165 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The City Sustainable: Three Thoughts on “Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities”

      Planners considering social equity, the economy and nature in sustainable development plans have the opportunity to add other dimensions to the mix.

      Prior to Campbell and the sustainable development paradigm, planning was about improving sanitation and improving determinants of health in communities.



    1. Cities, Growing Cities”

      Article examines Campbell's seminal article's affect on research paradigms on planning and notes that the planners as well as planning researchers have a long way to go in order to put into balance the triad of social, economic, and ecological concerns in order to achieve true sustainable development.



  2. Sep 2021
    1. Rising coronavirus cases in Israel, where most residents are inoculated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, offer “a preliminary signal” the vaccine may be less effective at preventing mild illness from the Delta variant, a top expert said Monday.
  3. Aug 2021
    1. HyDrop: droplet-based scATAC-seq and scRNA-seq using dissolvable hydrogel beads

      Data Discovery/Status Report

      Click Here for full report

      Summary of datasets and Open Science materials associated with article:

      • 15 Protocols
      • 27 Datasets
      • 16 Code
      • 13 Reagents/Materials/Lab Resources

      18 Tabular Data Dataset(s)

      • 15 "Tabular Data"
      • 2 "Assay"
      • 1 "Fluorometry"

      5 Image Dataset(s)

      • 1 "Image"
      • 3 "Microscopy"
      • 1 "Photography"

      4 Genetic Data Dataset(s)

      • 2 "Sequence Alignment"
      • 2 "High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing"
  4. Jul 2021
    1. Nick Holliman. (2021, May 30). @anthonybmasters @d_spiegel A quick visual summary of data on this week’s article by @anthonybmasters & @d_spiegel The outlook is uncertain, although we have survived a variant once already (B.1.1.7). The data on the effect of variants is analysed as fast as it (reliably) arrives. Https://t.co/vOKmCxYMGT https://t.co/3ZeJJTdRs3 [Tweet]. @binocularity. https://twitter.com/binocularity/status/1398957348492918784

  5. May 2021
  6. Apr 2021
  7. Mar 2021
  8. Feb 2021
    1. That’s it, plain and simple. But if you want the legalese version, dive into it here.
    2. What we do collect:The translated words you encounter so that we know what words you are exposed to and can serve up appropriate vocabulary quizzes.Any vocabulary quizzes you see and the results of those quizzes so that we can keep track of how well you know each vocabulary concept.Anonymized (not linked to anyone's particular account) web page URLs, whether translations show up on them, and whether any bugs or errors occur on those pages so that we can better detect any broad issues affecting our user base.
    1. Objective: Some gambling product messages are designed to inform gamblers about the long-run cost of gambling, e.g., “this game has an average percentage payout of 90%.” This message is in the “return-to-player” format and is meant to convey that for every £100 bet about £90 will be paid out in prizes. Some previous research has found that restating this information in the “house-edge” format, e.g., “this game keeps 10% of all money bet on average”, is better understood by gamblers and reduces gamblers’ perceived chances of winning. Here we additionally test another potential risk communication improvement: a “volatility statement” highlighting that return-to-player and house-edge percentages are long-run statistical averages, which may not be experienced in any short period of gambling. Method: Gambling information format and volatility statement presence were manipulated in an online experiment involving 2,025 UK gamblers. Results: The house-edge format and the presence of volatility statements both additively reduced gamblers’ perceived chances of winning. In terms of gamblers’ understanding, house-edge messages were understood the best, but no consistent effect of volatility statements was observed. Conclusions: The return-to-player gambling messages in current widespread use can be improved by switching to the house-edge format and via the addition of a volatility statement.
      1. Download Office Deployment Tool. Double-click to extract.
      2. Generate an XML in Office Customization Tool.
      3. Merge it with the unpacked configuration-Office365-x64.xml
      4. Run it
      .\setup.exe /configure configuration-Office365-x64.xml
    1. Using details/summary for dropdown nav menu without requiring any JavaScript

    2. in this post, we’ll look at how to use this as the basis for an accessible dropdown navigation element that can be opened equally well by keyboard users tabbing through the page, and mouse users hovering on the nav item
    3. The HTML details element comes with a surprise – in most browsers it has the ability to hide and show content with no additional JavaScript or CSS whatsoever. Here’s a little bit about how it works. details has with a child called summary, and when a page first loads, the summary is the only part of the element that’s visible, along with a triangle that browsers display by default, to suggest the expandable nature of the content. Interacting with the summary element, by clicking or using the keyboard, will make the rest of the details element visible and add an open attribute to the details element itself.
    1. In this commentary, we argue that Fried's article, "Lack of theory building and testing impedes progress in the factor and network literature," provides a number of insights that will be very useful for psychologists, but also that he is wishing for psychology to focus on a kind of theory that it cannot generally be expected to produce at this time. As we will explain, Fried asks too much of our models and our theories. In part, this stems from a failure to consistently heed his own warnings about the limitations of statistical models, but it also reflects an overestimation of the kind of evidence and reasoning necessary to develop and test theory. We too believe that psychological research on individual differences should pay attention to theory, but we are more optimistic than Fried about the progress that can be made through a focus on the kind of theory that psychology is actually capable of producing. In order to justify our optimism, we first develop our perspective on the nature of latent variables and then consider how individual-difference researchers should approach theory that has the potential to explain them.
  9. Jan 2021
    1. Path parameters:

      • Identify a resource uniquely

      Request body:

      • Send and receive data via the REST API, often specifically to upload data.
      • Needs to adhere to REST API principles to be RESTful. Therefore for POST/PUT, needs to send the whole resource in the body.


      • Mainly used for filtering. If you send a query asking for a large number of resources, use query parameters to filter the set of resources that you want. Example: You send a request to api/pictures/category/cat. You will now get all pictures with cats which could be millions. You can put in the query more specific parameters to clarify your request, such as: api/pictures/category/cat?color=black&breed=korat. Now you will get the subset of pictures of cats which havethe color black and are korat cats.
  10. Dec 2020
    1. Monte Carlo Dropout boils down to training a neural network with the regular dropout and keeping it switched on at inference time. This way, we can generate multiple different predictions for each instance.


    1. SWA uses a modified learning rate schedule so that SGD continues to explore the set of high-performing networks instead of simply converging to a single solution. For example, we can use the standard decaying learning rate strategy for the first 75% of training time, and then set the learning rate to a reasonably high constant value for the remaining 25% of the time (see the Figure 2 below). The second ingredient is to average the weights of the networks traversed by SGD. For example, we can maintain a running average of the weights obtained in the end of every epoch within the last 25% of training time (
      1. we train enough to get to a good area in the loss function.
      2. We have a high learning rate(but not too high) so we can explore our surroundings and stumble upon nearby high performing minima. We periodically save the weights(every x epochs)
      3. We average the weights . As a result, the averaged weights will be centered around the loss. See left picture below

  11. Nov 2020
  12. Oct 2020
    1. The perfect breath is this: Breathe in for about 5.5 seconds, then exhale for 5.5 seconds. That’s 5.5 breaths a minute for a total of about 5.5 liters of air. You can practice this perfect breathing for a few minutes, or a few hours. There is no such thing as having too much peak efficiency in your body.

