28 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. Struck down with overwhelming shame She shrank within her trembling frame. Each word of Ráma's like a dart Had pierced the lady to the heart; And from her sweet eyes unrestrained The torrent of her sorrows, rained. Her weeping eyes at length she dried,

      Rama's hard words on his real reasons on why he save Sita and his feelings about her broke her heart. With this details about what Sita feels and how she is reacting, the reader is able to create an image of the character int heir mind.

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    1. No fond affection for my wife Inspired me in the hour of strife. I battled to avenge the cause Of honour and insulted laws. My love is fled, for on thy fame

      This following lines express Rama's feelings and thoughts after saving Sita. He basically told her that he fight for his honor and justice not because of his love for her, a love that does not exist in him any more. Here we can see the true colors of Rama, where he only thinks about himself as a superior male and the unbalance toxic relationship that he has with Sita.

      CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Each princess gave her soul to love

      In the whole story of Ramayana, we are facing the extreme loyalty, respect and love that is given to the husband, but not equally to the wife. This quote reflect exactly how enormous this devotion is frm the women side is, as the author is claiming that "each princess gave her soul to love". Refering the husband as "to love", and in Ramayana's case Sita been a devoted wife to Rama no matter what.

      CC BY-NC-ND

    1. “I hereby Give you my word, my solemn promise, that The son born to Satyavati shall be king. I Renounce my right and claim as yuvaraja”

      Bhishma's action reflect the core of Hinduism, getting rid of our vanities and connecting more with the spiritual world. Bhishma teaches us about the abounding flaws of humanity and the ways we can rise above them. Bhishma shows us that we can live a fulfilling life if we abandon our mundane habits. It also teaches us that love can blind us and that good deed are always rewarded. CC BY-NC-ND .

    2. Two sons were born Of Satyavati to Santanu. When the king died, They ascended the throne one after another. Bhishma kept the vow throughout his life.

      Because of his many virtues and sacrifices, Bhishma was and continues to be a role model in Indian culture. The story of Bhishma narrated in the epic of Mahabharata , the most influential book in hinduism; reflects an idealized version of the male. He is Kind, cares about others and kept his word until his final breath even after the sons of Satyavati were born which is more amazing.

    3. The king could Never  imagine what a great sacrifice his son Had made for his sake.

      Bhishma's weakness is his love for his father. He gave up all carnal desires and right to the throne for the lust of Shantanu, which place into perspective this noble action. As a result of his vow he puts at risk the future of his beloved empire, goes against his beliefs and is forced to do things that he knew were wrong. CC BY-NC-ND

    4. “I vow that  I  shall Never marry and I shall always be a celibate.” When he uttered these words of resolve, Which echoed through space, gods from Above showered  flowers on his head and Cries of  “Bhishma”, “Bhishma” filled the air. For, such terrible sacrifice was very unusual. Bhisma means one who takes a terrible vow And fulfills it.

      Devavrata become Bhishma because of his promise of celibacy. Bhishma was such a good son that he did not only gave up his rightful throne but also the right to have family and carnal pleasure. This in what makes Bhishma a hero. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Spake then his Vaunt[2] the valiant man, Beowulf Geat, ere the bed he sought:— “Of force in fight no feebler I count me, in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him. Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death 680his life will I give, though it lie in my power. No skill is his to strike against me, my shield to hew though he hardy be, bold in battle; we both, this night, shall spurn the sword,

      Beowulf is following the same lead as Gilgamesh as the epic hero, as he is going out of his way to preform an epic dead such as killing Grendel with his bare hand in order to show to the danes that he is worthy of praise and to be their king. This is similar to both Siowash and Gilgamesh as the both preform epic deeds though each with there own different reasons.


    1. Here is an image of Siyavash cover in flames. Siyavash was accuse wrongly but he always believed in himself, that is why he was more than willing and putted himself in that position. He was true to himself and always tried to do the right thing, that along with his noble status, kindness and intelligence is what makes him such a beloved figure. CC BY-NC-ND .

