355 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2015
    1. lastly, to the assumption of the armour of an alienating identity, which will mark with its rigid structure the subject's entire mental development.

      They always say to be nice to the quiet ones, or to watch out for the quiet ones

    2. In man, however, this relation to nature is altered by a certain dehiscence at the heart of the organism, a primordial Discord betrayed by the signs of uneasiness and motor uncoordination of the neo-natal months

      Would this be someone who is mentally handicapped, or someone who has suffered through some sort of traumatic experience as a child?

    3. I have myself shown in the social dialectic that structures human knowledge as paranoiac(3) why human knowledge has greater autonomy than animal knowledge in relation to the field of force4 of desire, but also why human knowledge is determine in that 'little reality' (ce peu de réalité,

      Isn't it obvious that most of us are smarter than animals? I mean humans feel emotions, can rationalize, and of course those specific few english majors can critically analyze text, I don't think deer possess these skills, but I could be wrong

    4. Such facts are inscribed in an order of homeomorphic identification that would itself fall within the larger question of the meaning of beauty as both formative and erogenic.

      what does this mean?

    5. This form would have to be called the Ideal-I.(1)

      sounds like the name of some Area 51 experimental robot

    6. We have only to understand the mirror stage as an identification

      one would only hope they would see their own image in the mirror staring back at them

    7. the obstructions of his support and, fixing his attitude I a slightly leaning-forward position, in order to hold it in his gaze, brings back an instantaneous aspect of the image.

      one is only as strong as their support or structure

    8. between this virtual complex and the reality it reduplicates --the child's own body, and the persons and things around him.

      So the child finally understands that everything and everyone they see in the mirror is not from another dimension rather than just a reflection?

    9. The child, at an age when he is for a time, however short, outdone by the chimpanzee in instrumental intelligence, can nevertheless already recognize as such his own image in a mirror.

      Is this a hint at evolution?

    1. In girls, the discovery of the penis gives rise to envy for it, which later changes into the wish for a man as the possessor of a penis.

      so girls see men as instruments of pleasure simply because they possess the baby making tool?

    2. penis and vagina were represented by the faecal stick and the rectum.

      when you think you have just about heard it all...

    3. Since his faeces are his first gift, the child easily transfers his interest from that substance to the new one which he comes across as the most valuable gift in life.

      This sounds somewhat like how addiction forms

    4. transition from narcissistic self-love to object-love possible.

      So, one takes their love for themselves and instead invests it into their offspring?

    5. that nature has given babies to women as a substitute for the penis

      Bold statement to make Freud, I am a guy and I think a baby is a lot more to care for than a penis

    6. In other women we find no evidence of this wish for a penis; it is replaced by the wish for a baby, the frustration of which in real life can lead to the outbreak of a neurosis

      For some, not being able to reproduce is for the betterment of society

    7. both baby and penis are called a “little one’

      I have never heard of any man calling his penis "little one"

    8. relation between “baby’ and “penis’.

      Those two words together sound like something Jared Fogle would like

    9. baby and penis are ill-distinguished from one another

      That's a good way to get ten years in the dog pound and stuck a few times

    10. We realize, of course, that to express oneself in this way is incorrectly to apply to the sphere of the unconscious terms which belong properly {296} to other regions of mental life, and that we have been led stray by the advantages offered by an analogy.

      Does this tie into gender be a social construct? That mentally we may identify as a different sexuality than we were born with?

    11. I need not refrain from mentioning, where the context allows it, other instinctual transformations besides anal-erotic ones. Finally, it scarcely requires to be emphasized that the developmental events here described -just as the others found in psychoanalysis - have been inferred from the regressions into which they had been forced by neurotic processes

      so this is like going through puberty?

    1. by the study of dreams. We learn from their interpretation that even in later years, if the Emperor and Empress appear in dreams, those exalted personages stand for the dreamer’s father and mother’s, So that the child’s overvaluation of his parents survives as well in the dreams of normal adults.

      So we can dream and have an interpretation, but it somehow leads back to our parents?

    2. expression of a regret that those happy days have gone.

      life is so simple when you are a kid

    3. f anyone is inclined to turn away in horror from this depravity of the childish heart or feels tempted, indeed, to dispute the possibility of such things, he should observe that these works of fiction, which seem so full of hostility, are none of them really so badly intended, and that they still preserve, under a slight disguise, the child’s original affection for his parents.