      The perfect breath is 5.5 seconds of breathing in and 5.5 seconds of breathing out.

    2. Breathing less offered huge benefits. If athletes kept at it for several weeks, their muscles adapted to tolerate more lactate accumulation, which allowed their bodies to pull more energy during states of heavy anaerobic stress, and, as a result, train harder and longer. All of them claimed to have gained a boost in performance and blunted the symptoms of respiratory problems, simply by decreasing the volume of air in their lungs and increasing the carbon dioxide in their bodies.

      Breathing less can increase toleration to lactate accumulation. This is because of increase tolerance to CO2

    1. Many black business owners blamed the problem on lowerclass peoples’ affliction with the “white man’s psychology,” namely, that migrantshad been brainwashed into thinking they had to shop in a white-owned store, eitherbecause whites would punish them if they didn’t or because white stores were nec-essarily higher quality than black ones.48Whether this was the case or not, therewere several other things complicating black consumers’ willingness to shop inblack-owned businesses.

      Breakout Group 02: The evidence above demonstrates the "integration of rural Southern culture into urban African American consciousness" where foodways are a "natural vehicle for the expression…of freedom" because it shows the complication within the black community. Where an expression of freedom is an African American having a grocery store. One would think that the Black owned grocery store would be successful due to "black authenticity" but many Black people feared blacklash from White people for even attempting to be independent but also because many Black people were brainwashed to believe that the white businesses have better quality products over the black owned business.

    1. A JavaScript DOM model supporting element creation, diff computation and patch operations for efficient re-rendering
    1. That is, we envision a cuisine and an attendant lifestyle that is more au-thentic and less stressful, more "natural," than the world in which we live.

      ~Group 4~ Anne Meneley is discussing how olive oil is becoming an increasingly more sought after ingredient because of its praise as a natural ingredient. Though olive oil is seen as a traditional and authentic ingredient, due to media, it is an industrialized product and is only widespread because of that- despite the misconceptions to make people think otherwise. There are many reoccuring themes within the article such as distinction, naturalness, processed, and industrialization to name a few. The quote that is highlighted connects to themes because people truly seem to worship this idea of being and living naturally. The idea of being natural also includes eating naturally and there's this distinction between people who live naturally and who don't. People who idolizes this natural lifestyle seem to think they are being authentic when they are failing to realize that transformations and growth are necessary. Meneley seems to want the reader to think about what industrialization and processed foods mean exactly.

    1. Graeber has a great deal more to say about money and its unique capacityto store value, and also about the ideology of the market with its highlyindividuated notion of human desires (e.g. 2001: 257). His analysis opensup an intriguing question. If in market societies money is a measure, amedium and above all an end in itself (2001: 66) and value-for-moneydominates what we conventionally call the economy, how do other valuescoexist with this monetarized realm and its rationality of quantificationand self-interest? Graeber points out that, in our view of society, marketprinciples can be balanced by family values and altruistic charity (2001:257), but he views these as just ‘two sides of the same false coin’

      In this capitalistic society money makes the world go round. Graeber has a pessimistic view in regards to the idea that family and altruism can balance out greed because he believes that they are in direct conflict to capitalism. Graeber expands further on his thoughts

  13. Sep 2020
    1. As a general rule, I would recommend reading the article in it's entirety. With that said, if you wish to "cut to the chase", I have summarized my findings at the end ... feel free to jump ahead to the Summary!
    1. Tuples are a sequence of values which can be of any of any type. The key difference between list and tuple is tuples are immutable.Tuples uses built in function like zip,etc.

    2. Chapter 11Dictionaries

      Dictionaries are like lists and values in dictionaries can be of any type. Every Value is mapped to an key jointly called as key value pair. Dictionaries have various built in functions like invert,etc. In Dictionaries, global variables can be created which can be accessed in function of the program.

    3. Lists are sequence of values which are mutable. Lists have many built in methods to perform variety of operations like append,sort,expand,etc. Lists can perform many operations with each other in different ways.

    4. Strings are list of characters which are immutable. Strings have many built in methods to perform variety of operations like lower case to upper case,finding of a characters in a string,etc. Strings are comparable with each other in many different ways.

    5. Chapter 12Tuples

      tuples is a sequence of values this can be anytype and they are indexed by integers and tuples are immutable in().operations like addition ,multiplication works on tuples.they can return multiple values. Tuples are immutable which means you cannot update or change the values of tuple elements. An operation that collects multiple arguments into a tuple is known as gather. an operation that makes a sequence behaves like multiple arguments is known as scatter. .And the tuples we cannot modify the values. and we can assign the values to the tuples.

    6. Chapter 10Lists

      like a strings here lists is a sequence of values in a list that may be any type this values in a list are called elements and list can have different data types Strings are need to be given in single or double codes.And also Strings are immutable which means a string cannot be updated.And another important topic from strings is Slicing of a string which means we can obtain the substring from the given string by following a syntax.

    7. Chapter 8Strings

      strings is a sequence of characters you can acess the characters at once in bracket opertater ,fruit ='banana' String should be given in single or double codes.Strings are immutable.once we create a string we cannot make any changes in them .We declare strings using square brackets.A segment of a string is called a slice.Many built in functions can be used len(),upper(),lower(),etc.We can use len() function to find length of a string.We can even compare two strings==(equal).The expression in brackets

    8. Tuples are sequence of values. Tuples are immutable. Bracket operator indexes an element,slice,relational operators which work on lists aslo work on tuples. Built-in function divmod takes two arguments and returns a tuple of two values as quotient and remainder. If you have a sequence of values you can use * operator to pass it to asunction as multiplue arguments. Operation that collects multiple arguments into a tuple is known as 'gather'. Operation which makes a sequence behave like multiple arguments is called 'scatter'. Zip is a built-in function in the lists and tuples takes two or more sequences and interleaves them.If the sequences are not of same length, the result has the length of the shorter one. Tuples has built-in funtions sorted and reversed as it does not provide methods like sort an reverse which work as the same.

    9. =>Dictionary is like a list , contains a collection of indices , called keys and their corresponding values. *Mapping : A dictionary represents a route/map from keys to values. The elements of a dictionary are never indexed with integers Python dictionaries use a data structure called a hashtable =>There are 3 ways to count how many times a letter appears and the best way is implementing through dictionaries Dictionaries have a method called "get" that takes a key and a default value. =>Traverses the keys of the dictionary is possible by us ing dictionary in a for statement. =>Lookup : The operation lookup means finding the corresponding value of a key in dictionary i.e., by value v = d[k]. Reverse lookup is nothing but finding the corresponding key of a value. The raise statement causes an exception; in<br> this case it causes a LookupError. You can provide a detailed error message as<br> an optional argument , when you raise an<br> exception. A reverse lookup is much slower than a forward lookup. =>Lists can be values in a dictionary, but they cannot be keys. In the inverted dictionary there are several hits's of having same vales which are in "List" see below example

                      *      hist = histogram('parrot')
                                >>> hist
                                {'a' :1,'p':1,'r':2,'t':1,'o':1}
                                >>>inverse = invert_dict(hist)
                                {1:   ['a','p','t','o'],  2:  ['r']}
             **A hash is a function that takes a value and 
                returns an integer.
             **if the keys are mutable, like lists, the dictionary 
                wouldn’t work correctly.