    1. Our ship-fenced Ares from the Ionian's might⁠Dire mischief did sustain,⁠In shock of changeful fight; ⁠930⁠The mournful-fated coast shearing[31] and land-bound main.[32] Chorus. Cry woe! search out the worst; woe, woe! ⁠Where now the friendly band⁠Wont at thy side to stand?⁠Such was Pharandaces,⁠Susas, Pelagon, Psammis, Dotamas,⁠Such Agdabates, such Susiscanes,⁠Agbatana who left. Oh say⁠Where now be they? ⁠940 Xerxes. Antistrophe II. ⁠Death-stricken from a Tyrian galley thrown,⁠Yonder I left them prone;⁠Amid the billowy roar, The rock-bound coast they beat on Salaminian shore. Chorus. Where thy Pharnuchos? Woe, on woe!⁠Brave Ariomard and he,⁠Warrior of high degree,⁠Lilaios and the king⁠Seualces; Memphis where and Tharybis,⁠Where are Masistras, and brave Artembar,⁠Ay, and Hystæchmas? Say, oh say, ⁠950⁠Where now be they? Xerxes. Strophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠They saw the city hoar,⁠Athenè's hated wall, And with convulsive struggle, one and all, Poor wretches, were laid gasping on the shore.   Chorus. ⁠Him, thine all-trusty eye,⁠The hosts of Persia who told o'er ⁠960⁠By ten times fifty score,⁠Alphistos, Batanochos' heir,⁠Sesames' son, who owed his birth⁠To Megabates, him didst leave,⁠Parthos and great Œbares there⁠Didst leave to die?⁠Unhappy men! ah me!⁠Persians of highest worth! For them dire ills on ills I hear from thee,⁠And sighs of anguish heave. Xerxes. Antristrophe III. ⁠Ah me! Alas! Woe! Woe!⁠A thrill of tender pain⁠For my brave comrades' sake, Telling of ills most hateful, thou dost wake. ⁠970 Cries out my very heart, yea, cries amain. Chorus. ⁠We for another mourn,⁠Of Mardia's myriad host the head,⁠Xanthos;—Anchares, Arian-born,⁠Diæxis and Arsaces, who⁠Afield our mounted forces led,⁠Kigdagatas and Lythimnas,⁠War-craving Tolmos—these, alas, ⁠980⁠These mourn we too.⁠Sorrow astounds, ah me,⁠Sorrow astounds my mind These chiefs on tented cars no more to see⁠Thy royal pomp behind. Xerxes. Strophe IV. For lost are they our host who led. Chorus. Lost amid the nameless dead. Xerxes. Woe! Woe! Alas! Woe! Woe! Chorus. ⁠Woe! Woe! in sooth, for lo! Ill so unlooked for and pre-eminent As Atè ne'er beheld, the gods have sent. Xerxes. Antistrophe IV. Stricken are we by heaven-sent blow. ⁠990 Chorus. Stricken, in sooth, too plain our woe. Xerxes. Fresh griefs, fresh griefs, ah me! Chorus. ⁠Meeting Ionian seamen, we Have now, alas, encountered dire disgrace; Unfortunate in war is Persia's race. Xerxes. Strophe V. Stricken, too true, with host so great.   Chorus. Perished hath Persia's high estate. Xerxes. Dost see this remnant of my warlike gear? Chorus. Yea, I behold. ⁠1000 Xerxes. This also—arrows that should hold?

      Xerxes is not playing the traditional gender role as man as he now grieves with the chorus about the loss of his men at the hands of the Ionians.