      This sounds like how mass murderers/serial killers are born

    4. his desire to bring his mother (who is the subject of the most intense sexual curiosity) into situations of secret infidelity and into secret love-affairs.’

      keep sniffing that yayo Freud

    5. the child’s imagination becomes engaged in the task of getting free from the parents of whom {223} he now has a low opinion and of replacing them by others,

      Nobody wants to associate with their parents in their teenage years

    6. for a boy is far more inclined to feel hostile impulses towards his father than towards his mother and has a far more intense desire to get free from him than from her.

      Is this why most inner city violence is perpetrated by young men who lack a father figure in their life?

    7. The psychology of the neuroses teaches us that, among other factors, the most intense impulses of sexual rivalry contribute to this result

      so one is in some sort of twisted competition with their father or mother?

    8. The liberation of an individual, as he grows up, from the authority of his parents is one of the most necessary though one of the most painful results brought about by the course of his development

      this reminds me of the saying "the apple doesn't fall far from the tree"

  2. Oct 2015
    1. imitation does not copy that which is prior, but produces and inverts the very terms of priority and derivativeness.

      so it creates a new one?

    2. The origin requires its derivations in order to affirm itself as an origin, for origins only make sense to the extent that they are differentiated from that which they produce as derivatives

      sounds more like Derrida

    3. violence must be careful not to reinstall another in its place

      binary opposition?

    4. How is it that I can both “be” one, and yet endeavor to be one at the same time?

      simple, multiple personality disorder.

    5. But politically, we might argue, isn't it quite crucial to insist on lesbian and gay identities precisely because they are being threatened with erasure and obliteration from homophobic quarters?

      Once all the older, conservative politicians from the Bible Belt die off I don't think this will last long

    6. Is it not possible to maintain and pursue heterosexual identifications and aims within homosexual practice, and homosexual identifications and aims within heterosexual practices?

      Football is a great example of this

    7. It is possible to argue that whereas no transparent or full revelation is afforded by “lesbian” and “gay,” there remains a political imperative to use these necessary errors or category mistakes,

      Once the baby boomer generation dies off I am sure this will change

    8. Is the “subject” who is “out” free of its subjection and finally in the clear? Or could it be that the subjection that subjectivates the gay or lesbian subject in some ways continues to oppress, or oppresses most insidiously, once “outness” is claimed? What or who is it that is “out,” made manifest and fully disclosed, when and if I reveal myself as lesbian? What is it that is now known, anything? What remains permanently concealed by the very linguistic act that offers up the promise of a transparent revelation of sexuality?

      so "coming out" causes other gay and lesbian peers to oppress another? Shouldn't they welcome them with open arms?

    9. Can sexuality even remain sexuality once it submits to a criterion of transparency and disclosure, or does it perhaps cease to be sexuality precisely when the semblance of full explicitness is achieved?

      attitudes about sexuality are always changing

    10. identity categories tend to be instruments of regulatory regimes, whether as the normalizing categories of oppressive structures or as the rallying points for a liberatory contestation of that very oppression.

      you need to stick it to the man to be recognized

    11. In its own precarious position at/as the border, homosexuality seems capable of both subtending the dominance of the hetero and structurally subverting it.

      thats interesting to think about

    12. But the figure inside/outside, which encapsulates the structure of language, repression, and subjectivity, also designates the structure of exclusion, oppression, and repudiation.

      sounds like almost everything we have talked about combined into one

    13. It has everything to do with the structures of alienation, splitting, and identification which together produce a self and an other, a subject and an object, an unconscious and a conscious, an interiority and an exteriority.

      very interesting

    14. suggesting that new (and old) sexual possibilities are no longer thinkable in terms of a simple inside/outside dialectic

      Recognizing that gender and social attitudes about sexuality are changing?

    1. is someone who uses "the means at hand," that is, the instruments he finds at his disposition around him, those which are already there, which had not been especially conceived with an eye to the operation for which they are to be used and to which one tries by trial and error to adapt them, not hesitating to change them whenever it appears necessary, or to try several of them at once, even if their form and their origin are heterogenous -- and so forth.

      so this would be like building an automobile with what you find in your dumpster? This sounds a lot more like structure can be incorporated into it here.

    2. The Savage Mind

      thou shall not lack in the land of Chiraq!

    3. that language bears within itself the necessity of its own critique. This critique may be undertaken along two tracks, in two "manners." Once the limit of nature/culture opposition makes itself felt, one might want to question systematically and rigorously the history of these concepts.

      so this is language cleaning up "slang" terms?