      =>A previously computed value that is stored for later use is called a memo. =>If a global variable refers to a mutable value, you can modify the value without declaring the variable: =>There are four types of debugging Scale down the input Check summaries and types Write self-checks Format the output

    10. A tuple is a sequence of values. The values can be any type, and they are indexed byintegers, so in that respect tuples are a lot like lists. The important difference is that tuplesare immutable
      • A tuple is a sequence of values. The values can be any type, and they are indexed by integers, so in that respect tuples are a lot like lists. The important difference is that tuples are immutable.
      • Strictly speaking, a function can only return one value, but if the value is a tuple, the effect is the same as returning multiple values.
      • Dictionaries have a method called items that returns a sequence of tuples, where each tuple is a key-value pair.
      • zip object:The result of calling a built-in function zip; an object that iterates through a sequence of tuples
      • .iterator:An object that can iterate through a sequence, but which does not provide list operators and methods.
      • data structure:A collection of related values, often organized in lists, dictionaries, tuples,
      • A dictionary is also like a list where in list only one type of variables need to be and in dictionaries there can be almost any type in one set.
      • A dictionary contains a collection of indices which are called keys and keep any values.
      • In dictionary we use curly brackets and in lists we use square brackets.
      • In a dictionary we can use for loop and it traverse the keys of dictionary.
      • In a dictionary another name for a ey value is pair.
      • Implementation a way of performing a computation.
      • HASHTABLE-The algorithm used to implement python dictionaries.
      • . list means it is a sequence of values.
      • .In a list we can store any type of values not like strings.
      • A list can be created easily by storing the values in square brackets.
      • We can do different types of operations in list like we can do concatenation.
      • List indices work the same way as string indices: 1-any integer expression can be used as an index. 2-if you try to read or write a element that does nt exist,you get an index error.
      • List slices ,list are mutable
      • in list to delete any type of variables we can use del,pop,remove.
      • The association of a variable with an object is called a reference.
      • MAP-a processing pattern that traverse a sequence and performs an operation on each element.
      • With lists we can perform different types of operations.
      • A String is a sequence of character.you can access the character using bracket operator.
      • In string the expression in brackets is called index it calculates the character from 0.
      • In index we can do operations and if it is not in integer it gives you error.
      • Len means it is a built in function that returns the number of characters in the string.
      • A lot of computations involve processing a string and while doing it will do from beginning with each and every string.it is known as traversal wit for loop in string.
      • String slice means we can divide a word into two and we can do concatenation.
      • In string we cannot use some operators we can only use some operators like in, as,etc.
      • . String is immutable we cannot change .
      1. Strings are not like integers, floats, and booleans.
      2. A string is asequence, which means it isan ordered collection of other values.
      3. A string is a sequence of characters.
      4. len is a built-in function that returns the number of characters in a string.
      5. A segment of a string is called aslice.
      6. Strings provide methods that perform a variety of useful operations.
      7. A method is similarto a function—it takes arguments and returns a value—but the syntax is different.
    11. 10ListsThis

      List List is a collection of values which is ordered and changeable. Allows duplicate members. Nested list is possible ( list containing one more list). They are mutable means no fixed elements.List slices are possible with index numbers (0:2) .Operations used in list -- ' + ' concatenates the list, ' * ' repeats a list a given number of times. Aliasing -- variable's value is assigned to another variable. List methods -- append() , extend() , sort() , map() , split() , etc

    12. 8StringsStrings

      Strings A string is a finite sequence an alphabet. Each sub string is called by there index. Strings are immutable which mean they cannot be edited or changed. To access characters in the String, method of slicing is used. Slicing in a String is done by using a Slicing operator (colon,: ). Built in functions -- upper(), lower(), replace(),type(), etc. Operators:+, *, in, not in..etc.Comparison and debugging of strings is possible.

    13. What I have learnt from chapter-10(Lists): List is similar to array. List is a most versatile datatype available in python which can be written as a list of comma-separates values (items) between square brackets. Important thing about a list is that items in a list need not be of the same type. List is a sequence of values like integers , floating numbers , strings, etc called as elements and they are mutable. List methods are append() , extend() , sort() , map() , split() , etc and Operations on lists are ' + '.

    14. What I have learnt from chapter-8(Strings) : Strings are sequence of characters. Strings are immutable. Strings can be accessed by square bracket operator. There are some builtin functions in strings.they are: upper(),lower(),find(),len() etc.. I got to know about applying sequence and comparing string(=,>,<). We can learn indexing and slicing of a string in this chapter.

    15. Lists

      I have learnt these things about list: Lists are also sequence data types as strings but it can store heterogeneous data. list are also zero index based . List can be traversed using for loop . Lists are mutable unlike strings. Any operations made on lists , modifies it in place. Slicing can also be performed same as strings The plus operator concatenates two lists and comparison operators compares two lists element by element same as strings. Various built in methods of lists such as len,count,sort,append,extend etc are there. split method splits string into list and join method return a string of elements of list. Got to know about aliasing and many more.

    16. Lists

      LISTS: • Sequence of values just like strings • Values in the list are called elements or items • A list can contain a list within itself and is called nested list • Lists are mutable • In operator can be used in the same way as strings Map: - it’s a function that acts onto each of the elements in a sequence Reduce:-an operation which combines sequence of characters into a single value Filter:-an operation which acts upon few elements of the list ***If two objects are identical they are also equivalent but if they are equivalent, they are not necessarily identical

    17. Strings

      STRINGS: • Sequence of characters • Index tells us which character in the sequence we want • Index must only be integers or else we will get Type Error • We can use the len() to get the length of the string • We can iterate through the strings in two different ways o for i in range(len(string): print(string[i]) o for i in string: print(i) • The in operator can be used to check whether a substring is present in the given string • Strings can be sliced and is Counterintuitive • Strings are immutable in nature

    18. Strings

      A string is a sequence of characters that are assigned or declared to a variable within quotes.They are immutable i.e. we can't make any further changes to the string once they are assigned.The elements in the string can be accessed through index. I have learnt about many built-in functions like len(),split(),upper(),lower(),find() ,etc...

    19. Strings

      I have learnt these things about strings: strings are sequence of characters and zero-index based. A char in a string can be accessed by using []. A string can be traversed using for loop. Strings can be sliced to get a piece of string. Various built in methods area available such as len,find,lower,upper,capitalize,isalpha,isnumeric etc.