    2. What son of mine an armament hath thither led? Inform me. Atossa. Impetuous Xerxes, all the life of wide-spread Asia draining. Darius. By land or sea, unhappy man, made be this mad endeavour? Atossa. By both in sooth; a twofold front there was of twofold army.   Darius. But how could armament so vast on foot pass from the mainland? Atossa. O'er Hellè's strait he artful threw a bridge, and so found passage. Darius. Thus hath he wrought, and so hemm'd in the Bosphoros' strong current! Atossa. So was it, yet some demon-power did haply aid his purpose. ⁠720 Darius. Alas, some mighty demon came, and hath befool'd his judgment. Atossa. True, for the issue clearly shows what evil he accomplished. Darius. And what hath been the fate of those o'er whom ye groan, lamenting? Atossa. The naval army, worsted, drew the land force to de- struction. Darius. So utterly by hostile spear hath the whole army perished? Atossa. Ay, emptied of her warriors, moans all the town of Susa.   Darius. Woe for our levies vainly made, and many-nationed army! Atossa. Perished hath Bactria's martial strength, and not her elders only. Darius. O hapless son, of our allies the youth how hath he ruined? Atossa. Alone, abandoned, so they say, Xerxes, with but few others— ⁠

      Xerxes, trying to play the male gender role, trying to expand his dynasty so that he may follow in the footsteps of his father and his grandfather actually ended up being the means to the downfall of his army. As his hubris lead him to the conclusion that it was neccesary to attack greece and build a bridge in order to do so.


    1. Joseph died at the age of one hundred and ten years; and he was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt.

      Contrary to Hyppolytus and Siyavash, Joseph had a long lasting life and had a family something that the Greek and Persian version did not have. We can argue that the reason why Joseph lived longer was because of his faith in God. A God who always helped him get through the toughest of circumstances. The gods in the Greek version did not help Hippolytus on the contrary it was the reason why he died, while in Siyavash there is no divine powers involved. CC BY-NC-ND .

    1. In here like in the Persian version, Hyppolitus has a tragic end. In this image we see the position in how he died. His ankles are tied and while his horse is running. Is indeed a terrible ending for someone who was not to blame for anything, all thanks to the god Poseidon. Interestingly, the Persian version has not such things as divine beings, there is not even mention of them. This once proves that in order for some things to appeal to other cultures things such as religion, politics and lifestyle need to take part. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. When Siawosh learned this he was sore downcast in his spirit, and he went unto Farangiss and charged her how she should act when he should be fallen by the hands of Afrasiyab, for he held it vile to go forth in combat with one who had been to him a father. So he made ready his house for death. Now when he came to his steed of battle he pressed its head unto his breast, and he wept over it and spake into its ear. And he said- "Listen, O my horse, and be brave and prudent; neither attach thyself unto any man until the day that Kay-Khosrow, my son, shall arise to avenge me. From him alone receive the saddle and the rein."

      This is very unlike what we typically expect of those in playing the male gender role as well as the hero. Normally we would expect one that is in this role to prepare for a battle and go down swinging, however siowash doesnt do this and in fact accepts his fate as being killed by the hands of Afrasiyab. The fact that one is going to die is not accepted by Gilgamesh until the end of the epic.


    2. "I desire to go before the King, that my father may behold me, and see what manner of man thou hast made of me."

      Siawosh is the representation of a good Persian ruler, like Cyrus The Great. He had confident on himself because of the way his father raise him. He always thought before taking any decisions and always try to both maintain piece and strengthen his connections with other countries. His integrity and diplomacy was both his virtue and tragic flaw. Still, he is the representation of hope and good of the Persian culture. CC BY-NC-ND (http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Literature/Shahnameh/siyawash.htm)

