7 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Spake then his Vaunt[2] the valiant man, Beowulf Geat, ere the bed he sought:— “Of force in fight no feebler I count me, in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him. Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death 680his life will I give, though it lie in my power. No skill is his to strike against me, my shield to hew though he hardy be, bold in battle; we both, this night, shall spurn the sword,

      Beowulf is following the same lead as Gilgamesh as the epic hero, as he is going out of his way to preform an epic dead such as killing Grendel with his bare hand in order to show to the danes that he is worthy of praise and to be their king. This is similar to both Siowash and Gilgamesh as the both preform epic deeds though each with there own different reasons.


    1. Our ship-fenced Ares from the Ionian's might⁠Dire mischief did sustain,⁠In shock of changeful fight; ⁠930⁠The mournful-fated coast shearing[31] and land-bound main.[32] Chorus. Cry woe! search out the worst; woe, woe! ⁠Where now the friendly band⁠Wont at thy side to stand?⁠Such was Pharandaces,⁠Susas, Pelagon, Psammis, Dotamas,⁠Such Agdabates, such Susiscanes,⁠Agbatana who left. Oh say⁠Where now be they? ⁠940 Xerxes. Antistrophe II. ⁠Death-stricken from a Tyrian galley thrown,⁠Yonder I left them prone;⁠Amid the billowy roar, The rock-bound coast they beat on Salaminian shore. Chorus. Where thy Pharnuchos? Woe, on woe!⁠Brave Ariomard and he,⁠Warrior of high degree,⁠Lilaios and the king⁠Seualces; Memphis where and Tharybis,⁠Where are Masistras, and brave Artembar,⁠Ay, and Hystæchmas? Say, oh say, ⁠950⁠Where now be they? Xerxes. Strophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠They saw the city hoar,⁠Athenè's hated wall, And with convulsive struggle, one and all, Poor wretches, were laid gasping on the shore.   Chorus. ⁠Him, thine all-trusty eye,⁠The hosts of Persia who told o'er ⁠960⁠By ten times fifty score,⁠Alphistos, Batanochos' heir,⁠Sesames' son, who owed his birth⁠To Megabates, him didst leave,⁠Parthos and great Œbares there⁠Didst leave to die?⁠Unhappy men! ah me!⁠Persians of highest worth! For them dire ills on ills I hear from thee,⁠And sighs of anguish heave. Xerxes. Antristrophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠A thrill of tender pain⁠For my brave comrades' sake, Telling of ills most hateful, thou dost wake. ⁠970 Cries out my very heart, yea, cries amain. Chorus. ⁠We for another mourn,⁠Of Mardia's myriad host the head,⁠Xanthos;—Anchares, Arian-born,⁠Diæxis and Arsaces, who⁠Afield our mounted forces led,⁠Kigdagatas and Lythimnas,⁠War-craving Tolmos—these, alas, ⁠980⁠These mourn we too.⁠Sorrow astounds, ah me,⁠Sorrow astounds my mind These chiefs on tented cars no more to see⁠Thy royal pomp behind. Xerxes. Strophe IV. For lost are they our host who led. Chorus. Lost amid the nameless dead. Xerxes. Woe! Woe! Alas! Woe! Woe! Chorus. ⁠Woe! Woe! in sooth, for lo! Ill so unlooked for and pre-eminent As Atè ne'er beheld, the gods have sent. Xerxes. Antistrophe IV. Stricken are we by heaven-sent blow. ⁠990 Chorus. Stricken, in sooth, too plain our woe. Xerxes. Fresh griefs, fresh griefs, ah me! Chorus. ⁠Meeting Ionian seamen, we Have now, alas, encountered dire disgrace; Unfortunate in war is Persia's race. Xerxes. Strophe V. Stricken, too true, with host so great.   Chorus. Perished hath Persia's high estate. Xerxes. Dost see this remnant of my warlike gear? Chorus. Yea, I behold. ⁠1000 Xerxes. This also—arrows that should hold?

      Xerxes is not playing the traditional gender role as man as he now grieves with the chorus about the loss of his men at the hands of the Ionians.


    2. What son of mine an armament hath thither led? Inform me. Atossa. Impetuous Xerxes, all the life of wide-spread Asia draining. Darius. By land or sea, unhappy man, made be this mad endeavour? Atossa. By both in sooth; a twofold front there was of twofold army.   Darius. But how could armament so vast on foot pass from the mainland? Atossa. O'er Hellè's strait he artful threw a bridge, and so found passage. Darius. Thus hath he wrought, and so hemm'd in the Bosphoros' strong current! Atossa. So was it, yet some demon-power did haply aid his purpose. ⁠720 Darius. Alas, some mighty demon came, and hath befool'd his judgment. Atossa. True, for the issue clearly shows what evil he accomplished. Darius. And what hath been the fate of those o'er whom ye groan, lamenting? Atossa. The naval army, worsted, drew the land force to de- struction. Darius. So utterly by hostile spear hath the whole army perished? Atossa. Ay, emptied of her warriors, moans all the town of Susa.   Darius. Woe for our levies vainly made, and many-nationed army! Atossa. Perished hath Bactria's martial strength, and not her elders only. Darius. O hapless son, of our allies the youth how hath he ruined? Atossa. Alone, abandoned, so they say, Xerxes, with but few others— ⁠

      Xerxes, trying to play the male gender role, trying to expand his dynasty so that he may follow in the footsteps of his father and his grandfather actually ended up being the means to the downfall of his army. As his hubris lead him to the conclusion that it was neccesary to attack greece and build a bridge in order to do so.


