." So wine creates "out of nothing."

    27. Steak and Chips

      This piece is particularly important, since it connects to what I have called the "Donald Trump & well-done steak" short assignment...

    28. Preface

      Reminder: I've left instructions in the "Page Note" to this document!

    29. opics suggested by current events.

      Hence, my own suggestion of a recent "daily event": we will look at the Trump/steak episode as a way of considering whether "mythological" analysis remains relevant and practiced today...

    30. I think it will work better if each of you adds your link to a "Donald Trump and well-done steak" article here, as a reply to this "page note".

      All you are looking for is an article on that subject that makes an argumentative claim and offers some sort of evidence; you are not required to find a position with which you personally agree....

    31. The readers of Elle are entitled only to fiction; one can suggest real dishes to those of L'Express, in the certainty that they will be able to prepare them.

      "Authentic" food is something one can eat--it not only looks like food, but also acts like food, according to Barthes.

    32. ambrosia

      The food of gods, which was associated with granting immortality.

    33. But milk remains an exotic substance; it is wine which is part of the nation.

      Milk is for the individual, but wine is for the collective.

    34. there

      Barthes's goal for these essays seems to be two-fold: he's trying to demonstrate "real" French life, but he's also trying to encounter a "natural," an "authentic" sense of the present.

    1. like German food andIrish food.Irish food

      This nears contradiction to "Food that isn't associated with whites will be called ethnic." German and Irish people are white. Consequently, this article inadvertently interchanges the words "white" and "American" which is not entirely accurate or appropriate.

    2. mark a certain kind of difference

      So maybe in the broadest essence, "ethnic" describes many of these cheap and inauthentic foods correctly. Taco Bell might not be authentically hispanic but it is a different taste and it is a different culture. Connotatively, Taco Bell (certainly) is an American lie, but denotatively, is it ethnic? Is ethnic marked by "difference" or by "authenticity"?

    3. never willing to pay for it.

      To pay for it? Or to find it? Where I am located, it is just culturally uncommon to find culturally authentic foods. I suspect that this issue is less economical for many and more geographical.

    4. But we are stillcertainly indicating that we feel that way.certainly indicating that we feel that way.

      I strongly disagree with this statement. Just because I do not personally like Chinese food, does not mean I do not value their food and culture. If I decide to eat Chinese food, because of my preferences, I am unwilling to spend a large amount of money because I do not gain happiness from eating it. Why would I spend more than twenty dollars on food I do not even like that much? On the contrary, I value American culture and enjoy American food but I am also unwilling to spend more than ten dollars for a burger and fries. The price in which I am willing to pay for food is uncorrelated to how much I value a culture and I would argue this could extend to other consumers.

    5. What I'm saying is, our unwillingness to pay for a certain kind of experiencecommunicates a form of racial or ethnic hierarchy. The price of a dishcommunicates a form of racial or ethnic hierarchy.

      I think Ray jumps to this conclusion too quickly. To me, our "unwillingness to pay for a certain kind of experience" doesn't quite align with beliefs of inferiority--I find "naivety" to be a more accurate conclusion. Sometimes we aren't willing to pay for a more expensive, "authentic" dish because we don't know what an authentic experience from that culture is like. I don't think this laziness when it comes to food is exclusive to our experiences with cultural food; many people are more often inclined to buy the cheapest "American" dishes as well!

    6. evolving

      After reading this article, I've been struggling to agree with some of Ray's perspectives. While I agree that cultures are often exclusive of each other, I don't view American cuisine as a mosaic model, but as a melting pot model. Perhaps American food is cheap, fast food, taken from many different cultures. As a result, although we label some dishes "ethnic," I've always understood it to signify that the food we have gleaned from other cultures belongs more to the United States than the original location, due to our changes. Maybe it is offensive to the original culture and to Ray, but I don't find our country to intentionally be so. Our country is evolving.

    7. roasted

      Complex=/=good. In addition, wok-made "authentic" Chinese food is very heavy in oil and fat, which is not compatible with the average American diet.

    8. Migration of poor people from your country and your culture has to endbefore America accords you prestige. Chinese food has been where it is,before America accords you prestige

      This is saying that to be accepted as equal in American culture, your home country must stop transporting undesirables. While this isn't necessarily true, there are historical trends to substantiate this claim.

    9. Germans climbed up in the social ladder, thatchanged, as it did for Italian food, and many others.changed, as it did for Italian food, and many others

      As a culture of people rises up the social ranks, so does their culture.

