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- Feb 2016
The balance of learning is determined by the ratio of two kinds of knowledge in a society. The first is a result of the creative action of people on their environment, and the second represents the result of man's "trivialization" by his manufactured milieu. Their first kind of knowledge is derived from the primary involvement of people with each other and from their use of convivial tools; the second accrues to them as a result of purposeful and programmed training to which they are subjected.
Purposeful and programmed learning leads to trivialization of humanity in a manufactured environment. Illich suggests a natural tension between creative action in the world and the institutionalization of creative force through formal education.