      • operator concats two strings. comparison operaors compares teo strings lexicographically. Most importantly strings are immutable i.e once created they can't be modified.
  14. Jul 2020
  15. Jun 2020
  16. May 2020
    1. We group a description of and about personal data (such as a Cookie or IP Address), the purpose of its collection (such as Analytics or Advertising) and the providers (such as Google or even your own website) into what we call services. Each service corresponds to a portion of a privacy policy, and provides all the relevant information to the end users of your website.
  17. Apr 2020
    1. e submit that the use of a crystallographic primary screenfollowed by rapid poised chemistry to generate a follow-uplibrary offers a new, powerful method in hit discovery and leadseries selectio

      method summary: crystallography as primary screen, followd by rapid poised chemistry



    1. Hypothesis already deals with minor changes to a document thanks to our fuzzy anchoring algorithm, which can cleverly locate the original annotated selection even if it or its surrounding context has changed slightly or been moved around.

      Summary: Small changes in the document should be okay.

    1. Misinformation can amplify humanity's greatest challenges. A salient recent example of this is the COVID-19 pandemic, which has bred a multitude of falsehoods even as truth has increasingly become a matter of life-and-death. Here we investigate why people believe and spread false (and true) news content about COVID-19, and test an intervention intended to increase the truthfulness of the content people share on social media. Across two studies with over 1,600 participants (quota-matched to the American public on age, gender, ethnicity and geographic region), we find support for the idea that people share false claims about COVID-19 in part because they simply fail to think sufficiently about whether or not content is accurate when deciding what to share. In Study 1, participants were far worse at discerning between true and false content when deciding what they would share on social media relative to when they are asked directly about accuracy. Furthermore, participants who engaged in more analytic thinking and had greater science knowledge were more discerning in their belief and sharing. In Study 2, we found that a simple accuracy reminder at the beginning of the study – i.e., asking people to judge the accuracy of a non-COVID-19-related headline – more than doubled the level of truth discernment in participants’ sharing intentions. In the control, participants were equally like to say they would share false versus true headlines at COVID-19 whereas, in the treatment, sharing of true headlines was significantly higher than false headlines. Our results – which mirror those found previously for political fake news – suggest that nudging people to think about accuracy is a simple way to improve choices about what to share on social media. Accuracy nudges are straightforward for social media platforms to implement on top of the other approaches they are currently employing, and could have an immediate positive impact on stemming the tide of misinformation about the COVID-19 outbreak.
    1. There is an obvious concern globally regarding the fact about the emerging coronavirus 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) as a worldwide public health threat. As the outbreak of COVID‐19 causes by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) progresses within China and beyond, rapidly available epidemiological data are needed to guide strategies for situational awareness and intervention. The recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, caused by the SARS‐CoV‐2 emphasizes the importance of analyzing the epidemiological data of this novel virus and predicting their risks of infecting people all around the globe. In this study, we present an effort to compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on COVID‐19 based on the several open datasets on 2019‐nCoV provided by the Johns Hopkins University, World Health Organization, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Commission, and DXY. An exploratory data analysis with visualizations has been made to understand the number of different cases reported (confirmed, death, and recovered) in different provinces of China and outside of China. Overall, at the outset of an outbreak like this, it is highly important to readily provide information to begin the evaluation necessary to understand the risks and begin containment activities.
  18. Mar 2020
    1. A koala bear isn’t actually a bear, it’s a marsupial. Whales aren’t fish, they’re mammals. Tomatoes aren’t vegetables, they’re fruit. Almost nothing is actually a nut. Peanuts, Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, pecans and almonds: none of them are really nuts (for the record, peanuts are legumes, Brazils and cashews are seeds, and the others are all drupes). Hazelnuts and chestnuts are the exception: they are the elite, the “true” nuts.

      When using everyday-English, we follow a different classification system than in Biology.

  19. Feb 2020
    1. Nix is a purely functional package manager. This means that it treats packages like values in purely functional programming languages such as Haskell — they are built by functions that don’t have side-effects, and they never change after they have been built.
    1. The ethical principle that I chose to do was Cultural Relativism. This part in this article indicates that a vast majority of jobs need to think in the cultural relativism approach. Since the impact of globalization, the diversity context in society, workplaces and schools force us to face some discrimination that should not appeared. People are used to evaluate other cultural basing on their own background, if they are not familiar with other culture. Judging other cultural objects on your own norms and beliefs can be a negative behavior against people who are different from you. In this case, we should think in cultural relativism method. We should try to understand other cultural practices in their own context. It would be better to create a harmonious society.

    2. I chose the principle of utilitarianism. I found this rather interesting because I feel that at first it sounds really good because you focus on doing what's best for the majority of people. You focus on what brings them happiness. However, as you think more deeply about it, utilitarianism has very blurry lines about what's good or not because they only have the one principle of making the majority of people happy, which can become an ethical problem if the majority of people want something that is not considered particularly good.

    3. The ethical principle that I have chosen is Eminent Domain vs. Rights of the Land Owner. Eminent Domain is the government's power to acquire private property against the will of the property owner as long as that land is necessary for public use. There are many examples of eminent domain throughout history and some cases of eminent domain have even made it to the Supreme Court. Eminent Domain challenges the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which guarantees Americans the right to own private property. Eminent Domain does state that the land owner will be fairly compensated, but private property owner often times do not want to sell in the first place. As long as the eminent domain is justified for "public use" the government may seize any private property that it needs to.

    4. The ethical principle I am interested in, utilitarianism, originated back in the 18th and 19th centuries from a guy named Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and his son John Stuart Mill. As Catherine Rainbow from Davidson College states, the main focus of utilitarianism is that the most ethical decision is the one that yields the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people. To me I think that is a fun topic to think about because if a lot of people focused on this ethical strategy the world would be a lot less selfish and more selfless. The main flaw is that the predictions someone may make about a certain issue may not actually be for the greatest good as time passes along.

    5. The ethical principle that I chose to do was Utilitarianism vs. Justice : Allocation of limited resources. This section talks about how things can be Justice or utilitarianism in life or dead situations. Justice Oliver Holmes argued that everything should be justice and equal no matter what everyone should get the same shot at life. Some examples was that was given from this excerpt was about kidney and organ donors and people on the waiting list to get them. Holmes is basically saying it should be an equal draw to get a kidney an example would be everyone putting their name in a bucket and someone randomly draws out a name everyone had an equal chance to get the kidney. On the flip side utilitarianism is saying the people that needs it the most needs to get it based off severity to get it. I personally would say I'm Utilitarianism because I believe the people that need something the most in life or death situations should get what is needed.

    6. The book Ethics of Emerging Technologies: Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges explains the different types of ethical principles, and uses situations to analyze them. The principal that intrigued me the most was Utilitarianism. I thought this theory was the most interesting because of the way in which it competes against every other theory in some way. When I originally learned about this theory I thought it was doing the greatest good for the greatest number, but I learned there was more behind it. A big part of Utilitarianism revolves around consequences and understanding what they will be based on your action. Utilitarianism is different than many theories because in some circumstances, it is better for the greatest number of people to do a specific action than doing what your specific duty is, or what justice says is fair for everyone. I believe that Utilitarianism introduces a quality of realism, because it requires understanding the consequences and knowing you will not be able to make everyone happy with your action.