    10. If it appears to be authentic, it isauthentic to us.authentic to us

      Presentation over substance?

    11. Authentic is a relative term

      Very true. Some people take authentic cuisine to mean created by chefs of the culture it originated from, while others take it as tasting like the culture's traditional food. It's hard to set circumstances for authenticity, even for food.

    12. What ends up happening is they hidetechnical deficiencies behind salt, butter, and fat. That's the food we havetechnical deficiencies behind salt, butter, and fat. That's the food we havegotten used to. Here, Indian food is associated with relatively greasy, spicy,gotten used to.

      Indian food is accidentally conforming to the archetypal fatty American foods we typically consume. Our perception of it as inferior is preventing restaurants from actually producing quality cuisine, reiterating Charles Taylor's argument of mis-recognition generating conformity to these established negative stereotypes.

    13. The more we know about a culture, themore we can understand about its nuance. That's why you'll hear peoplemore we can understand about its nuance

      It's hard to specialize when you haven't yet been familiarized with the broad overview.

    14. she did not know what she did not know, and that's kindof the pitfall here.of the pitfall here.

      Sounds like a bit of a straw-man argument...

    15. I think what's happening is some people are beginning to get the sensethat the word ethnic is this weird catch-all category that isn't usefulthat the word ethnic is this weird catch-all category that isn't usefulanymore, that we should be talking more about Indian food or Thai food oranymore

      Perhaps this is part of the issue with the perceived inferiority of "ethnic food"; when its generalized to where its defining characteristic is being "not from here", there's little acknowledging how diverse and delicious it can be on its own merit.

    16. But behind our public enthusiasm for Indian, Thai, Vietnamese, Ethiopian,Korean, and the many other foreign cuisines that can be enjoyed in cities likeKorean, and the many other foreign cuisines that can be enjoyed in cities likeNew York, there is also private, and yet pronounced, form of bias, a subtleNew York

      Interesting how there can be such a blend of food cultures in one city... Is urban life truly a melting pot or simply pandering to the tourists' desire for an "experience"?

    17. we're not willing tospend the time or money it takes to be thoughtful about our consumption ofspend the time or money it takes to be thoughtful about our consumption ofthese foods. We can say what we want about all of these ethnic or foreignthese foods

      I would agree with this. but this guy is cynical about it. why pay more for some "authentic" Chinese food when I can get some fried rice from the neighbor hood restaurant for under 10$. hell if sushi were cheaper I would be doing the same thing! I have a feeling that I am particularly biased against this though as I am a college student just looking for the cheapest meal. I can see where more Americans have this prejudice against certain types of food.

    18. United States, and yet most of us are unwilling to pay more than$10 for Chinese food.$10 for Chinese food.

      I am unwilling to pay more than 10$ for most food. Actually I don't want to usually pay more than $8.50

    19. The same can be said of Indian, and in many ways it's even truer. Mostcheap Indian food is made by Bangladeshis and Pakistanis, and most Indiancheap Indian food is made by Bangladeshis and Pakistanis, and most Indianfood here is cheap. Of course, people don't realize that. But it's true. Morefood here is cheap. Of course, people don't realize that. But it's true. Morethan 70 percent of the Indian restaurants in New York City, for instance, arethan 70 percent of the Indian restaurants in New York City, for instance, arenot run by Indians. They are run by Bangladeshi and Pakistaninot run by Indians. They are run by Bangladeshi and Pakistanirestaurateurs.restaurateurs.

      is it wrong for them to brand a restaurant as such though? the point is to bring in customers not "be authentic" to them. if the customer is pleased what is the problem?

    20. If it appears to be authentic, it isauthentic to us.authentic to us

      how else can something be authentic? by what others tell us? no I think authenticity derives from being true to the self. and if the self has a limited knowledge on the subject then why is that to blame for such an assumption?

    21. salt, butter, and fat.

      sounds like America to me!... am I right?

    22. It's the fact that we are not willing to pay the same price to get the samelevel of quality. And frankly, that's why you get so much crappy foreign foodlevel of quality.

      we are willing to pay 10 for sushi rolls here but only pay 99 cents for a bowl of ramen. I feel you man

    23. When we call a food ethnic, we are signifying a difference but also a certainkind of inferiority. French cuisine has never been defined as ethnic.kind of inferiority.

      ethnicity has a strong tie to the word foreign.