    3. For it came about that Soudabeh beheld the youth of Siawosh, and her eyes were filled with his beauty, and her soul burned after him. So she sent unto him a messenger, and invited him to enter the house of the women. But he sent in answer words of excuse, for he trusted her not. Then Soudabeh made complaint before Kay-Kavous that Siawosh had deafened his ear unto her request, and she bade the King send him behind the curtains of the women's house, that his son might become acquainted with his sisters. And Kay-Kavous did that which Soudabeh asked of him, and Siawosh obeyed his commands.                 But Soudabeh, when she had so far accomplished her longing that she had gotten him within the house, desired that he should speak with her alone. But Siawosh resisted her wish. And three times did Soudabeh entice him behind the curtains of the house, and three times was Siawosh cold unto her yearning. Then Soudabeh was wroth, and she made complaint unto the King, and she slandered the fair fame of Siawosh, and she spread evil reports of him throughout the land, and she inflamed the heart of Kay-Kavous against his son. Now the King was angered beyond measure, and it availed nought unto Siawosh to defend himself, for Kay-Kavous was filled with the love of Soudabeh, and he listened only unto her voice. And he remembered how she had borne his captivity in Hamavaran, and he knew not of her evil deceits. And when she said that Siawosh had done her great wrong, Kay-Kavous was troubled in his spirit, and he resolved how he should act, for his heart went out also unto his son, and he feared that guile lurked in these things. And he could not decide between them. So he caused dromedaries to be sent forth, even unto the borders of the land, and bring forth wood from the forests. And they did so, and there was reared a mighty heap of logs, so that the eye could behold it at a distance of two farsangs. And it was piled so that a path ran through its midst such as a mounted knight could traverse. And the King commanded that naphtha be poured upon the wood; and when it was done he bade that it be lighted, and there were needed two hundred men to light the pyre, so great was its width and height. And the flames and smoke overspread the heavens, and men shouted for fear when they beheld the tongues of fire, and the heat thereof was felt in the far corners of the land.                 Now when all was ready, Kay-Kavous bade Siawosh his son ride into the midst of the burning mount, that he might prove his innocence. And Siawosh did as the King commanded, and he came before Kay-Kavous, and saluted him,

      Siawosh plays the male gender role and role of a hero differently. Siawosh does not use his ability to have relations with the wife of his father because of the teachings that he had received from Rostam. This highlights the differences between the male gender role at the time of the writing of the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Epic of siawosh. NC-BY-CC-ND

    1. This star of heaven which descended like a meteor from the sky; which you tried to lift,-but found too heavy, when you tried to move it it would not budge, and so you brought it to my feet; I made it for you, a goad and spur, and you were drawn as though to a woman. This is the strong comrade, the one who brings help to his friend in his need. He is the strongest of wild creatures, the stuff of Anu; born in the grass-lands and the wild hills reared him; when you see him you will be glad; you will love him as a woman and he will never forsake you. This is the meaning of the dream

      The mother of Gilgamesh being asked what the meaning of her dream is by her son is a representation of one of the female gender roles that exist within the epic. As the mother to Gilgamesh, she imparts to him the wisdom that he lacks in order for him to make sense of his dream so that he may act accordingly. NC-BY-CC-ND

    2. The Epic Of Gilgamesh41THE COMING OF ENKIDUGILGAMESH went abroad in the world, but he met with none who could withstand his arms till be came to Uruk. But the men of Uruk muttered in their houses, ‘Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all, even the children; yet the king should be a shepherd to his people. His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior's daughter nor the wife of the noble; yet this is the shepherd of the city, wise, comely, and resolute

      Gilgamesh pillages his own kingdom in this translation of the epic. as he is too strong to be stopped from doing so. This is typical of those that are playing the masculine gender role. In the modern day world we want our male figures to be strong and wise, exactly what Gilgamesh is portraying during this point of the story. However, the way that he does this is drastically different than how Siyawash does so, as he acts noblely rather than as a pillager of his own kingdom. NC-BY-CC-ND

    1. To me the real hero of the story is not Gilgamesh but Inkidu. Gilgamesh full of human vices despite being a demigod. But Inkidu was the reason why Gilgamesh started to live. Gilgamesh would have being nothing without his partner, he would not have suffer in like without Inkidu's death, and would have not turn his life around either. This is why Inkidu is the hero. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Gish understood the dream. 43[As] Enki[du] was sitting before the woman, 44[Her] loins(?) he embraced, her vagina(?) he opened. 45[Enkidu] forgot the place where he was born. 46Six days and seven nights 47Enkidu continued 48To cohabit with [the courtesan].