    1. Exchange value

      Exchange value appears as the property of a commodity that is exchangeable for other commodities. It also presupposes societies who produce commodities and exchange them. While all societies have things with use values, exchange value is relative to a specific time and place.

      Additionally, exchanging commodities must also presupposes a way to determine proportionality between different commodities, so that they can be exchanged in the first place.

      Exchange therefore requires some other measure that stands above the two commodities meant to be exchanged. If there were no ways in which iron and corn were found similar to a society, for example, then we would not exchange them and they would have no exchange value.

      Marx will contend that what each commodity must contain crystalized within it is value (formally) and that the substance of value is labor (viz. the common factor of both iron and corn is labor). Marx will call this kind of labor abstract labor.

    2. Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity, Use-Value and Value

      Marx's analysis of a capitalist system begins by postulating that it's fundamentally composed of units called commodities.

      In the capitalist system commodities have two features.

      1. They are produced

      2. They are produced by capitalists

      Capitalists produce commodities by employing workers to produce them.

      In this section, Marx begins his analysis of the first feature of the capitalist system (viz. that it is commodity producing). Workers and capitalists will not appear in Marx's analysis for several more chapters.

  20. Dec 2019
    1. When a javascript module is prepared for use on a client there are two major concerns: certain features are already provided by the client, and certain features are not available. Features provided by a client can include http requests, websockets, dom manipulation. Features not available would include tcp sockets, system disk IO.
  21. Aug 2019
    1. Prelude to Plant Form and Physiology

      The reading discusses the importance and value of plants and photosynthesis to our everyday lives. Although plants are broken down into a plethora of categories, they all behave very similarly (using photosynthesis to obtain nutrients) and share the same basic structure (consist of roots, stems and leaves).

  22. Jun 2019
    1. I find Act Utilitarianism very interesting because it places the morality of an action on the result rather than the actions that lead up to the result. The author gives many examples of conflicts people who ascribe to Act Utilitarianism may face because they do not adhere to a code of ethics. Rather, they have one ethical principle that they aim to achieve. This guiding principle is to make decisions that lead to the most amount of good for the most amount of people. The author uses a tax example, saying, it is most Act Utilitarian to tax people proportionally based on wealth rather than tax everyone the same rate. This is to ensure that each taxed individual is paying their fair share. While this seems like a simple ethical model to follow, it does raise some issues. Mainly, that it does not define what good is. Therefore, Act Utilitarianism requires its followers to make decisions in pursuit of something that is unclear. #summary

    2. The ethical principal that I choose is Justice Ethic, the author talks about how it is important that everyone is treated equally. Such as tax, responsibility, benefit, obligation etc. Which it is becoming a social issue today and changing this situation is a challenge for us. Because people tend to treat people similar to themselves equally and people different to them poorly. This makes people want to treat people nicely, so they can get the same treatment in return. The issue today is, people don't feel they are being treated equally. Justice is a valuable tool to show the right way of the moral and philosophy in society. It makes making decisions a lot easier.

    3. The ethical principle that I chose to do was Rules of Ethics. This section talked about in the 16th century Hobbes believed that peoples individual liberties lead to their selfish decisions. Hobbes felt that civilization was all based on the fear of death and the will to be in power. He felt that people should have construction and commonwealth and people should should have the final word to be able to keep the peace this has been seen in may cultures to be unacceptable.

  23. May 2019
    1. Key ideas: rebel culture; black metal; bending rules; combining ideas; AND brewers grounded in education/tradition

  24. Mar 2019
    1. This is here in part to make sure that one of my bookmarks is the E-learning Guild. They offer an executive summary on 'creating accessible eLearning: practitioner perspectives" for free at this page. The entire document is available to members. Rating 3/5

    1. Over the next few weeks, this sustained aerial bombardment, which had been named Operation Desert Storm, destroyed Iraq’s air defenses before attacking its communications networks, government buildings, weapons plants, oil refineries, and bridges and roads.

      US led offensive against Iraq to liberate Kuwait.

    2. Saddam steadfastly refused to withdraw Iraqi forces from Kuwait, however, which he maintained would remain a province of Iraq.

      Saddam Hussein opted to stay in Kuwait, despite the threat of the West.

    3. Iraq’s invasion and the potential threat it then posed to Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest oil producer and exporter, prompted the United States and its western European NATO allies to rush troops to Saudi Arabia to deter a possible attack.

      Iraq invaded Kuwait because of a debt that Iraq owed Kuwait. After Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, Saudi Arabia was thought to be threatened, so the US and other western Allies rushed to Saudi Arabia's side.

  25. Feb 2019
    1. constantly associating the ideas of articulate sounds

      So those who can speak tend to believe that writing is merely a sign for speech, but both speech and writing are signs for thought.

    1. Nor will Knowledge lie dead upon their hands who have no Children to Instruct;

      Ok, she was starting to lose me, but this clause brings me back. She told us above that everyone has their station in life; this is her section on everyone's rhetorical or educational station.

  26. Jan 2019
    1. E. Glen Weyl Talks to Jaron Lanier About How to Live with Technology.

      Jaron Lanier is a writer, musician, and pioneering computer scientist who helped create modern virtual reality. He is also the author of several books about technology, most recently Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now. E. Glen Weyl is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research New England, where he works on the intersection of technology and economics. He is also the co-author of Radical Markets.

    1. Let’s see how predictable the powerlessness of power posing was ahead of time. We want to find out how cortisol fluctuates throughout the day (which would affect measurement error) and how it responds to interventions (to estimate effect size).

    1. All our impact on the environment, beyond that of other species with a comparable planetary range and biomass, can be traced to our runaway brain development and the impact of the associated cognitive surplus.

    1. With an infusion of hundreds of millions of dollars from Paul Allen,4 Etzioni and his team are trying to develop a layer of common-sense reasoning to work with the existing style of neural net. The first problem they face is answering the question, What is common sense?

    1. Karl Friston’s free energy principle might be the most all-encompassing idea since Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection. But to understand it, you need to peer inside the mind of Friston himself.

    1. We found that a plain language summary gives readers an instant overview of an article, making it easier to understand and also easier to find.

      Here is an example Plain Language Summary created for one of David Sommer's own articles.

      Maximize publication impact by all stakeholders coordinating their efforts

      What is it about?

      In this paper I explore the idea that in order to maximize a publication's impact, everybody needs to play their part - authors, co-authors, publishers, institutions, societies and funders. The author is the common factor that links all of these organizations and groups, so their thinking must shift towards creating a culture of discoverability, encouraging the organizations they work with to help generate impact. The author becomes the conductor, leading the orchestra of players. Why is it important?