    24. Food that isn't associated with whites will be calledethnic.ethnic

      I would argue that food that isn't associated with American is called ethnic food. Often I see the sign for German food labeled in an aisle but most people take German to mean "white". This goes back to earlier when Ferdman said what isn't americanized is considered "ethnic".

    25. ame prestige we treat others, is not nearly as authentic as weimagine it to be.imagine it to be.

      this begs the question whether or not authentic food is based on how high we put a value on it

    26. next 20 years

      This seems to be a near impossible task because of China's huge population and the racial component. He seems to suggest that poor people are going to stop coming but I find that hard to believe.

    27. limited exposure to a country or cuisine

      It seems to be suggested that most people don't and can't know what authentic food is based on limited exposure, but it's hard to do. We can't blame everything on the public if they can't pay for more expensive food.

    28. , it's impossible to understand them

      The thing is that most Americans don't have the interest or time to know about every single nuance in every type of food which guarantees that they will have the propensity to clump categories together.

    29. It has become impolite to say that certain foods are inferior. But we are still

      Basically, we rate foods as inferior based on how much we're willing to pay for them.

    30. The people who make the "ethnic food" we eat are notalways what they seem. Nor is the food, which, because of our refusal to treatalways what they seem. Nor is the food

      From personal experience, it seems that every Chinese buffet place I've went to has hispanic cooks and microwavable foods which does indicate that there aren't actual Chinese chefs cooking foods themselves. These places sacrifice authenticity but regardless they still draw crowds to their cheap prices.

    31. we want our Indian food fast, and we want itcheap.cheap

      This is extremely ironic because these ethnic foods are being made so cheap that they're not considered "authentic" any more. You can either have cheap, inauthentic food, or expensive, "real" food.(Although I would say that you could just travel abroad too).

    32. we're not willing tospend the time or money it takes to be thoughtful about our consumption ofspend the time or money it takes to be thoughtful about our consumption ofthese foods. We can say what we want about all of these ethnic or foreignthese foods

      I would argue that we aren't thoughtful about the consumption of any kinds of food. Fast food is absolutely everywhere, and there are companies (Blue Apron, as an example) that make cooking at home seem like a fad rather than the norm. The biggest reason we have a health problem (dare I say crisis) in this country is because we don't take half a second to talk ourselves out of a cheeseburger and fries and into a salad or slightly healthier option. Or take half of a second to plan our food for the day as to avoid the situation when a person is far from home or a healthy meal so they must settle for something fast and convenient.

    33. Germans climbed up in the social ladder, thatchanged, as it did for Italian food, and many others.changed

      This struck me as the first time in this article that the author(s) (the people having this conversation) said what they'd been meaning to say, without explicitly stating it. This, to me, is these people connecting the way Americans view the food of a country to how they view the people of the country.

    34. If it appears to be authentic,

      The depth of authenticity is also an interesting thought. is something appearing authentic on the surface, and thus is accepted as authentic, enough to make the thing authentic?

    35. Authentic is a relative term.Something is authentic according to your expectations of what it ought to be,Something is authentic according to your expectations of what it ought to be,right? Most of the Indian food I eat is not particularly spicy, but in theright?

      Expectations factoring into authenticity is a new thought for me. The subjectivity of the word "authentic" always throws me for a loop, because I feel like there should be an "objective truth" to everything.

    1. I have not asked for annotation on the text, but after reading Prelim #1, I will make one general comment: I strongly encourage those of you who have not submitted that Prelim to do so, and I encourage all of you to ask questions about Harrris' breakdown of different ways writers "come to terms" with their sources. Use Hypothes.is for examples, for close reading of passages, for whatever other purposes seem helpful....

    1. Their own self-depreciation, on thisview, becomes one of the most potent instruments of theirown oppression

      Negative-impact, positive feedback loop

    2. The crucial principle was that there should be no divi-sion between performers and spectators, but that all should be seen by all.

      Does the lack of privacy prescribed by our elevated exposure to media create more or less of a division between performer and spectator? On one hand, there is more knowledge of artist's real lives and less room to hide. On the other, sensationalism and the need to entertain and excite encourages fabrication and exaggeration of celebrities' lives, effectively putting on yet another show for the designated spectators.

    3. society takes a turn toward corruption and injustice,when people begin to desire preferential esteem

      Being defined by one's class/social standing leads to this pursuit of a "grander" identity.

