144 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2016
    1. BAM! Hit me with some good ole Marxist awesome.

    2. Pedagogy, on the other hand, starts with learning as its center,

      Love the shift from managing bodies and assessing knowledge to thinking about "learning," which can be really unrelated to how well managed a classroom is, or even unrelated to how students do on a particular assessment (depending on how unrelated the assessment is to learning)...

    3. Critical, as in criticizing institutional, corporate, or societal impediments to learning;

      BAM! Hit me with some of that good ole fashioned Marxist awesome.

    4. Schools are not

      Schools should not be...

    5. To what extent can social media function as a space of democratic participation?

      So wild to be considering this question while we use Hypothesis! Does using this social annotation app make the reading process more dialogic? More democratic? More communal? More empowering? Does it enable readers to contribute back instead of just consume?

    6. If students live in a culture that digitizes and educates them through a screen, they require an education that empowers them in that sphere, teaches them that language, and offers new opportunities of human connectivity.

      If screens are ubiquitous, then students (all of us?) need to develop literacies that will allow us to use media in ways that help us be heard.

    7. Knowledge emerges in the interplay between multiple people in conversation — brushing against one another in a mutual and charged exchange or dialogue.

      Dialogic. I wonder: is knowledge possible without dialogue?

    8. our real selves and our virtual selves,

      Do you think there is a difference?

    9. I dare someone to explain this awesome sentence.

    10. content is co-constructed as part of and not in advance of the learning.

      Ok, I think this is totally radical. To suggest that content is co-created in the class refigures what we generally think textbooks, professors, lectures, whiteboards are for... I am totally down with this, but it really changes everything if we start thinking that the content of the course is partly going to be generated by the people in the course!

    11. Far too much work in educational technology starts with tools, when what we need to start with is humans.

      I am sure you have all been in classes where you have to use some fancy tech tool because it's...well, fancy! and new! and hi-tech! But I think this point is excellent: you gotta lead with what you are trying to do, and find tools that help you do it. If we lead with technology, we fall back into banking-style robots...

    12. it is “a social justice movement first, and an educational movement second.”

      For those of you who plan to teach, do you think your future career is as much about social justice as it is about education? I guess in my mind, those two terms are often synonymous...

  2. Dec 2015
    1. every instance of the word academy is literally an accident.

      We are TOTALLY going to talk about this project in class. Make sure you understand what he did, and then be prepared to tell us what you think about it. Because it is AWESOME and DISTURBING to me in so many ways!

    2. performance and deform

      I wonder if we can work Butler in here, thinking about how she imagines gender as a performance?

  3. Nov 2015
    1. A scratchy recording of the Norwegian national anthem blares out from a loudspeaker at the Sailor's Home on the bluff above the channel. The container ship being greeted flies a Bahamian flag of convenience. It was built by Koreans working long hours in the giant shipyards of Ulsan. The underpaid and the understaffed crew could be Salvado- rean or Filipino. Only the Captain hears a familiar melody.

      Here's the quote from the class handout.

    2. This is where you can stop reading, folks in my class.

  4. Oct 2015
    1. The message about Christmas was clear: if you don’t put in the effort, you won’t be rewarded with family togetherness.

      If you don't make your famous yams, he will leave you.

    2. In the early 2000’s, this picture of Christmas started to change. The focus was now on preparation, as women were shown serving the food. The magazines also started to give women ‘how to’ instructions.

      The next wave will be "Mental Preparation: how to deal with the looming stress of your inescapable duty of biology to make a high stakes glutton fest for Jesus and your entire family!"

    3. longitudinal semiotic analysis

      In our terms, we might say diachronic, no?

    1. Similarly, for any given period, it will refrain from selecting the most educated language, but will concern itself at the same time with popular forms more or less in contrast with the so-called educated or literary language,

      An example of subject matter analysis would be looking at old journals. Sloppy as their grammar may be, it gives us a better lens to see the linguistic trends of the period.

  5. Sep 2015
    1. This indeed recognizes a truth; it is never the case in fact that theteacher always knows and the student never does. Even quite 'conventional' academic authorsoften testify to the contributions their students have made; this bears witness to the fact that ameaningful dialog has taken place between teacher and students.

      A little inspiration to the student to be critical, because we're not "real" unless we interpret all the information through the lens of the teacher. Unless we can instruct the teacher, to some extent, our education is pointless. Education can only be measured by interpretation of the material, but it's fleeting unless we entertain a dialogue shift.