      The case for authors taking responsibility for maximizing the impact of their research has never been stronger. With over $1 trillion invested in research every year it is surprising to find some studies showing that 50% of articles are never read, and a much higher percentage are never cited. With researchers under increasing pressure from institutions and funders to demonstrate that their research will have impact and be applied, it is critical that researchers do all they can to make sure the right people find, understand and use their work.

      See it on Kudos.

  27. Nov 2018
    1. Diurnal cloud and circulation changes in simulated1tropical cyclones

      Summary/qualitative assessment: This manuscript seeks to explain the offset in timing between the observed maxima in cloud top height and rainfall in a simulated tropical cyclone (TC). The authors demonstrate that this difference in timing arises due to the bimodal nature of the TC response to the diurnal cycle: the peak in cloud top height occurs during the day, due to heating-induced upward motion from the absorption of solar radiation by ice crystals; the peak in rainfall occurs at night in response to latent heating and increased convection, due to both radiative destabilization at cloud top as well as low-level convergence induced by cloudy vs. clear sky differential radiation.

      This is a clear, well-written paper which elegantly describes the relevant mechanisms and highlights the important processes. The figures are dense but clearly labeled, which makes for ease in interpreting. I recommend acceptance after a few clarifications and minor revisions.

  28. Oct 2018
    1. comorbid attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) mostlikely accounted for deficits in frontal executivefunction linked with adolescent conduct disor-der, but considered that ADHD might worsenaggression in such cases

      ADHD can cause impaired executive function linked to lack of "adolescent conduct" and ADHD may even worsen aggression

  29. Aug 2018
    1. The system will not be satisfied until it has made op-ed writers of us all.

      TLDR: optimizing news for clicks turns it into a contest of who has the most emotionally appealing opinion

  30. Jun 2018
    1. Share: Group. Only group members will be able to view this annotation. Only me. No one else will be able to view this annotation.

      I have reviewed many papers and I summarized those papers in my paper in the form of a table which is already an existing theory . So how can I defend that my paper is different from other papers?

  31. May 2018
    1. link

      Tento článek se týká zajimavého aspektu čechů kazdodenni zivota : spodní prádlo. Samožřejmě rozdíly vkusu mezi muži a ženami se objeví.

      Tak, co se týká žen, na útraty dříve oblíbených tangy čím dál víc preferují brazilky a bokové kalhotky. Navíc, ceské ženy raději nosily pohodlí podprsenky včetně sportovní podprsenky než push-up čí kosticové podprsenky. Vsak ceské ženy stále maji rady krasné prádla , jak vyplývá z toho, že podíl modelů se zajímavými detaily jako jsou krajky či pásky neustále stoupá.

      Na druhé straně, muzi jsou předvídatelně vic konzervativní. Ceské muži jsou pravděpodobnější věrni značkám, včetně prémiovým značkám. Na základě toho, muzi projeví vyšší ochota utratit víc peněz za spodní prádlo. O barvách velmi originalni nejsou : převážně kupujou černé čí bílé čí šedé prádlo.

      Avšak, oba pohlaví maji radi bavlněné prádla. Zájimavě Slovenskě ženy v průmerů zaplatí za podprsenky skoro 100 korun víc než ceskě ženy.

  32. Apr 2018
    1. Orlando

      In this passage, Orlando is driving home, the clock strikes, and the narration suddenly reaches the present. The narrator quickly glosses over this fact, and says we need to keep up with Orlando.

  33. Feb 2018
    1. Summary Marquit begins by introducing us to the principal concern of philosophy of technology, which is how technological development influences societal organization and culture and how culture and society influence and drive technology. He then repeats the three theories of technological and societal relationships that Nye introduced us to last week. Technological determinism states that technology spontaneously evolves and that society must adapt to make efficient use of it. Second, technological advance is driven by human culture and cultural developments. Third, a mix of both of those views is the most generally held. Marquit makes the case that Human evolution is intertwined with technology and that technological, biological and societal interactions make up a kind of pyramid of forces that created the modern Human. Bipedality freed up our hands to use and create tools, while the need and ability to use tools may have driven us to develop brains large and capable enough to make use of the tools. Changes in the hand allowed for the use of tools, while the lowering of the larynx and decrease in canine teeth size enabled articulate speech which was another use of larger brains. Tools, intelligence and bipedality were critical in the move to humans as hunters. The first evidence of human hunting is from one-hundred-thousand years ago, an eight foot wooden spear found in an elephant. As a case-study for ancient hunting societies the Mbuti people of the Ituri rain forest in Zaire are a good example. Most of the people in the society participate in the hunt, and there is little hierarchical structure. There is much cooperation between ages and genders, especially in the important songs used for various reasons. Group members make decisions collectively, with the chief providing guidance in conflict, the shaman providing religious guidance, and singers and dancers serving important roles as well. The first major revolution in social organization associated with technological developments was in 10,000 B.C. with the advent of the city-state in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, Mesoamerica, and the Andes. The first sign of technological change involved the transition to complex foraging, society becoming more static with the ability to acquire a surplus of resources and store them. This gave rise to larger populations and allowed for some specialization. Social differentiation arises through the need for individuals to be in charge of administrative tasks. Structures are built to house goods and ceremonial structures hint at the possibility that leaders and central management were present. Eventually the state emerges as a bureaucratic institution and exerts control over resources. Needing a reason to justify this control, institutions are put in place based on morality and being enforced with the threat of physical violence. In 3300 B.C. bronze metallurgy is introduced in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The ability to create metal tools significantly increases productivity and harvest capability, leading to a surge in population and allowing for more specialized professions, including the first known specialization that is not related to the ruling bureaucracy or directly to food production, the blacksmith. Urban developments spring up as a result of these changes and society becomes stratified into state societies by the 4th century B.C. which are ruled by priest-kings. Later in the Middle East accounting for all the surplus supplies becomes critical and because of this need, mathematics, the first currency and the first written language, cuneiform is developed. Greeks as discussed in the last article, equated technology and physical labor as being lesser than theorizing about philosophy of mathematics. The Greeks also have slaves, so labor is much more efficient than implementing new technology. The Romans a few centuries later did innovate and had a much higher opinion of technology. They used their centralized power to build aqueducts, roads and grain mills. The Chinese in Asia, valued technology, science and writing very highly. As a result were much ahead of their western peers for a long time. The early move to a feudal system of a lord, taxation in the form of unpaid labor, and very centralized government however, stunted their growth, there was not enough free time available to the lower class and the middle class was caught up in serving the lords who were content with the system.