    4. In premodern times, people didn’t speak of “identity” and“recognition”—not because people didn’t have (what wecall) identities, or because these didn’t depend on recogni-tion, but rather because these were then too unproblematicto be thematized as such

      Identity and recognition have been developing and evolving with humanity/civilization.

    5. Thus my discovering my own identity doesn’t mean that Iwork it out in isolation, but that I negotiate it through dia-logue, partly overt, partly internal, with others

      One's true nature is not seen through action, but reaction.

    1. Compton [existed] in many ways in the music to sell records

      A geographic location being turned into an exploitable concept for the music industry... much like the idea of the gangsta rapper.

    2. their individual faces with identical stern.

      Much like the cultural phenomena of rap itself - regional rappers intimidating and challenging one another, yet ironically embodying the same spirit and sound.

    3. Almost ten years after the 199.2 uprisings. criticism of the Los Angeles Police and Justice Uepartments seems abundant and perhaps long overdue. Nine years after protests erupted at the crossroads of Normandy and Florence. the elite Ramparts Uivision of the CRASH unit is under investigation and the LAPD faces milllons of dollars in litigation and settlement fees for incidents of police brutal-ity. civil rights violation and homicide.

      2002 doesn't seem so far away now.

      Just to clarify, this is the same year the Euro was introduced, the International Criminal court was established, and Iraqi aircraft first engaged American drones.

      You guys I was barely alive what is going on here

    4. Bush's 'War on Drugs' incorporated racial Images of drug use into already establlshed associations of race and urban space to criminalize entire communities of inner-city minorities.

      Would like to know what they mean by this here. Was this explicit stereotyping- a poster of drug use with only minorities on it, or maybe it was implicit, using ebonics, vernacular, etc. to associate drug use with minorities subliminally. Or was it an even unintended effect, maybe the author is saying that the War on Drugs made drugs profitable, much like liquor in the Prohibition Era, turning unemployed minorities in poorly policed neighborhoods to produce and distribute the drugs? Honestly, being born well after the "War" had begun, I've always seen people associate drug use with races- whites:meth, cocaine::minorities:marijuana, crack, so I don't really have any perspective here. This needs more context.

    5. For over a decade New York City checked the How of hip hop pouring out of struggling African-American neighbourhoods in cities such as Philadelphia. Boston and Houston. However. by 1990. Los Angeles had become the indis-putable capital of the hip hop nation. a geographic dislocation accompanied by a shift in rap's basic tonal and narrative style.

      Demographic shifts, such as the 1990's East Coast to West Coast rap focus is important in recognizing a group mentality over a specific area, such as country music being centered in the south and midwest. The shift in the center of music production is important in tying in the shift in musical taste within the genre, such as with the rise of Aftermath Records, 50 Cent, Dr. Dre, etc. Here, the focus even became "Us v. Them", tying in traditionally excluded areas such as Detroit, Dallas, etc., which belong to neither East nor West Coast.

    6. ogether African-American and urban identilica-tions formed a stamp of authenticity for commercially successful rappers that eased the transformation of rap artists from performers to racial and cultural representatives

      Here the author is making the claim that the authenticity of a rapper's music comes from their identity. In order to gain the "stamp of authenticity" a rapper must already possess certain qualities of urban identification and successfully represent the cultures associated with rap music.

    7. becomes clear that the group's black skin. black clothing and baseball caps identify the police targe

      This is an example of rap music being used to shed light on social issues such as racial profiling. Even though NWA isn't necessarily saying anything about the problem of police being racist, they are bringing it to the forefront of conversation and getting people to talk about it.

    8. increased racial solidarity in political and social activism

      While rap music is still considered regional, we can see a shift here to a more national and unified movement to use rap music for social and political justice.

    9. I conclude my dis-cussion of LA's spatialized racial dynamic with a brief discussion of Los Angeles's 'War on IJrugs' campaign to illustrate how the urban.

      Not to be the stylistically pretentious snob that I totally am, but why would you include the "War on Drugs" in the title to this article's entirety if it's just a "brief discussion" that isn't introduced until the 12th page!!!! Just saying!!!!

    10. charged almost JOO police officers to profile suspects

      Who's gonna profile the police officers though? [curious emoji]

    11. music transcends socially constructed racial or ethnic boundaries

      Or, is music a product of socially constructed racial and ethnic boundaries?

    12. African-American identity within Los Angeles.

      Not to entirely delegitimize the validity of the article, but I would argue that only gathering information in Los Angeles would be a flaw in any scientific method based experiment. Similar to science, data is more valid when it is experimented over numerous variables. Making conclusions based solely on the African-American culture in one California city and then applying this conclusion as a poster child for all African-Americans and their relationships to rap music seems to be too assumptive.