    2. a contradiction in which they neither are fully human.

      was marx not fully human? i'm lost here.

    3. the formeraiming to suppress critical apprehension of reality the latter favouring the discovery of realitythrough critical thought and free communication

      People have asserted to me that being hypercritical of the entire world waters down my quality of life because it's not worth the effort of overthinking, "You should just LIVE" ... Now, I can be like "DON'T PUSH YOUR ANTIDIALOGIC ON ME, SUCKAAA"

    1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology.

      The RSA's are supported by the ISA's ... the bourgeoisie by the proletariat ... are the ideological apparatuses the working class of the superstructure?? could ISAs ever become RSA's?

    2. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology, but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.)

      RSAs and ISAs, can't have one without the other. if neither are purely distinctive, what's the point of distinguishing between the two? Couldn't you just hybridize the SAs just by noting their I and R functions? Less overlap in my opinion.

    3. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)?

      ISAs are distinct institutions established to control how we think through ideological influence

      RSAs are large scale government-controlled institutions that control what we do physically through acts of violence, affecting how we think.

    4. the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.

      Does this mean the effect of the ruling ideology quantitatively affects one's condition by subjugating them to diverse labor assignments based on income/privilege?

    5. the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’.

      We diversify our labor talents by associating people with different classes based on socioeconomics in the capitalist model.

    6. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage (Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

      Wages have to reach the biological minimum to sustain families (AKA households of workers/future workers). This is where the power comes from in Marxism, where production sustainability is entirely dependent on the wellbeing of the work force. Still, it's easy for folks with crappy paying jobs to fall into thinking the opposite.

    7. the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm.

      The birds and the bees. If you see newborn babies as future employees, the amount of sex in media and advertisement makes a lot more sense.

    8. 2. the existing relations of production.

      the consumers?

    9. process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production.

      the process puts the workers to work in their respective branches of production

    10. every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.[2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production.

      "any idiot knows that a [factory] that produces [things] without being able to keep the [employees working] wouldn't last long. The overall success of the factory is the work of its employees." ... accurate?

    1. It is in the significant silences of a text, in its gaps and absences, that the presence of ideology can be most positively felt. It is these silences which the critic must make 'speak'. The text is, as it were, ideologically forbidden to say certain things; in trying to tell the truth in his own way, for example, the author finds himself forced to reveal the limits of the ideology within which he writes. He is forced to reveal its gaps and silences, what it is unable to articulate. Because a text contains these gaps and silences, it is always incomplete.

      Macherey's Theory of Silences

    2. On the contrary, it is in the nature of the work to be incomplete, tied as it is to an ideology which silences it at certain points. (It is, if you like, complete in its incompleteness.)

      What would the New Critics say about this? (You don't need to read this section, but we will discussing in class.)

    3. Preface v

      Worth reading!

    4. 3 The writer and commitment 1 8 4 The author as producer 28

      Not assigned!

    5. 2 Form and content 10

      This is worth reading if you have time.

    6. 1 Literature and history 1

      You only need to read this!!

    7. I find the comments of both Althusser and Macherey at crucial points ambiguous and obscure

      Probably like a few of my students are currently finding YOU, Terry Eagleton.

    8. it allows us to 'see' the nature of that ideology, and thus begins to move us towards that full understanding of ideology which is scientific knowledge.

      Art helps us see ideology. I LOVE THAT.

    9. Louis Althusser

      We will read him soon. I TOTALLY HEART LOUIS ALTHUSSER! Except for the small matter of the fact that he killed his wife. Bummer on that.

    10. It is not a matter of reducing the poem to the state of contemporary capitalism

      Got it?

    11. 'vulgar Marxist'

      Try to figure out what a "vulgar Marxist" is (it's not good). What kind of a reading does this kind of lame, simplistic critic do?

    12. Literature may be part of the superstructure, but it is not merely the passive reflection of the economic base.

      I love this.

    13. So glad that you all found this key sentence!

    14. 'sociology of literature'.

      be prepared to explain what this is and why Eagleton thinks this is a lame kind of Marxist criticism...

    15. There is nothing academic about those struggles, and we forget this at our cost.

      I like this-- powerful....

    16. Marxist criticism is part of a larger body of theoretical analysis which aims to understand ideologies — the ideas, values and feelings by which men experience their societies at various times. And certain of those ideas, values and feelings are available to us only in literature.