      Response Marquit lays out the principal concern of philosophy of technology which is how technological development influences societal organization and culture and how culture and society influence and drive technology and I think this is the lens through which we should be looking at this article. The course dictates that we look at how this frames our relationship to technology which I think is complementary. Regarding the triangle or pyramid of society, biology and technology, I find this very relevant in today’s world. Soon technology and society may even more directly impact our biology. Indirectly our biology has been greatly shaped in recent years by modern medicine. In times past many of us with what are seen as minor health issues today would be dead or looked upon as detrimental to society, today many of these health issues are able to be corrected. In the near future the relationship with biology and technology/society will have a much more direct impact. As long as society allows, humans will begin augmenting themselves, if not at a dna level perhaps as implants, and it will be something to keep an eye on. I found the portion of the article relating to the formation of city-states and production and storage of excess products extremely interesting and important. The relationship between technology and society is really boiled down and almost purified in this moment. Society was so simple before we had excess food, there was little to no hierarchy and no social classes. We see a clear delineation between the time before and after humans started to settle down. The creation of modern society is seen in its’ infancy in this period and I think it can be a great place for me to study technology going forward. It surprised me how much studying history really taught me about how technology affects us today! I am happy that we will be studying more about Greek and Chinese society after this paper, because it seems brushed over compared with how much detail and growth we really see in the ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures within the article. I did find it interesting how these more modern (by comparison) groups were described as failures in Marquit’s opinion. The Greeks held themselves back by thinking of technology as a lesser endeavor, while the Chinese organized their society in such a way that they did not allow for growth, the lavish lifestyle of the upper class cramped the growth of their area.

  34. Jan 2018
    1. (Of course, there were plenty of other things happening between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries that changed the shape of the world we live in. I've skipped changes in agricultural productivity due to energy economics, which finally broke the Malthusian trap our predecessors lived in. This in turn broke the long term cap on economic growth of around 0.1% per year in the absence of famine, plagues, and wars depopulating territories and making way for colonial invaders. I've skipped the germ theory of diseases, and the development of trade empires in the age of sail and gunpowder that were made possible by advances in accurate time-measurement. I've skipped the rise and—hopefully—decline of the pernicious theory of scientific racism that underpinned western colonialism and the slave trade. I've skipped the rise of feminism, the ideological position that women are human beings rather than property, and the decline of patriarchy. I've skipped the whole of the Enlightenment and the age of revolutions! But this is a technocentric congress, so I want to frame this talk in terms of AI, which we all like to think we understand.)
  35. Oct 2017
    1. A Performance Is a Multimodal Text

      The supplemental text I chose to analyze is entitled “The inside story of Terminus, the new dance company by five ex-Atlanta Ballet dancers.” Author Scott Freeman details the timeline of the idealization, creation, and implementation of Terminus Modern Ballet Theater through a journal-like storytelling of events. As a writer for ArtsATL, Freeman was assigned to observe and report on the novel dance company as its members navigated strategy sessions, funding requests, and secret ambitions. Four months of weekly, private meetings between Terminus’s five dancers engendered an eloquent disclosure of the modern company’s origins and aspirations.

      In September of 2015, the Atlanta Ballet declared that its artistic director, John McFall, would be leaving his position. So, Tara Lee, Christian Clark, Heath Gill, and Rachel Van Buskirk, four of Atlanta Ballet’s star dancers, were selected as members of a dance search committee; the committee would consider three finalists for artistic director, and recommend a candidate to the Atlanta Ballet’s Board of Trustees. As they contemplated the final three candidates, the aforementioned distinguished dancers imagined what an ideal dance company would look like. What would be that company’s values? How would the company’s art be shaped and presented? What would its leadership style comprise?

      John Welker, the founder of Wabi Sabi, a summer arts troupe that performs modern dance numbers outdoors, was one of the candidates considered for artistic director. At the time, Welker was an established star dancer of the Atlanta Ballet. To better prepare himself for the role of artistic director, Welker completed a degree in dance at Kennesaw State University and received a master’s degree in business. Star dancers Lee, Van Buskirk, Gill, and Clark all agreed that John Welker was the best fit for the Atlanta Ballet’s position of artistic director. Unfortunately, the Atlanta Ballet already appeared to prefer another candidate, Gennadi Nedvigin. During this time, Nedvigin was retiring as principal dancer at the San Francisco Ballet.

      As rumors of Nedvigin’s probable appointment began to spread, dancers Lee, Gill, Van Buskirk, and Clark jokingly considered starting their own company if Welker was not chosen as the Atlanta Ballet’s new artistic director. When Welker’s candidacy was rejected and Nedvigin became the ballet’s appointed artistic director, the four dancers, along with Welker, felt defeated. Under John McFall, the company’s repertoire presented a modern injection of dance that Lee, Gill, Van Buskirk, and Clark enjoyed immensely. However, Nedvigin was trained in classical traditional ballet at the Russian Bolshoi Ballet School; his classical roots seemed to wrap around the ballet’s modern repertoire and squeeze and diminish its presence. With Nedvigin’s appointment, the dancers felt that their “freedom [...] was being taken away” (Freeman). So, after giving Welker time to heal from his rejection and prompt retirement, Gill, Lee, Van Buskirk, and Clark approached Welker with their desire to form a new modern dance company in Atlanta.

      In September of 2016, the group, including Welker, met at Kennesaw State University, which they initially saw as hosting a potential performance space for the new company. Having been taught to empower themselves by John McFall, the Atlanta Ballet’s retired artistic director, all of these dancers felt that they had a responsibility to create something they believed in. After ensuring that the four star dancers then performing with the Atlanta Ballet wanted to create meaningful art for the city of Atlanta, Welker felt convinced of the project’s hopes and worth. To Welker, it was critical that the dancers not seek to spurn and remove themselves from the Atlanta Ballet’s legacy; their careers with the Atlanta Ballet were valuable and influential. The new company’s motivation must be devoted solely to the creation of a new vision, not a competition with their past.

      The five dancers kept their plans to retire from the Atlanta Ballet and form their own company secret until April of 2017, in which ArtsATL revealed that Lee, Gill, Van Buskirk, and Clark (along with nine other dancers) would be retiring from the company. In May, the retiring dancers shared details about their plans after retirement with fellow dancers in the company. Their start-up dance company, formally known as Terminus Modern Ballet Theater, presented by the Serenbe Institute in cooperation with the Westside Cultural Arts Center, would have two headquarters and five principal dancers. May saw the last performance of Lee, Gill, Van Buskirk, and Clark for the Atlanta Ballet. They performed Camino Real, which incorporates both stage acting and dance. Their time culminated in an emotional finale, yet their ending at the Atlanta Ballet marked a new beginning.

      Bibliography: Freeman, Scott. “The inside story of Terminus, the new dance company by five ex-Atlanta Ballet dancers.” ArtsATL, 18 May 2017, http://artsatl.com/story-terminus-dance-company-founded-ex-atlanta-ballet-dancers/. Accessed 1 October 2017.

    2. Like the tools in a toolbox, though, modes can sometimes be used in ways that weren't intended but that get the job done just as well (like a screwdriver being used lo pry open a can of paint).

      An example of a mode being used in an unintentionally effective way would be the aural mode of Flannery O’Connor’s voice as she reads her short story “A Good Man Is Hard To Find.” Before reading the linguistic content of her story, my high school professor played an audio recording of O’Connor reading this story in a ballroom theater.