    4. Levi-Strauss will always remain faithful to this double intention

      at least he stands by his work

    5. Levi-Strauss will always remain faithful to this double intention

      at least he stands by his work

    6. That belongs to culture, on the other hand, which depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.

      this is not capital T truth I feel like, because within a society there are subcultures as well

    7. That belongs to culture, on the other hand, which depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.

      this is not capital T truth I feel like, because within a society there are subcultures as well

    8. That belongs to culture, on the other hand, which depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.

      this is not capital T truth I feel like, because within a society there are subcultures as well

    9. That belongs to culture, on the other hand, which depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.

      this is not capital T truth I feel like, because within a society there are subcultures as well

    10. That belongs to culture, on the other hand, which depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.

      this is not capital T truth I feel like, because within a society there are subcultures as well

    11. But if nobody can escape this necessity, and if no one is therefore responsible for giving in to it, however little, this does not mean that all the ways of giving in to it are of an equal pertinence.


    12. This moment is not first and foremost a moment of philosophical or scientific discourse, it is also a moment which is political, economic, technical, and so forth

      The sciences are facts, so this is capital T truth?

    13. when everything became a system where the central signified, the original or transcendental signified, is never absolutely present outside a system of differences.

      absence of signifiers?

    14. an infinite number of sign-substitutions came into play.

      I remember this from class, Tuesday, good thing I went to class.

    15. a freeplay which is constituted upon a fundamental immobility and a reassuring certitude, which is itself beyond the reach of the freeplay.

      is this to where infinity plays in?

    16. The center is at the center of the totality, and yet, since the center does not belong to the totality (is not part of the totality), the totality has its center elsewhere

      this sentence comes off as a contradiction, I have no idea what is happening here.

    17. At the center, the permutation or the transformation of elements (which may of course be structures enclosed within a structure) is forbidden.

      ah, forbidden, now that sounds like a word that the new critics would use

    18. unorganized structure-but above all to make sure that the organizing principle of the structure would limit what we might call the freeplay of the structure.

      Is this socalled "freeplay" the outliers of the structure?

    19. Nevertheless, up until the event which I wish to mark out and define, structure-or rather the structurality of structure-although it has always been involved, has always been neutralized or reduced, and this by a process of giving it a center or referring it to a point of presence, a fixed origin

      So for something to be considered an "event" it has to have a place on which it took place?

    1. The truth is quite the contrary: the author is not an indefinite source of significations that fill a work; the author does not precede the works; he is a certain functional principle by which, in our culture, one limits, excludes, and chooses; in short, by which one impedes the free circulation, the free manipulation, the free composition, decomposition, and recomposition of fiction.

      I guess the author provides the tools written on paper, it's up to the reader on what they will do with it. I bet this is exactly what the author of "The Anarchist Cookbook" was thinking the book was released.

    2. Freud is not just the author of The Interpretation of Dreams or Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious; Marx is not just the author of the Communist Manifesto or Das Kapital: they both have established an endless possibility of discourse.

      They just provide the firewood, its up to the reader to spark the fire

    3. Modern literary criticism, even when – as is now customary – it is not concerned with questions of authentication, still defines the author in much the same way: the author provides the basis for explaining not only the presence of certain events in a work, but also their transformations, distortions, and diverse modifications (through his biography, the determination of his individual perspective, the analysis of his social position, and the revelation of his basic design).

      Makes sense, everyone has a different writing style

    4. Since literary anonymity is not tolerable, we can accept it only in the guise of an enigma. As a result, the author function today plays an important role in our view of literary works.

      Is this why pen names are used?

    5. Once a system of ownership for texts came into being, once strict rules concerning author's rights, author-publisher relations, rights of reproduction, and related matters were enacted - at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century - the possibility of transgression attached to the act of writing took on, more and more, the form of an imperative peculiar to literature.

      This is when the money started to role in

    6. An anonymous text posted on a wall probably has an editor – but not an author.

      I disagree, 4chan is full of anonymous posters, who come out with ideas of their own and post to the forum with either anonymity or under a pen name. Regardless someone can take responsibility for being the "author" or a text, they may use a secondary source as an editor, but regardless there is a face behind the text.