      Sounds like this means we get our ideas from manifestos on from the past on how to run society in the present and future.

    1. Poems have to lend themselves to the "social mentality" in a way, granted, there's no social universality. To connect with a poem, one must feel either more connected OR more contrasted with their surroundings. It's all in reference to the way people around the reader think.

    1. insta~ility of the text and\/ the unavailability of determinate meanings

      Vocab terms: "instability of text" and "determinate meaning"

    2. "I mean in this class do we believe in poems and things, or is it just us?"

      Existential! "Belief" in poems...

    1. The transactional phrasing of the reading process underlines the essential importance of both elements, reader and text, in any reading event.

      Helpful summary.

    2. use of the term '"transaction"

      This is a key term for Rosenblatt.

    3. the reader should not project ideas or attitudes that have no defensible linkage with the text.

      Important, no?

    4. The reading of a text is an event occurring at a particular time in a particular environment at a particular moment in the life history of the reader.

      it would be interesting if an author wrote about a time period in which they had no idea about, described characters, environment, politics, clothing, etc... with no knowledge of that age and to see how the story would turn out.

    5. , developed further by Hadley Cantril. For example, in one of the Ames-Cantril experiments the viewer "sees" a room as rectangular although it is actually trapezoidal or otherwise distorted. The observer is confronted with a definitely structured stimulus, but he selects, organizes, and interprets the cues according to his past experience of a room. The observer hits walls which he interprets as being elsewhere; he flails about with a stick at walls that are not there. Sometimes a disturbing period of readjustment is required. Such experiments demonstrate how much perception depends on the selection and organization of cues according to past experience and expectations. The perception may be revised, but it will be through an extension of the transactional process to which both perceiver and the environment contribute.11

      This just blew my mind.....

    6. Moreover, we see that the reader was not only paying attention to what the words pointed to in the external world, to their referents; he was also paying attention to the images, feelings, attitudes, associations, and ideas that the words and their referents evoked in him

      Personal experiences and emotions can stray the reader away from what they are reading.

    7. a number of the readers never freed themselves from the problem of finding such a practical explanation for a play's success being dependent on the sun.

      connection to new criticism?

    8. To speak of any reading event in isolation is, of course, to set up a useful fiction for analysis.

      But not so fast...

    9. In reading, the message would be represented by the author's written or printed symbols, which constitute what I term "the text." The temptation is simply to adapt the formula and substitute "author" for "speaker," [20] "reader" for "listener." This masks the fact that in any actual reading act, the author has dropped out. Only the text and the reader remain.

      Interesting! Not fully rejecting W&B.

    10. "Something, not yet a stimulus, ... becomes a stimulus by virtue of the relations it sustains to what is going on in this continuing activity. ... It becomes the stimulus in virtue of what the organism is already preoccupied with."

      Kind of like Schrodinger's cat.

    11. but a valid interpretation, I believe, must be at the same time an [16] interpretation of my own feelings when I read it."6

      The crux of the argument.

    12. Perhaps because of preoccupation with the tie between the author and his creation, or the fixation on the text itself, there has been resistance to, and suspicion of the idea of the reader's creativity.

      Responding to precedents

    13. This necessary co-operation between writer and reader, the one to suggest, the other to make concrete, is a privilege of verbal form.5

      I would assert that This relationship does not imply ownership, however. The author still does not OWN the text, nor does the reader.

    14. Does not the reader

      I just LOVE a question that starts "Does not the.." :)

    15. This becomes part of the ongoing stream of his life experience, to be reflected on from any angle important to him as a human being.

      I really like this idea that the POEM becomes part of you, your life, your lens.

    16. compenetration

      New word for me! Compenetration (which spellcheck is refusing to recognize) : pervasive penetration : mutual interfusion <the compenetration="" of="" two="" ideas=""> Sounds at least mildly uncomfortable...

    17. "Poem" stands here for the whole category, "literary work of art," and for terms such as "novel," "play," or "short story." This substitution is often justified by the assertion that poems are the most concentrated form of the category, the others being usually more extended in time, more loosely integrated.

      Well that's an interesting "definition."

    18. irst, the text is a stimulus* activating elements of the reader's experience—his experience both with literature and with life. Second, the text serves as a blueprint, a guide for the selecting, rejecting, and ordering of what is being called forth; the text regulates* what shall be held in the forefront of the reader's attention.