    13. Daddy..()

      A highly reputable source. Choosy scholars choose Daddy-O.

    14. checked the How

      I like this rhetorical choice of using phrases like this in a scholarly article to shorten the distance between "scholars" and "rappers."

    15. white businessmen

      Although I'm not super informed about the early years of rap, I know that more recently, African-American artists seem to have a lot of freedom to write and perform music that is true to themselves. I wonder if this perception is legitimate or if I am being influenced to feel this way. With this, I am referring to Lil Wayne's record label and artists that are more unconventional in their messages, like Tyler the Creator and Kendrick.

    16. While certain musical genres evoke particular racial identities. these identities are aestheticir.ed and therefore are accessible to audiences and per-formers regardless of race or ethnicity.

      This reminds me directly of how we were considering the "whiteness" of country music. I believe that the lack of exclusivity of music makes it fair game to express oneself or one's culture freely.

    17. articulated

      Here it is established that rap is merely a medium for already existing sentiments to be shared. However, it is established elsewhere that this representation was made into more of a caricature that ended up being (and remaining) very harmful to the African-American community.

    18. Rather. these are symbiotic components working within the cycle of constantly engaging dominant and subversive rep-resentations of Los Angeles and its inhabitants

      Grant wants to make the argument that the identities in gangsta and racial boundaries work together to provide a better representation of LA, which makes sense to show how the city changed the dynamic of where black culture was constructed and how the gangsta set new boundaries.

    19. Many of the violent lyrics are not intended literally.

      This is a hard statement for most audiences to understand as many think the lyrics instigate violence and harm morals of listeners. The clarification seems to provide a cultural and more racially-aware reason as historical context provides reason for more authentic stories.

    20. willing to tell about their own experiences or surroundings

      Very similar to country music, rap in its own way is about the stories and experiences of the singers, which seems to be a key component of what makes music authentic and popular.

    21. To begin. I will contextualize

      It's not often that the author outright states a summary of their article, but I appreciate that I can have a preview and understand where she's placing each argument.

    22. transforms the hip hop gangsta into an endemic part or the urban environment itself.

      And now Grant is taking her argument about cultural identity to the next level. She states that hip hop gansta no longer serves as just representative, but instead as a part of the environment inherently. Claiming that this style of music is in the very "urban environment" is a strong argument to make here!

    23. engaging both real and imagined gangstas of Los Angeles's black south central communities

      This is dancing around the idea that whether or not the image existed in the real world is irrelevant, because the fact that the police were taking real action in response to the image moves the problem from one of representation in a theoretical sense to one of weight and real-world importance.

    24. I will Ulustrate

      The level of formality in the author's diction with the casual nature of the author's first person point of view makes me slightly uncomfortable. I do see that the author is attempting to create a connection with the reader while introducing his topic. That being said, that is a rhetorical choice I would not have made.

    1. the UnitedStates Congress asked President George Bush

      I feel like...maybe...just maybe...Congress could do something just a hair more productive. Then again, as I type this sarcastic comment, I realize that country music might mean more unto others than it does to me. County music (and all music) impacts others in different ways. I'm curious to know the correlation between country music and the Gulf War/American identity.

    1. "It is the end of black folk, and the beginning of global niggadom," he proclaimed.

      Okay but I actually find this quote hugely important to the ever prevalent social concept of labeling! Think about how brutally just one single word has pervaded our sociopolitical atmosphere. Not everything can be diminished to sticks and stones when we accidentally label an entire ethnicity into "niggadom."

    2. Real Niggaz don't die. -Dr. Dre

      Once again, I am in awe at these scholarly sources. Iconic.

  3. Sep 2017
    1. ‘history decays intoimages, not stories’

      We begin to see history not as an unraveling epic with each thread weaving into the next, but rather as a series of isolated events without proper context.

    2. historically ‘innocent’ and ‘besieged’ American whiteness

      The whiteness of country music can be partially attributed to its recurring themes of perserverance through troubled times and notions of purity and absence of guilt. Country projects the idea of Americans as victims set on overthrowing their oppression.

    3. the music’s ideology of whiteness must be reproducedover time, day in and day out.

      Notice this sentence--this whole paragraph should cheer those of you who find the article grim. Do you see what Mann is challenging, in this paragraph?