      O’Connor is a Southern author from Savannah, Georgia, so one of the first characteristics I noticed of her voice was its accent. Next, I noticed the bluntness with which she spoke. Her voice sounded rather dry and sarcastic at times, which perfectly illustrated, even softened the uncomfortable humor present in the story. I became so engrossed with the aural mode of O’Connor’s short story that once the linguistic mode caught up to me, I felt shocked by the grotesqueness of the events unfolding.

      The aural mode of O’Connor’s reading deceived me and lured me into a state of selective-attentiveness, however, this deception worked well to demonstrate the content of her story. “A Good Man Is Hard To Find” is, itself, an illusory and misleading narrative that culminates in a dreadful tragedy which appears quite suddenly and viciously. Until one rereads the story and recognizes the points of foreshadowing present all along, O’Connor’s voice served an unintentional purpose of misleading the (in this case) listener.


    3. At other times, words may work better than images when we arc trying to explain an idea because words can be more descriptive and to the point. It may take too many pictures to convey the same idea quickly (see Fig. 1.18).

      For the Primary Source Description assignments, students are required to make heavy use of the linguistic mode in order to communicate the imagery of the quilt. Rather than composing an essay of photographs, students must provide enough detailed and descriptive language of the quilt that potential reconstruction of the panel discussed is possible. As this quote shows, knowing when visual modes and linguistic modes are necessary for the most efficient communication will be an essential skill in our college education. Though the Primary Source Description calls for extensive use of the linguistic mode, the visual mode must also be evoked.

      Careful collection and presentation of visual aids will hopefully augment the reader’s imagination of the author’s linguistic mode, instead of overpowering it. My class notes on how to execute a well-rounded Primary Source Description can be seen below, as well as on my website:

      Be Specific and Comprehensive in Your Description

      • Don't just focus on visual descriptions.

      • Describe the texture of the panel, and even its sound.

      • Does the panel feel sturdy or thin and frail with age? What is the tactile sensation you observe?

      • What are some of the spatial relationships between images, objects, or other attachments on the Quilt panel?

      • How much does it weigh?

      Images in Your Primary Source Description

      • One should include images that quote details from the panel.

      • Images may help to support your description.

      • You don't have to have a picture of the entire panel.

      • In fact, be sure that the images you do include do not supersede the text. The text must remain relevant, so use detailed images that are subordinate to your description.

      • Use pictures that help to explain certain details on the Quilt.

      If there is a flower on your panel, describe how many petals there are. Use analogous language to better convey the color of an object or the size of it. "The blue is similar to the color of a robin's egg."

      Click to view the totality of my notes on how to write a Primary Source Description

      As Kenneth Haltman notes in the introduction to American Artifacts, the ability to recreate an object’s “visual and physical effect in words” is critical. Knowing how to use language to effectively describe and interpret visual information can even provide a more comprehensive analysis of that object.

      Click to view my annotation on Haltman’s advice in Hypothes.is

  36. Sep 2017
    1. Summary

      The elder man left Brown behind. His mind was pondering the minister, Deacon Gookin, and sleeping beside his wife. He then heard the trotting footsteps of horses.

  37. May 2017
    1. Summary: I really like this source because it provides amore in-depth analysis of Fake News Stories than my first article does. This source, just like the other ones I am showing for my annotated bibliography are all educational. (I think going over this again is not imperative.) Assessment: Everything I highlighted in yellow is something I believe might be more tricky to teach/talk to students with Disabilities about. This does not mean they are bad (they are actually great ideas to take in) I just have to think about how one can teach that information. What I highlighted in blue are tips the author said that I really appreciated and believe that a lot of people do not think about. I think people who are educated in a way about the fact that Fake News is out there would like this source. I see people who activley share Fake News everyday and there is no way this source would get them to see that all the news they know of is Fake. They would get really angry. That is why me educating my students about Fake News is so important! I think tis source seems less biased because in "Does teh story attach a generic enemy?" it includes the both the Liberal and Conservative side. Being liberal myself, I have been awre of mostly only Conservative Fake News that attacks liberals. Reflection: This source is a great addition for me because it gives me a more detailed lense through which to examine Fake News. It talks about points that rely on one's emotion as well as the actual writing. It gets to points that may are really important and go beyond the surface of a Fake News article.

  38. Feb 2017
    1. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment

      Schindler’s article, Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment, delves into the issue of architectural segregation in our modern american society. She discusses many of the political and judicial actions that are not being taken to not resolve this issue.

      She argues that our environments that have been constructed (whether it had been the MARTA of Atlanta, or the gated fences of predominately white communities) leaves a restraint on minority groups living in these communities. She adds that these communities are a result of judicial negligence and unlike other deterring architecture such as; Robert Moses’s low hanging bridges, makes life difficult for low economic communities to live in an equally balanced and distributed environment.

    1. The sublime

      Reflections on the sublime

      Proposed rejection: the sublime should be considered as one of the things that addresses the passions (that is, the sublime is therefore a purpose of speech?)

      Response: The sublime does not qualify as something that addresses the passions because it is merely a reflection of internal (and therefore personal?) taste. It is more of a reflex/instinct than a conscious effect of speech.

    2. The first is properest for, dissuading; Che second, as halh been already hinted, for pcrsuad· ing; the third is equally accommodated to both.

      Summary: "The First" = the "inert, torpid" passions like "sorrow, fear, shame"

      "The second" = passions that "elevate the soul" and move to action, like "hope, patriotism, ambition"

      "The third" = passions that are "intermediate" and can go either way, such as "joy, love, esteem and compassion"

  39. Jan 2017
    1. Summery of my paragraph from chapter XXI, it starts with "Will Ladislaw was struck mute for a few moments." and ends with "but with a good effort he resolved it into nothing more offensive than a merry smile."

      Cody-Lee Bankson

      So far I find this paragraph to be the most interesting places that Ladislaw and Dorothea interact. The reason for this being that it shows Ladislaw doing a 180 on how he views Dorothea. When first meeting Dorothea Ladislaw doesn't think anything of her, in fact he states that he didn't particularly like her. However, now that she's married and has shown signs of distress Ladislaw sees her as a "adorable young creature" and gets so made that he shows "comic disgust". This paragraph also shows the reader just how much Ladislaw dislikes his cousin. The insults used are very eloquent and, in my opinion, make Ladislaw more likable as a character. Also during this paragraph there is a short parentheses section that switches from Ladislaw to the narrator. This section, I think, shows that the narrator, to some extent, disagrees with Ladislaw's view of Casaubon's research. I think that this small note from the narrator shows some of their character and gets me more interested in who they are. Although I am more interested in how this new relationship between Dorothea and Ladislaw will turn out. I see this paragraph as foreshadowing of Ladislaw falling in love with Dorothea, though I could be wrong.

    1. I wish there were a way to see comments "in-context" directly next to the sentences they relate to. There's a lot of disconnection between content and commentary having it in the side-bar and not having the text highlights numbered to match the annotation areas. Also is there any way to get an overview of all comments on the page summarized or ranked in some way?