      In the relationship, these are the text's responsibilities.

    19. the fact that the reader's creation of a poem out of a text must be an active, self-ordering and self-corrective process.

      Main idea - ENGAGED RELATIONSHIP with the text

    20. He may discover that he had projected on the text elements of his past experience not relevant to it, and which are not susceptible of coherent incorporation into it.

      The danger of this approach - count on your experiences TOO much.

    21. particular associations or feeling-tones created by his past experiences with them in actual life or in literature

      The personal history lens.

    22. Moreover, we see that the reader was not only paying attention to what the words pointed to in the external world, to their referents; he was also paying attention to the images, feelings, attitudes, associations, and ideas that the words and their referents evoked in him

      Very anti W&B.

    23. hey do give us some clues as to what goes on during the active relationship between reader and text.

      I like the thought of a relationship between reader and text, of being "beholden" one to another.

    24. Some, in addition, felt it necessary to pack in as much symbolism as possible and tried to find another level of meaning for "the sun" as well.

      Ah the dreaded over-interpretation.

    25. the notion of inanity evidently had prepared them to think of the great drama being played out through the ages by mankind on this planet

      Now they are digging much deeper to find larger connections within the context they imposed. They seem to almost have forgotten the poem itself at this point.

    26. having called up such a vivid notion of a director or producer talking about a play, immediately attempted to adapt this to a situation

      Here, they start "bending the poem to their will" and imposing their self-invented context onto the excerpt.

    27. it starts like the others, but quickly makes articulate the realization that this text is to be read as a poem

      Now on stage 3, the reader picks up on some of the more subtle nuances that t are present in the excerpt such as rhyme/rhythm.

    28. These notes reflect, one might say, a rudimentary literary response, yet they already represent a very high level of organization.

      Stage 2, the reader gropes for a context which makes the words make sense. They apply their own experience/history when inventing a context.

    29. Two examples of the opening remarks in the commentaries reject an initial confusion

      This is a reasonable first stage to processing a snippet of writing without any context at all.

    30. My aim was rather to discoveries paths by which these students approached even a tentative fest interpretation.

      I feel like i'm being tested here. Did no one proofread this article? Are the errors intentional?

    1. .

      (highlight problems, meant to get the entire sentence) An example I can think of would be the word "fat" here and its translation in Asian cultures. In America it represents ugliness and gluttony, where in places like China, it can represent wealth and happiness.

    2. Romance of the Rose could not, without loss," observes Mr. Lewis, "be rewritten as the Romance of the Onio

      Is this the signifier/signified thing?

    3. e total statement has a more complex and testable .structure

      Shouldn't they take a poem as it is given them and not qualify or disqualify on "testability"? This idea is insane.

    4. litative progress

      Need refined definition

    5. the affective critic (avoiding both the physiological and the ab stractly psychological form of report) ventures to state with any precision what a line of poetry does?as "it fills us with a mix ture of melancholy and reverence for antiquity"?either the statement will be patently abnormal or false, or it will be a description of what the meaning of the line is: "the spectacle of massive antiquity in ruins." Tennyson's "Tears, idle tears," as it deals with an emotion which the speaker at first seems not to understand, might be thought to be a specially emotive poe

      I think this is really the heart of their argument.

    6. today actually able, if he wishes, to measure the "psycho-galvanic reflex" of persons subjected to a given moving picture.1

      LIke a lie detector? I am guessing this is a mechanical way of recording emotional response. We can do this today with fMRI technology. It would likely make a fitting rebuttle for MSSRS W&B.

    7. e is today found perhaps less often among the sophisticates at the theater than among the myriad audience of movie and radio. It is said, and no doubt reliably, that during the war Stefan Schnabel played Nazi roles in radio dramas so convincingly that he received numerous letters of

      WOW!! Buuuurrrrnnnn!!! Suck up, much, W&B??

    8. most concrete instances not a theory but a fiction or a fact?of no critical signific

      Are they completely writing off "experimental" poetry here? Or are they saying that that classification doesn't really exist?

    9. nd so a poem," says Hans Zinsser, means nothing to me unless it can carry me away with the gentle or passionate pace of its emotion, over obstacles of reality into meadows and covers of illusion. . . . The sole criterion for me is whether it can sweep me with it into emotion or illusion of beauty, terror, tranquillity, or even dis

      This is the way I feel about reading poetry too. And maybe why different styles appeal to different audiences. This might be the more modern view.