    7. But if we proved that Shakespeare did not write those sonnets which pass for his, that would constitute a significant change and affect the manner in which the author's name functions. If we proved that Shakespeare wrote Bacon's Organon by showing that the same author wrote both the works of Bacon and those of Shakespeare, that would be a third type of change that would entirely modify the functioning of the author's name. The author's name is not, therefore, just a proper name like the rest

      I bet back in the day they would steal ideas from each other all the time, I mean Thomas Jefferson technically did not invent the photograph, and the guy who supposedly did disappeared, how is this any different, people steal others works all the time, just look at Apple's "Siri" and Samsung's "Alexa" same concept just different names, nowadays, it's just easier to get caught.

    8. God and man have died a common death

      that's kind of a bold statement to make

    9. the critical and the religious approaches.

      I feel like there are more ways to approach a text

    10. . The deleted passages and the notes at the bottom of the page? Yes. What if, within a workbook filled with aphorisms, one finds a reference, the notation of a meeting or of an address, or a laundry list

      If you can find a laundry list hidden within a dictionary, you the real MVP

    11. Even when an individual has been accepted as an author, we must still ask whether everything that he wrote, said, or left behind is part of his work.

      Someones trying to do a stint in the big house over some trumpt up plagiarism charges

    12. None of this is recent; criticism and philosophy took note of the disappearance – or death

      Sounds a lot like how the Mexican Government handles things.

    13. The work, which once had the duty of providing immortality, now possesses the right to kill, to be its author's murderer,

      So the text kills the author? Is this similar to the death of the author?

    14. o perpetuate the immortality of the hero: if he was willing to die young, it was so that his life, consecrated and magnified by death, might pass into immortality; the narrative then redeemed this accepted death. In another way, the motivation, as well as the theme and the pretext of Arabian narratives – such as The Thousand and One Nights – was also the eluding of death: one spoke, telling stories into the early morning, in order to forestall death, to postpone the day of reckoning that would silence the narrator. Scheherazade's narrative is an effort, renewed

      Never really thought about this, but a lot of poems, and other texts, even kids stories deal a lot with death.... maybe we are a culture obsessed with death like the Romans?

    15. In writing, the point is not to manifest or exalt the act of writing, nor is it to pin a subject within language; it is, rather, a question of creating a space into which the writing subject constantly disappears.


    16. I want to deal solely with the relationship between text and author

      New critics must hate this

    1. Traditions are no longer passed down the generations. Instead, they are learned from celebrity chefs, the modern day oracles.

      so now the media runs christmas? Soon christmas will seem like a hallmark holiday it sounds like

    2. Each year, the magazines also presented one or more alternative Christmas day

      seems as though the idea of "the family" is changing as well

    3. In the early 2000’s, this picture of Christmas started to change. The focus was now on preparation, as women were shown serving the food. The magazines also started to give women ‘how to’ instructions.

      sounds like we are going back to the 1950s, any mention on popping a valium or two in this magazine by any chance?

    4. For this project, the most relevant social change over the last 20 years in both countries is that most women in both countries are now in full time or part time work.

      sad to think that this is only 20 years old

    5. semioticians have developed a language to describe what symbolism is and how it works – concepts such as signification, denotation, connotation and myth.

      hurray for language and communication

    6. Each December edition had a dedicated Christmas food section which contained editorial (such as shopping lists and recipes) and supporting imagery.

      this just adds to the biased marketing towards women

    7. Our analysis clearly showed that ‘perfect’ means not just how the food was cooked but how it was displayed;

      seems to be more about marketing and showing off rather than unity

    8. domestic goddesses

      new word to add to the vocab list

    1. In the internal part, evolutionary linguistics has been neglected in favour of synchronic linguistics and I have dealt only with a few general principles of linguistics.

      you mean....... there's more?!?!?!?!

    2. Idea of different tenses, which seems quite natural to us, is quite alien to certain languages. As in the Semitic system (Hebrew) there is no distinction, as between present, future and past; that is to say these ideas of tense are not predetermined, but exist only as values in one language or another.

      that's actually pretty interesting

    3. Psychologically, what are our ideas, apart from our language ? They probably do not exist. Or in a form that may be described as amorphous. We should probably be unable according to philosophers and linguists to distinguish two ideas clearly without the help of a language (internal language naturally).

      we learn to speak inside before we can project words out of our mouth?

    4. f you take on the other hand a simple lexical fact, any word such as, I suppose, mouton - mutton, it doesn't have the same value as sheep in English. For if you speak of the animal on the hoof and not on the table, you say sheep. It is the presence in the language of a second term that limits the value attributable to sheep. mutton / sheep / mouton (Restrictive example.)

      what the hell?