    4. I must regrettably bracket the issue of class for reasons ofspace (and refer readers to Fox (2004a) for a compelling analysis), andwork to extend Gramsci’s conception of a ‘pose’ or ‘style’ that issimultaneously ‘artificial’ and ‘deeply felt and experienced’

      Mann wants instead to to look at country not as expressing or reflecting social class (though notice he doesn't disagree with this perspective), but as a "pose" or "style", a "performance." (Notice that this language harmonizes with the language of "producing" that he uses earlier in the section...)

    5. e.g. Merle Haggard’s ‘Stop the World andLet Me Off ’); a song about the trappings of urban life is nostalgic if itposits a morally or politically preferable ‘country tradition’ that hasbeen shirked (e.g. Haggard’s ‘Big City’

      was William Wordsworth a country artist?

    6. What I am interested to borrow from this account is not a judgmenton the popular classes’ susceptibility to mimic the ‘nobility’.

      Here Mann writes a whole paragraph setting up an analysis based on social class, only to then tell us in the next paragraph that he lacks space to say more about it! Why does he do this?

    7. The significance of popular culture and its media to Gramsci’sanalysis of ideology can hardly be understated.

      ....And Gramsci (another Marxist) turns out to be the most important theoretician for Mann's argument!

      So many names! Did we need Althusser as well? "Yes and no", would be my answer. Mann needs both to demonstrate his knowledge of the field and to establish the distinctness of his own perspective. He's not necessarily as reader-friendly as he could be here. But remember, Mann has just told us he wants to keep an Althuserian idea and apply it from a Gramscian perspective. And his readers--you!--can draw some things from his article without necessarily taking on Mann's entire perspective....

    8. idea of ‘musical interpellation’in other words, the ‘notionthat music is involved in producing the very bearer of an identitythat is, a subject’ (Mowitt 2002, p. 578)emerges most energeticallyin studies of music engaged with contemporary cultural studies, as inthe recent work of Radano

      Here Mann cites a particular source for his idea, while at the same time paraphrasing that idea again.

      Step back, if you're reading here, and think about: what are the ways in which we "normally" (everyday ways) think about music as cause, rather than as "reflection" / effect / whatever....?

    9. Mowitt and Radano found the possibility of musical interpellationon the irreducible aurality of subject-formation.

      In this paragraph, Mann goes on to distinguish his approach from that of M & R (in whose footsteps he is following)

    10. Iamarguing that contemporary commercial country music in the US, inarticulation with a capitalist social formation riddled with contra-dictions, and from which it is inseparable, contributes to the formationof a specific kind of white subject, and thus produces a specific kind ofwhiteness.

      A BIG CLAIM--yes? An ambitious claim. Paraphrase:

      Country music, in the form a capitalist society gives it, produces a certain kind of "white subject"--a way of feeling and knowing oneself as white.

      And I've left out one piece: the "contradictions"--since that requires a further detour into Althusser's development of Marxist theory. (General clue: if you see "contradictions" and "over-determination", you are reading work that draws upon this particular Marxist tradition.)

    11. These approaches are by no means homogenous in their goals andsympathies, yet they are consistent in their assumption that music‘expresses’ or ‘reflects’ the conceptions, desires, or politics of theparticular social formation or group.

      Key sentence indicating shift to Mann's own perspective: he will offer a verb that contrasts with EXPRESSES or REFLECTS -- his verb will be PRODUCES. And the last sentence of this paragraph states his own claim!

    12. focus on the ideological work of music is not novel. There are manysocial histories that consider the meaning of music for particularcommunities and cultures

      This paragraph shows Mann's command of the material. He defines a particular kind of scholarship on the "ideological work" of music. (Notice that examples of "meaning" go far beyond lyrical messages....)

    13. ostalgia and ‘musical interpellation’

      So, this is the really tough section! (Remember, you guys are an HONORS section....) [insert honors emojis here]

      I've provided a definition of "interpellation" earlier in these annotations. I'll comment once more on each paragraph to create a roadmap for you guys

    14. The question is how this works, and why it keeps working

      Note the diction here!

    15. It is largely inattentive to the historically specific ideologicalwork that must precede, and found, any sense race and racism areaccorded.22This is no longer adequate. We must focus less on the waysin which musicreflectsa particular cultural politics (which leads tounproductive and unnecessary arguments about cultural authenticityand ‘originalism’, e.g. Perry 2004, pp. 937) and more on thespecificallyproductiveideological function of popular music.23

      While somewhat hard to understand, it seems that the author here is trying to make a point that taking about race relations isn't developing race relations, its scrutinizing, observing, picking at them. He doesn't seem to take issue with this, but rather disagrees that it is an adequate piece of evidence to support the concept that country is not racist.