    10. unconscious.3 They are the correla tives of very generalized objects,

      Yeah. I don't even know what i'm highlighting anymore. I don't even remember what I wanted to say while I was fighting with getting this annotation to work. This is REALLY REALLY awful. Never again on a PDF!

      Oh, maybe it was that I was wondering if W&B were saying they don't believe in psychology or psych conditions? I honestly don't recall now.

    11. s in different measures of knowledge, based on experience of the consequences of conduct, and in different be liefs." Th

      Words are social constructs that are given meaning by our life experience and context.

    12. ne of these examples (except the utterly anomalous "Sibboleth") offers any evidence, in short, that what a word does to a person is to be ascribed to anything except

      Words are words can cannot be understood to cause radical outcomes, or the words themselves cannot be blamed for radical outcomes? Words have no power but that which we impart to them? Not completely sure here.

    13. es." And secondly, by the fact that a great deal of emotive import which does not depend thus directly on de scriptive meaning does depend on descriptive sugges

      Import, meaning, suggestion - all need clear definitions for this text. I need some discussion on this to be clear.

    14. ort" might have been a happy choice.

      Making a distinction between different definitions of "meaning" and their import to the story/context/emotion/theory

    15. this is on the side of what may be called the descriptive (or cognitive) func tion of words

      Word FUNCTIONS. Implied meaning vs actual, accepted meaning, vs "metaphorical" meaning vs insinuation.

    16. ne of the most emphatic points in Mr. Stevenson's system is the distinction between what a word means and what it sug gests. T

      I think this will play an important role in understanding the affective fallacy.

      PS - Annotating this PDF is a NIGHTMARE!! :(

    17. . Richards spoke of "aesthetic" or "projectile" words?adjectives by which we project feelings at objects themselves altogether innocent of these feelings or of any qualities corresponding to the

      I don't fully undertstand the "antithesis" between the terms "symbolic" and "emotive" language

    1. "In order to judge the poet's performance, we must know what he intended."

      Once the poem, or any piece of art for that matter, is put out into the world the poet's "intention" becomes sort of irrelevant. The art is then open for critics and people to judge and perceive for their own. These judgments are also going to vary from person to person because everyone is viewing the poem with different opinions, mindsets, and backgrounds that influence their perception.

    2. The art of inspiring poets, or at least of inciting something like poetry in young persons, has probably gone further in our day than ever before.

      I feel like it's very important to introduce young people to poetry. One of the only things I can remember from middle school was how enthusiastic my eighth grade English teacher was to start the poetry unit with our class. Prior to this, I had never written or gone out of my way to read poetry at all. Many kids, when asked, described poetry as Doctor Seuss or romantic rantings. By the end of the year, though, she had each of us doing exactly what this section talks about, finding our inner voice and creating poems that we were passionate about. This year opened a whole new door for me, personally, as I've never looked at poetry the same again. I always try to go in with the same enthusiasm my teacher had when she first introduced me to it.

    3. There is a gross body of life, of sensory and mental experience, which lies behind and in some sense causes every poem, but can never be and need not be known in the verbal and hence intellectual composition which is the poem. For all the objects of our manifold experience, for every unity, there is an action of the mind which cuts off roots, melts away context‑or indeed we should never have objects or ideas or anything to talk about.

      I actually really like the way this is written. Basically, what I'm taking away from this, is that there's no one single way of reading the poem. Anybody who reads it is going to be looking at it from their perspective, which changes between each person based on the experiences they've had in life.

    4. the design or intention of the author is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art
    5. Critical inquiries are not settled by consulting the oracle.

      There is no "T" truth in poetry.

    6. I don't pretend that I quite understand My own meaning when I would be very fine; But the fact is that I have nothing planned Unless it were to be a moment merry.

      Do author's admissions to lack of forethought or unintended readings contribute or or detract from the intentional fallacy?

    7. had to pay in order to avoid what he would have considered muffling the energy of his poem by extended connecting links in the text itself.

      Are footnotes the indication of an unsuccessful work?

    8. and it is a nice question whether the notes function more as guides to send us where we may be educated, or more as indications in themselves about the character of the allusions.

      A good question. How import IS IT that we understand, concretely(ish?) what the hell an author may have been talking about 500 years outside of OUR living context.