      In this older version , the translation is clear and more explicit. While in other versions these actions are cover under a bunch of metaphors and wordiness. So it looks like when we, ourselves, became more civilize the amount of censorship we created for ourselves also grew. Just think about that Inkidu and Gilgamesh were lovers, and this was not something new, other cultures also practice this. But later became taboo with the help of Christianity. It is just now that we are starting to accept that everyone does not have the same sexual preference, everyone should be free of choosing a partner regardless of sex. Uncivilized does not mean close minded. CC BY-NC-ND

    2. “My mother, during my night 4I became strong and moved about 5among the heroes; 6And from the starry heaven 7A meteor(?) of Anu fell upon me: 8I bore it and it grew heavy upon me, 9I became weak and its weight I could not endure.

      The story of Gilgamesh dates back to thousands of years but it was first written between 2150 - 1400 BCE. Gilgamesh is narrating his dream to his mother so that she could later interpreted. He says that something like a meteor fell him. This dream would become his reality when he encounter his complement , Inkidu.However, when we see the translation by Stephen Langdon, the thing become a person. Why is this? CC BY-NC-ND

    1. Oh harlot, take away the man. 6Wherefore did he come to me? 7I would forget the memory of him.”

      In the modern version of Gilgamesh the women who civilizes by having intimacy with Inkidu is now a prostitute (harlot) not a priestess. What does this says about our current relation with sexuality? CC BY-NC-ND

    2. “My mother! during my night 4I, having become lusty, wandered about 5in the midst of omens. 6And there came out stars in the heavens, 7Like a … of heaven he fell upon me. 8I bore him but he was too heavy for me.

      In the old Babylonian version what fell from the sky was something not a person. But yet, in this 18th century translation by Langdon says "He". We later know that, that he was Inkidu but Langdon takes all of the excitement and mystery out of it. Maybe is because during that era people were not as imaginative and patient. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. At the end of the day, the only hero in the story was Nina herself. Rama was a complete self absorbed jerk and Sita was completely submissive and did not think of her even once. While Nina went through modern similar faces of rejection and self worth, she came to terms with herself, and accepted the fact that her ex boyfriend was not worth her pain and that she had to move on in life. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. My sons!Father?Return to Ayodhya Palace to rule with me for eternity!But then, he wants to take Luv and Kush back,but he's still hesitant about taking her back.Sita! Well, yes, of course, Sita...All Sita has to do is prove her purity again.Another trial by fire, perhaps?

      When Rama finds his sons by coincidence he wants to take the boy with him, but not Sita. So he suggest another trial to confirm her purity. The only reason why he seems to "Care" about his songs is because they are boy, I am sure that if they were girls Rama would not have care. But he wants a successor and now he has it. Thought out the story Sita needs to prove herself but no Rama. Sita's Value depends on how valuable Rama think she is. And right now she is garbage to him. Now that he has his songs there is no more use for her. CC BY-NC-ND

    2. Hello?Please take me back! Please please please!I'll do anything! PLEASE

      In the modern intake of Nina Paley. She is dump by her ex. His reasons: he was bored of her already. Yet, despite of being treated so badly by her boyfriend Nina insist and begs him to go back with her, just like Sita when Rama wants to take his sons with him back to the palace. CC BY-NC-ND

    3. Perfect man, perfect son, Rama's loved by everyoneAlways right, never wrong, we praise Rama in this songSing his love, sing his praiseRama set his wife ablazeGot her home, kicked her outto allay his people's doubtRama's wise, Rama's just, Rama does what Rama mustDuty first, Sita last,Rama's reign is unsurpassed!

      This song is sings by Sita and Rama's sons and it say a lot about the sexist culture in Hindu society. To everyone Rama is perfect, therefore he is never wrong. When he kicks Sita out of his kingdom because people were talking about Sita even though Rama knew she was pure and innocent. Yet, he does it "for the good of the people". When in reality his fragile and huge ego was the one to blame. Also "Duty first, Sita last" once more demonstrates the gender inequality. CC BY-NC-ND

    1. In this image we can observe the difference between man and women in Sita Sings the Blues. While Rama is being taking care of to make sure he is dry, Sita is under the rain with no protection while admiring Rama from afar. However, Rama seems to only care about himself and looks proudly forward without even looking at his wife. CC BY-NC-ND