    16. like me

      Another great parenthetical aside. I think this helps coach the reader through his argument with some reassurance. The author reveals himself as a fan, which I believe is his way of defending the criticisms he is making. I equate this to someone criticizing my favorite football team, the Patriots. I generally don't listen to anything negative people say about the Patriots unless they tell me they are a fan. That makes me think that they are criticizing out of a caring place, rather than a malicious one.

    17. (and the strange attempt to somehow frame rhythm andblues as a subgenre of country),

      This parenthetical aside is a great choice, in my mind, because the author has been largely separated from his argument, but he breaks that by commenting that something is strange. It takes a slightly more familiar tone, which I think helps to get his readers to "buy into" his argument.

    18. Thesouthern affiliation is important, but it is nowhere near enough toexplain all this, for it begs similar questions about racialization, i.e.how did the South become ‘white’

      For many of Mann's paragraphs, his argument is structured by him posing a question, offering a simplistic and expected answer, and then diving into his explanation. This presents a very clear path for the reader to follow throughout the article and helps to acknowledge the reader's preconceived notions before Mann delves into his own take on the idea.

    19. That they are worthy of mention only demonstrates further thatcountry sounds white.

      I think this is an important point in Mann's argument, especially to his reader that might be defensive about the whiteness of country music. There are always exceptions to a rule, and by naming the "exceptions" of country music, it further proves the rule. In other genres such as pop and rap, it would be useless to name all the artists who aren't white simply because there are so many in these genres. However in country music, there are a select few which further proves Mann's argument in more objective terms.

    20. Nostalgia for a white ‘used to’ has donea great deal of this ideological work

      I can agree that nostalgia plays a hand in the sound of whiteness because it's more than just saying that country music sounds white because it came from a white background. Feelings shape the way people perceive things and nostalgia is certainly one of them.

    21. ‘sound of whiteness’, and it‘sounds’ whiteness

      a cause or effect

    22. If authenticity is the country music industry’s mostimportant ‘renewable resource’, as Peterson (1997) has compellinglydemonstrated, an authentic, stable whiteness is its commodity form.

      Authenticity is stated as a renewable resource which means it never seems to run out. So there never seems to be a loss of ideas to sing about that relate to the self and in particular whiteness sells well. It's like the process of making a product for the market.

    23. country’s nostalgictemporality is constituted no less by the sound of a southern accent orthe pluck of a mandolin string than by lyrical descriptions of the goodol’ days.

      A very interesting claim, but I can see why. It seems the memories of the past only come from the meaning of words and the specifics of what a song is about rather than how it sounds(as is true with other genres).

    24. the texture, the grain and the tactile quality of sound’

      basically what makes a sound unique, what makes a piano sound like a piano and not like a trumpet, or in this case what makes country music sound like country music

    25. hegemony

      dominance of a social group over others

    26. country’s‘old-timey’ sound is in many ways a metaphorical attempt to slow timedown, while lyrically it rues, disavows, even condemns the passage oftimethe movement of which it figures as the product of some otheragency, outside the audience.

      I think that the author is making a bit of a stretch here. The emotions of nostalgia or the "good 'ol days" feeling is easy for a wide variety of listeners to relate to not in reference to a certain time or in fear of social advancements, but simply because people easily relate to the feeling of "i'm getting old, i wish I were young again" not necesarily "take me back to when I was viewed superior because i'm white" The author is making country music overly complicated here as he has been in other aspects throughout this article.

    27. ‘authentic’ white culture

      the author here is saying that white culture falls into the values and lifestyle represented by country music. This assertion sums up what he has been trying to say up until this point, but it still doesn't completely support his main argument that country music is "white". To me is just seems that he is able to tie the music to the southern-working class-whites.

    28. The songs of a racialized andmythic ‘used to’ sound a present in which whiteness makes senseretroactively, calling white people to their whiteness.

      The author is claiming that since country songs appeal to nostalgia, they are automatically appealing to a racist past in which it was more advantageous to be white? I'm confused as to why nostalgia would be classified as white. Other genres sing of the past as well, so why would this make country "white"?