    5. If you take animus in relation to anima and animal, it is a different order of relations. There is an associative family: animus anima animal

      This whole article has made me think, who looked at something and decided that an object growing out the ground was a tree? Where does tree come from? how does one tree? Mind blowing criteria here

    6. Some botanists and naturalists devote their entire careers to one approach or the other.

      good luck, buddy

    7. that even academies cannot change by decree the course taken by the institution we call the language,

      is this due to the subcultures use of language within a society?

    8. institutions such as legal institutions, or for instance a set ,of rituals, or a ceremony established once and for all, have many characteristics which make them like languages,

      Something the courts are doing as we speak

    9. By distinguishing between the language and the faculty of language, we distinguish 1) what is social from what is individual, 2) what is essential from what is more or less accidental

      technically an individual can write their own language and if they gain followers potentially develop a new society written around this language?

    10. how language lives, carries on and changes over time. More generally, it is evident that language plays such a considerable role in human societies,

      imagine a world without language and no way of communication that would be such an interesting science project.

    11. the utility of linguistics, or its claim to be included among those studies relevant to what is called 'general culture'.

      we all share a bond through language that's pretty cool.

    12. comparing different Indo-European languages with one another,

      does this count dead languages as well?

    13. anguages could be compared with one another; that a bond or relationship existed between languages often separated geographically by great distances;

      Sounds about right, I can only think of a handful of languages that do not fit this criteria.

    14. Philology introduced a new principle: the method of critical examination of texts.

      This forever changed the way reading for English majors looked at texts

    15. All traditional grammar is normative grammar, that is, dominated by a preoccupation with laying down rules, and distinguishing between a certain allegedly 'correct' language and another, allegedly 'incorrect'; which straight away precludes any broader view of the language phenomenon as a whole.

      does this mean that the use of "slang" can be considered proper grammar?

    16. The first of these phases is that of grammar, invented by the Greeks and carried on unchanged by the French.

      well I learned something today

  3. Sep 2015
    1. The task of feminist critics is to find a new language, a new way of reading that can integrate our intelligence and our experience, our reason and our suffering, our skepticism and our vision.

      sounds like there's a little ideology in there

    2. The experience of women can easily disappear, become mute, invalid, and invisible, lost in the diagrams of the structuralist or the class conflict of the Marxists.

      damn Marxists always forgetting women, probably too busy trying to overthrow the oppressors

    3. Both Marxism and structuralism see themselves as privileged critical discourse, and preempt the claim to superior places in the hierarchy of critical approaches. A key word in each system is “science”; both claim to be sciences of literature, and repudiate the personal, fallible, interpretative reading. Marxist aesthetics offers a “science of the text,” in which the author becomes not the creator but the producer of a text whose components are historically and economically determined. Structuralism presents linguistically based models of textual permutations and combinations, offering a “science of literary meaning,” a grammar of genre. The assimilation of these positivist and evangelical literary criticisms by Anglo-American scholarship in the 1960s and 1970s is not, I would argue, a spontaneous or accidental cultural phenomenon. In the Cold War atmosphere of the late 1950s, when European structuralism began


    4. women began to organize their own publishing houses

      way to stick it to the oppressors

    5. Lise goes in search of her killer, lures him to a park, gives him the knife. But in Lise’s careful selection of her death-dress, her patient pursuit of her assassin,

      that's some pretty heavy premeditation right there

    6. According to Dame Rebecca West, unhappiness is still the keynote of contemporary fiction by English women

      so they are depressed?

    7. Gynocritics begins at the point when we free ourselves from the linear absolutes of male literary history, stop trying to fit women between the lines of the male tradition, and focus instead on the newly visible world of female culture.

      female rebellion!

    8. The second type of feminist criticism is concerned with woman as writer - with woman as the producer of textual meaning, with the history, themes, genres, and structures of literature by women. Its subjects include the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career; literary history; and, of course, studies of particular writers and works. No term exists in English for such a specialized discourse, and so I have adapted the French

      interesting only the French have a term for this, but what is the difference between the female language and male language?

    9. The first type is concerned with woman as reader - with woman as the consumer of male produced literature, and with the way in which the hypothesis of a female reader changes our apprehension of a given text, awakening us to the significance of its sexual codes. I shall call this kind of analysis the feminist critique, and like other kinds of critique it is a historically grounded inquiry which probes the ideological assumptions of literary phenomena. Its subjects include the images and stereotypes of women in literature, the omissions of and misconceptions about women in criticism,

      so the female reader switches the role of the male to a female to alter it's perspective? Interesting.