    9. If the distinction between kinds of evidence has implications for the historical critic, it has them no less for the contemporary poet and his critic.

      Different critics can have different interpretations of the same work. Some may apply the criteria of a school of thought or criticism on a text, but a Marxist reading isn't more or less valid and a New Historical one.

    10. It is difficult to answer argument like this, and impossible to answer it with evidence of like nature.

      If a reader can provide textual evidence, as he sees it, then there is not reason to dismiss his interpretation, though it may differ from that of the author/poet.

    11. For all the objects of our manifold experience, for every unity, there is an action of the mind which cuts off roots, melts away context‑or indeed we should never have objects or ideas or anything to talk about.

      The work cannot have the same meaning to every audience. Not every reader will know the context, vocabulary, etc to get near the the understanding of the work the author had, or tried to impart.But that doesn't mean the reader's understanding is wrong.

    12. There is a difference between internal and external evidence for the meaning of a poem. And the paradox is only verbal and superficial that what is (1) internal is also public: it is discovered through the semantics and syntax of a poem, through our habitual knowledge of the language, through grammars, dictionaries, and all the literature which is the source of dictionaries, in general through all that makes a language and culture; while what is (2) external is private or idiosyncratic; not a part of the work as a linguistic fact: it consists of revelations (in journals, for example, or letters or reported conversations) about how or why the poet wrote the poem‑to what lady, while sitting on what lawn, or at the death of what friend or brother. There is (3) an intermediate kind of evidence about the character of the author or about private or semiprivate meanings attached to words or topics by an author or by a coterie of which he is a member. The meaning of words is the history of words, and the biography of an author, his use of a word, and the associations which the word had for him, are part of the words history and meaning.7 But the three types of evidence, especially (2) and (3), shade into one another so subtly that it is not always easy to draw a line between examples,

      This is a long quote, but I think it well explicates the fact that there IS evidence by which an outsider not the author can evaluate, judge, process and criticize a work based on elements outside the author's purview. There are actual, specific elements against which to judge a work which lead to a fuller understanding that that which may have originally (by the author) been intended.

    13. The evaluation of the work of art remains public; the work is measured against something outside the author.


    14. judgment of poems is different from the art of producing them.

      The author doesn't own the poem and does not control where they end up. He or she has no authority to determine judgement.

    15. public art of evaluating poems

      The crux of the intentional fallacy.

    16. School are interesting evidence of what a child can do.

      Hmm...this seems familiar!

    17. ruth! there can be no merit, no craft at all, without that.

      I feel that we might be verging on discussion of CAPITAL T TRUTH here. What is the Truth? Who decides?

    18. Then I knew that not by wisdom do poets write poetry, but by a sort of genius and inspiration.

      Goes back again to being "in the moment" and whether or not an "outsider" has any (or every) right to place interpretation or judgement on a work.

    19. plausibility, produce an essay in sociology, biography, or other kinds of nonaesthetic history.

      Do we get less out of a work being so far displaced in time? Why? Why not?

    20. there is another way of deciding whether works of art are worth preserving and whether, in a sense, they "ought" to have been undertaken, and this is the way of objective criticism of works of art as such, the way which enables us to distinguish between a skillful murder and a skillful poem.

      Outsides forces weigh on every work made public. There will be judgment that is independent of the artist, and that aims to be independent (at least of the artist) of the the influence of others or movements.

    21. The beautiful is the successful intuition‑expression, and the ugly is the unsuccessful; the intuition or private part of art is the aesthetic fact, and the medium or public part is not the subject of aesthetic at all.

      Criticism influenced by "movements" and its adherence to (artificial) constructs leads one to conclude whether a work is successful or not. No independent thought required.

    22. Homer enters into the sublime actions of his heroes" and "shares the full inspiration of the combat," we shall

      We must be careful not to conflate the author with the character, no matter how grand

    23. and not the author's (it is detached from the author at birth and goes about the world beyond his power to intend about it or control it).

      This is the second part of "that great idea."

    24. The poem is not the critic's own.

      One of the most important ideas I have ever encountered as a reader.

    25. Is not a critic," asks Professor Stoll, "a judge, who does not explore his own consciousness, but determines the author's meaning or intention, as if the poem were a will, a contract, or the constitution

      Another interpretation might be that a critic, an outsider who knows nothing of the author or the circumstances of compostion, has no place making a judgement on the work since she was not witness to the moment. Rather, all they can take is face value, disregarding not only the author's intent, but forgetting her own history in interpretation.