    29. literature on whiteness

      I was not aware that such a thing existed. The idea of "whiteness" as a tangible idea to be written about seems strange. The term "whiteness" also comes off as negative in someway here, although I don't think the author intends to have negative connotation in this instance.

    30. It is a nostalgia not conscious ofitself (Jameson 1971, p. 82), and is consequently incapable of critiquein that sense. It is, rather, about an anti-future.

      I find this definition of nostalgia to be intriguing: I've never thought of it this way before!

    31. to make country music seem not only as something thatonly white people make, but also something that only white people‘hear’, something that recruits white people to their ‘whiteness’.

      Country music goes beyond mere relate-ability and becomes a definition that creates its very own meaning.

    32. Indeed, one never hears non-southern country artists criticized for putting on a ‘phoney’ accent,and for precisely this reasonthe genre’s authenticity is asserte

      This seems to be in direct opposition to Taylor's argument--the authenticity of the genre is sometimes based on "faking it?"

    33. It is now the dominant radio format in theUS, attracting 42 per cent of all listeners

      It would be interesting to see the demographics of this number. Perhaps the listeners are predominately whites--but are there more males or females who listen to country? Young, middle-aged, or elderly people? I know that going into more detail here would not be following the main goals of this essay, but I also think that, by making too broad of claims about its popularity with whites, it leaves something out (at least in my mind). I guess I just worry about oversimplification in this essay's compelling overall claim.

    34. interpellation

      According to Wikipedia, this word is a philosophical term, although the OED and Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy are sadly lacking in definitions. As I understand it from Wikipedia, interpellation refers to the idea that our identities and beliefs are not our own, but are rather produced for us by others, and we merely take them up as our own.

    35. For if countrysounds white, it is perhaps worth considering the possibility thatsomething claiming the status of ‘white culture’, something like apurportedly American whitenesshowever historically baselessisnotreflectedin country music, but is, rather, partiallyproducedby it.

      I think this distinction is an important one for Mann to make in this introduction. He's not necessarily claiming that country music is a reflection of "white culture"--instead, he turns that claim on its head and states that country music produces whiteness. I find the idea of production vs. reflection intriguing, and I think it's something to keep an eye on throughout the argument.

    36. and not, say, ‘Punk Rock Month’

      You will notice that this phrase should be surrounded by em dashes:

      --and not, say, 'Punk Rock Month--

      ALL em dashes are missing from the PDF upload. This is a text coding interaction problem of some kind that I can't solve: my apologies! (However, I did manage to eliminate the unreadable font of the originally uploaded copy of this article.)

    37. Mann's article is divided into six sections.

      1. intro
      2. Country music as race music
      3. Country music in the US: sound and story
      4. Nostalgia and 'musical interpellation'
      5. The sound of whiteness: a shared 'used to'
      6. Why does country music sound white?

      This is an essay in which the argumentative structure is quite clear (see the summary at the end of section 1.)

      However, the thinking behind the argument is more difficult! The way Ward analyzes cause-and-effect logic may seem counter-intuitive. (Compare Foucault's argument that confession "produces" truth [my emphasis].)

      Annotation instructions: this time around, you can stick to "informational/contextual" and "interpretive" footnotes. Let me know where the essay is difficult; do what you can to be *specific** about the source of that difficulty!

      I will annotate section 4, as it's the toughest part of the article. (The keyterm in Mann's title is a signal of this difficulty...) If it thwarts you the first time through, skip it over and keep going: you can still grasp much of Mann's analysis without an understanding of that section.

    1. First, there's the primal need for confession,

      An autobiographical song, and a very intense, emotional one at that: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3olE6bHjBw This is the one motive out of the seven that I feel fits this song most. The whole song is like a confession for Eminem, since he's bearing his emotions about his relationship for the whole world to see.

    2. I've opened annotations on this text for you to provide examples of songs that fit with the 7-part breakdown Barker and Taylor offer at the conclusion of their essay! (Note: you can embed video, though I haven't tried yet--links to YouTube might be easier...)

      UPDATE: several of you have not yet added your texts! Also: please be more explicit about the connection you see to Barker & Taylor's 7-part breakdown (131-132)--in some of your cases the connection is obvious, but in others less so...

      Enjoy the presence of students past in the annotations on this text! I have decided not to delete them, partly because of the nature of this particular text/discussion: perhaps students from the future will smile, nod, laugh or cry at your own musical selections...

    3. Related to this is the desire to make an intimate kind of music

      Annotations weren't staying anchored here, so I've added this...