    10. described only male perceptions, experiences; and options, and have falsified the social and personal contexts in which literature is produced and consumed

      does this mean that literature written in the past by men is biased?

    11. yet these “cases” cannot continue to be settled, one by one, out of court.

      court is never fun stay out of it as much as possible

    12. terminology is best understood as a form of intimidation, intended to force

      intimidation usually gets the point across..... good thinking

    13. Robert Boyers, in the Winter 1977 issue of Partisan Review, that it will be obsessed with destroying great male artists. In “A Case Against Feminist Criticism”, Boyers used a single work, Joan Mellen’s Women and Their Sexuality in the New Film (1973), as an example of feminist deficiency in “intellectual honesty” and “rigor”. He defines feminist criticism as the “insistence on asking the same questions of every work and demanding ideologically satisfactory answers to those questions as a means of evaluating it,” and concludes his diatribe thus:   Though I do not think anyone has made a credible case for feminist criticism as a viable alternative to any other made, no one can seriously object ‘to feminists continuing to try. We ought to demand that such efforts be minimally distinguished by intellectual candor and some degree of precision. This I have failed to discover in most feminist criticism. [3]

      i'm not sure if all answers will ever have a satisfactory answer.

    1. like Freire the discussion is over because it is 'scientifically proven' that their theory of revolution is

      Reminds me a lot if Syria and what is going to happen after their war?

    1. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud.

      thats blew my mind

    2. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group

      this is why cultures have different morals, politics, laws. etc...

    3. Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘by ideology’.

      two completely different ways of approaching something

    4. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus, but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses.

      Is this why we have checks and balances in our government? So that no one person or branch can become to powerful or repressed or oppressive

    5. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’.

      Marxist lens theory sounds like the reason for so many revolutions

    6. The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation).

      the state puts us in categories and unevenly distributes the wealth it sounds like.

    7. It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography (topique).[5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

      i like this description

    8. , I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’.

      dont ever give into the man, time to occupy wall street again.

    9. by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions.

      interested to know what these are

    10. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages).

      is this where unions come into play?

    11. It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,[3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power.

      and heres where the little guy gets screwed

    12. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply.

      somewhere along the line someones got to get screwed in this deal

    13. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought.

      supply and demand?

    14. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production.

      the producers have a relation with their product? Is this what the opposite of Marxism tends to do.... keep the workers away from the product as humanly possible

    15. point of view of reproduction.

      does this mean to take a step back and look at what we produced?

    16. every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.[2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production.

      well thats a mouthful.....what does this mean?

    1. Two questions, then, emerge from Marx's formulations in the Grundrisse. The first concerns the relation between 'base' and 'superstructure'; the second concerns our own relation in the present with past art. To take the second question first: how can it be that we moderns still fmd aesthetic appeal in the cultural products of past, vastly different societies? In a sense, the answer Marx gives is no different from the answer to the question: How is it that we moderns still respond to the exploits of, say, Spartacus? We respond to Spartacus or Greek sculpture because our own history links us to those ancient societies; we find in them an undeveloped phase of the forces which condition us

      our future is predetermined by us depending what class we are born into?

    2. historically relative structure of perception which underpins the power of a particular social class.

      seems as though the upper class is often favored

    3. then, is for Marxism part of the 'superstructure' of society. It is (with qualifications we shall make later) part of a society's ideology — an element in that complex structure of social perception which ensures that the situation in which one social class has power over the others is either seen by most members of the society as 'natural', or not seen at all.

      Wall Street and the media all the way

    4. The social relations between men, in other words, are bound up with the way they produce their material life.

      so we are competing against one another?

    5. In the social production of their life, men enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will, relations of production which correspond to a definite stage of development of their material productive forces.

      either you're born to succeed or you're born poor it seems like.

    6. It also examines literary texts for their 'sociological' relevance, raiding literary works to abstract from them themes of interest to the social historian.

      So the social historian gets to pick and chose what they want us to know? Doesn't that leave out the negative parts of society, or attempt to erase the past of a society thats shameful of its actions? The saying "history repeats itself" comes to mind here, how can we learn from the past if its regurgitated be someone who picks and choses what they want us to know?

    7. 'sociology of literature'.

      putting society in a book? Good luck.