    1. When Siawosh learned this he was sore downcast in his spirit, and he went unto Farangiss and charged her how she should act when he should be fallen by the hands of Afrasiyab, for he held it vile to go forth in combat with one who had been to him a father. So he made ready his house for death. Now when he came to his steed of battle he pressed its head unto his breast, and he wept over it and spake into its ear. And he said- "Listen, O my horse, and be brave and prudent; neither attach thyself unto any man until the day that Kay-Khosrow, my son, shall arise to avenge me. From him alone receive the saddle and the rein."

      This is very unlike what we typically expect of those in playing the male gender role as well as the hero. Normally we would expect one that is in this role to prepare for a battle and go down swinging, however siowash doesnt do this and in fact accepts his fate as being killed by the hands of Afrasiyab. The fact that one is going to die is not accepted by Gilgamesh until the end of the epic.


    2. For it came about that Soudabeh beheld the youth of Siawosh, and her eyes were filled with his beauty, and her soul burned after him. So she sent unto him a messenger, and invited him to enter the house of the women. But he sent in answer words of excuse, for he trusted her not. Then Soudabeh made complaint before Kay-Kavous that Siawosh had deafened his ear unto her request, and she bade the King send him behind the curtains of the women's house, that his son might become acquainted with his sisters. And Kay-Kavous did that which Soudabeh asked of him, and Siawosh obeyed his commands.                 But Soudabeh, when she had so far accomplished her longing that she had gotten him within the house, desired that he should speak with her alone. But Siawosh resisted her wish. And three times did Soudabeh entice him behind the curtains of the house, and three times was Siawosh cold unto her yearning. Then Soudabeh was wroth, and she made complaint unto the King, and she slandered the fair fame of Siawosh, and she spread evil reports of him throughout the land, and she inflamed the heart of Kay-Kavous against his son. Now the King was angered beyond measure, and it availed nought unto Siawosh to defend himself, for Kay-Kavous was filled with the love of Soudabeh, and he listened only unto her voice. And he remembered how she had borne his captivity in Hamavaran, and he knew not of her evil deceits. And when she said that Siawosh had done her great wrong, Kay-Kavous was troubled in his spirit, and he resolved how he should act, for his heart went out also unto his son, and he feared that guile lurked in these things. And he could not decide between them. So he caused dromedaries to be sent forth, even unto the borders of the land, and bring forth wood from the forests. And they did so, and there was reared a mighty heap of logs, so that the eye could behold it at a distance of two farsangs. And it was piled so that a path ran through its midst such as a mounted knight could traverse. And the King commanded that naphtha be poured upon the wood; and when it was done he bade that it be lighted, and there were needed two hundred men to light the pyre, so great was its width and height. And the flames and smoke overspread the heavens, and men shouted for fear when they beheld the tongues of fire, and the heat thereof was felt in the far corners of the land.                 Now when all was ready, Kay-Kavous bade Siawosh his son ride into the midst of the burning mount, that he might prove his innocence. And Siawosh did as the King commanded, and he came before Kay-Kavous, and saluted him,

      Siawosh plays the male gender role and role of a hero differently. Siawosh does not use his ability to have relations with the wife of his father because of the teachings that he had received from Rostam. This highlights the differences between the male gender role at the time of the writing of the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Epic of siawosh. NC-BY-CC-ND

    1. This star of heaven which descended like a meteor from the sky; which you tried to lift,-but found too heavy, when you tried to move it it would not budge, and so you brought it to my feet; I made it for you, a goad and spur, and you were drawn as though to a woman. This is the strong comrade, the one who brings help to his friend in his need. He is the strongest of wild creatures, the stuff of Anu; born in the grass-lands and the wild hills reared him; when you see him you will be glad; you will love him as a woman and he will never forsake you. This is the meaning of the dream

      The mother of Gilgamesh being asked what the meaning of her dream is by her son is a representation of one of the female gender roles that exist within the epic. As the mother to Gilgamesh, she imparts to him the wisdom that he lacks in order for him to make sense of his dream so that he may act accordingly. NC-BY-CC-ND

    2. The Epic Of Gilgamesh41THE COMING OF ENKIDUGILGAMESH went abroad in the world, but he met with none who could withstand his arms till be came to Uruk. But the men of Uruk muttered in their houses, ‘Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the king should be a shepherd to his people. His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior's daughter nor the wife of the noble; yet this is the shepherd of the city, wise, comely, and resolute

      Gilgamesh pillages his own kingdom in this translation of the epic. as he is too strong to be stopped from doing so. This is typical of those that are playing the masculine gender role. In the modern day world we want our male figures to be strong and wise, exactly what Gilgamesh is portraying during this point of the story. However, the way that he does this is drastically different than how Siyawash does so, as he acts noblely rather than as a pillager of his own kingdom. NC-BY-CC-ND