    26. Is not a critic," asks Professor Stoll, "a judge, who does not explore his own consciousness, but determines the author's meaning or intention, as if the poem were a will, a contract, or the constitution?

      Why should I, the reader, bring nothing to the party? If I want to connect with a work, surely it is through the lens of my life, experience, knowledge, taste and any number of other factors that influence my interaction with a work. Why do I, as a reader, and my experience, supposedly count for little or nothing?

    27. He intended to write a better work, or a better work of a certain kind, and now has done it. But it follows that his former concrete intention was not his intention.

      The "real" or initial feeling or inspiration for a poem or work can not be recaptured or improved upon by revision. We CAN make a work "objectively better" but still fail to capture the true heart of intention.

    28. We ought to impute the thoughts and attitudes of the poem immediately to the dramatic speaker, and if to the author at all, only by an act of biographical inference.

      We should be able to IDENTIFY with the character or author of a poem. We should be brought to a place where we can be made to feel what the poet/author feels in the moments of composition

    29. practical messages

      I take this to mean reporting or factual work.

    30. Judging a poem is like judging a pudding or a machine.

      Subjectivity. Each critic will look for somehting different from the poem or work.

    31. If the poet succeeded in doing it, then the poem itself shows what he was trying to do.

      If we ask for explaination then the poem/work has failed.

    32. design or intention as a standard by which the critic is to judge the worth of the poet's performance.

      Can we get in an author/poet's headspace enough to really judge the work?

    33. Intention has obvious affinities for the author's attitude

      But are the author's intentions the ONLY valid way to view the work?

    34. There is hardly a problem of literary criticism in which the critic's approach will not be qualified by his view of "intention."

      Another issue of ego. Who is qualified to grant meaning to a work? Who is not?

    35. THE CLAIM of the author's "intention" upon the critic's judgment has been challenged in a number of recent discussions,

      Ah, the death of the author! One of my favorite features of criticism! It's also one of the most difficult concepts in criticism, I think. One needs to lose a lot of ego to accept that the final authority may not lay with the author.

    1. the introduction of an interactive annotation component helped

      So #meta!

      This is the point in the syllabus where Professor DeRosa drops the mic. Nicely played, @actualham!!

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    2. Not only should digital reading be introduced more slowly into the curriculum; it also should be integrated with the more immersive reading skills that deeper comprehension requires.

      I wonder how this will differ with our upcoming generation of true digital (and mobile) natives who have had tablets and phones to read on since they were 2 or so. Will they need that training? Will they need more training in reading physical texts?

    3. If the online readers took notes on paper, however, the negative effects of Internet access were significantly reduced.

      This goes again back to physical connection that seems to be needed to form strong memory.

    4. The students do not only differ in their abilities and preferences; they also need different sorts of training to excel at each medium. The online world, she argues, may require students to exercise much greater self-control than a physical book.

      This is something I will certainly keep in mind for my future students.

    5. hose who had read the story in print fared significantly better, making fewer mistakes and recreating an over-all more accurate version of the story.

      I can believe this. It's also difficult during discussions to find a line or quote quickly to share when using an ereader, as opposed to a paperback.

    6. The reading has left more of an ephemeral experience,

      I think this is akin to remembering where you were when you first heard a song or how a scent can trigger vivid memory. There's a physical/memory connection that happens when you PHYSICALLY interact with your environment.

    7. Skimming, Liu concluded, had become the new reading: the more we read online, the more likely we were to move quickly, without stopping to ponder any one thought.

      Totally true! So many things are missed and passed over in digital reading.

    8. “The ergonomics, the haptics of the device itself. The tangibility of paper versus the intangibility of something digital.”

      This is certainly something that I notice about e-reading. It's a different experience altogether. I struggle to pay attention to electronic sources as there seems to nearly always be so much "noise" (physical, visual) and distraction....like taking 10 minutes to write this instead of just underlining it in a book with a note like "yep!" and having that still work for me.

    9. As children move more toward an immersion in digital media, we have to figure out ways to read deeply there.”

      I tend to agree. Do you?

    10. need to develop a very different sort of skill, that of teaching yourself to focus your attention.

      For me, this is key: what do I need to do to become a better online reader? How do I need to address the focus issue in order to read well off a screen?