    8. Marxist criticism is part of a larger body of theoretical analysis which aims to understand ideologies — the ideas, values and feelings by which men experience their societies at various times. And certain of those ideas, values and feelings are available to us only in literature.

      Sounds like this means we get our ideas from manifestos on from the past on how to run society in the present and future.

    9. Marxist criticism comfortably wedged between Freudian and mythological approaches to literature,

      A man all about the money is between a coked up psychologist and mythology?......Makes sense

    10. Marxist criticism analyses literature in terms of the historical conditions which produce it;

      maybe this is looking at the events and politics, economics, around the time that the author wrote the text?

    1. He had to draw on his past experiences with the verbal symbols. He had to select from the various alternative referents that occurred to him. To do this, he had to find some context within which these referents could be related. He sometimes found it necessary to reinterpret earlier parts of the text in the light of later parts. Actually, he had not fully read the first line until he had read the last, and interrelated them. There was a kind of shuttling back and forth as one or another synthesizing element--a context, a persona, a level of meaning--suggested itself to him.

      There is no way for himself to remove himself from the poem without drawing in past experiences and emotions.

    2. rereading of the text for the purpose of paying attention to rhythm; the lines had evidently first been read as simply conversation, or an interchange between two speakers, and hence with no effort to sense a rhythmic pattern or a structure.

      this is interesting

    3. The reading of a text is an event occurring at a particular time in a particular environment at a particular moment in the life history of the reader.

      it would be interesting if an author wrote about a time period in which they had no idea about, described characters, environment, politics, clothing, etc... with no knowledge of that age and to see how the story would turn out.

    4. , developed further by Hadley Cantril. For example, in one of the Ames-Cantril experiments the viewer "sees" a room as rectangular although it is actually trapezoidal or otherwise distorted. The observer is confronted with a definitely structured stimulus, but he selects, organizes, and interprets the cues according to his past experience of a room. The observer hits walls which he interprets as being elsewhere; he flails about with a stick at walls that are not there. Sometimes a disturbing period of readjustment is required. Such experiments demonstrate how much perception depends on the selection and organization of cues according to past experience and expectations. The perception may be revised, but it will be through an extension of the transactional process to which both perceiver and the environment contribute.11

      This just blew my mind.....

    5. The poem, then, must be thought of as an event in time.

      Poetry can be a history lesson too?

    6. Moreover, we see that the reader was not only paying attention to what the words pointed to in the external world, to their referents; he was also paying attention to the images, feelings, attitudes, associations, and ideas that the words and their referents evoked in him

      Personal experiences and emotions can stray the reader away from what they are reading.

    7. a number of the readers never freed themselves from the problem of finding such a practical explanation for a play's success being dependent on the sun.

      connection to new criticism?

    8. During the last rehearsal before the play has its tryout in Philadelphia or New Haven,

      Elm City over The City of Brotherly Love any day

    9. One writes, "Upon reading . . . the first time, I couldn't make any sense out of it."

      sounds like me ever since i entered theory class

    10. A group of men and women, graduate students in English, were handed a text. They were told that they were to remain anonymous, and that they should start writing as soon as possible after beginning to read. They were not asked to introspect about what they were doing, but simply to jot down whatever came to them.

      seems like an interesting exercise to see what the students would come up, also knowing that they would remain anonymous may have an impact on the results.

    1. Having drunk a pint of beer at luncheon‑beer is a sedative to the brain, and my afternoons are the least intellectual portion of my life‑I would go out for a walk of two or three hours. As I went along, thinking of nothing in particular, only looking at things around me and following the progress of the seasons, there would flow into my mind, with sudden and unaccountable emotion, sometimes a line or two of verse, sometimes a whole stanza at once.

      alcohol leads to poetic interpretations of the world? Maybe Bud Light should but that in their commercials

    2. this is an interesting claim to make

    3. Professor Curt Ducasse, an ingenious theorist of expression, is the conscious objectification of feelings, in which an intrinsic part is the critical moment. The artist corrects the objectification when it is not adequate. But this may mean that the earlier attempt was not successful in objectifying the self, or "it may also mean that it was a successful objectification of a self which, when it confronted us clearly, we disowned and repudiated in favor of another."6 What is the standard by which we disown or accept the self?

      so we objectify our own feelings onto a poem in order to try and understand it in our own way?

    4. poetry is the lava of the imagination

      interesting way of describing how words flow in and out of the mind