43 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2020
    1. dextran perfusion

      Definition: A polysaccharide glucan that is medically used to reduce blood viscosity.

      For the paper: Dextran perfusion is based on flowing a dextran solution through the tube/pipe to determine whether it is hollow (allows fluid flow), and transports fluids as expected.

    2. pulsatile perfusion

      A specific type of perfusion (previously defined) that moves through channels based on motion similar to that of heart pumping blood to the body.

    3. porcine

      Lab testing relating to pigs

    4. CD31-positive

      A protein that is involved in angiogenesis activation.

    5. cell-laden hydrogels

      Hydrogels loaded with live cells.

      For the paper, this is an appealing option that helps engineering potential tissue constructs with biomimetic structure and function. Cell-laden hydrogel is a promising scaffolding system for engineering artificial bone, cartilage, cardiac and neural tissues.

    6. LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed high viability

      Staining that is a fluorescence assay (as shown in image on Panel E) which shows cell viability, that is whether the cells are dead or live. The live cells emit green light where the dead cells emit red light.

    7. thermoreversible

      Whose properties can be changed back and forth by increasing or decreasing temperature.

      For the article, specific thermoreversible hydrogels form a gel when cooled and return to a viscous fluid state when exposed to heat.

    8. perfusion

      The passage of blood or fluids through blood vessels or other channels in an organ or tissue.

      In this paper, perfusion is needed to sustain healthy tissues and organs.

    9. endothelial

      cells that are on the inner surface of blood vessels

    10. regurgitation

      Leaky heart valves. A condition in which the heart valve doesn't close tightly, which allows blood to flow backward in the heart.

    11. perfusable vascular-like networks

      Artificial blood vessel structures through which one can flow fluids which nurture cell growth.

    12. patent and manifold

      Unobstructed (open inside allowing for fluid flow) and has several outlets to be connected to other tubes/pipes, similar to the arteries and veins in our body.

    13. G-code

      G-code is a language that humans use to tell a machine how to do something. With 3D printing, g-code contains commands to move parts within the printer.

    14. micro–computed tomography

      Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) is a 3D imaging technique utilizing X-rays to see inside an object, slice by slice. It is similar to a CT scan, but on a micro-scale. Micro-CT provides high resolution 3D imaging of the interior structure of materials and biological samples without having to cut the samples.

    15. tri-leaflet valves

      The aortic valve of the human heart typically contains three leaflets or cusps, hence called the tri-leaflet valve. When the valve opens it allows blood to exit the left ventricle into the aorta. Once closed, blood movement stops. In the case of a dysfunction, the tri-leaflet valve is repaired or replaced by a surgery. The technology described in this article provides a promising approach to create artificial implants for these surgeries.

    16. pH-driven gelation

      Hydrogels are 3D networks of hydrophilic polymers that can hold a lot of water while still maintaining structure. They resemble tissue structure when scaffolded and can nurture cell growth and vessel formation. Hydrogels can be assembled by chemical processes. In this study, authors used pH-driven assembly (gelation).

  2. Mar 2020
    1. neonatal

      Newborn child

    2. cell infiltration

      Migration of cells into microporous structures.

    3. slurry

      A semiliquid mixture, typically of fine particles of manure, cement, or coal suspended in water. E,g, cake batter

    4. cardiomyocytes

      Heart muscle cells responsible for contracting of the heart.

    5. collagen scaffolds

      Scaffolds provide support for tissues and organs in the human body. In this article, the scaffolds are made from collagen, a structural protein used in connective tissues

    6. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    7. cellular infiltration

      The ability of cells to occupy the porous structure in the hydrogel to create a tissue-like structure

    8. yield stress

      Highest amount of force an object can take before deforming.

    9. pH

      A scale from 1 to 14 determining how acidic or basic a solution is. 1 is most acidic, 14 is most basic, and 7 is neutral.

    10. fidelity

      Reproducibility of features (size and shape) with 3-D printing

    11. decellularized

      cells removed

    12. fidelity

      Reproducibility of features (size and shape) with 3-D printing

    13. resolution

      Smallest feature that can be written by 3-D printers.

  3. Feb 2020
    1. biofabrication

      Production of complex living and non-living products from bio-compatible materials and cells to address medical challenges.

    2. extracellular matrix

      A network of biological materials surrounding cells throughout the body for protection and support.

    3. microphysiological devices

      Tiny devices that mimic the functions of human physiological systems such as organs and tissues.

    4. synchronous

      Occurring or existing at the same time.

    5. 3D Voronoi lattice

      A lattice structure is a structure made of crisscross patterns of stripping. A 3D Voronoi lattice is used to help make objects lighter, but stronger.

    6. arrhythmogenic disease

      Muscle tissue in the heart dies and is replaced with scar tissue. Leads to weakened blood flow and irregular heartbeats.

    7. electrophysiologic

      Electrical activity of the heart

    8. anisotropic

      Having a physical property that has different values when measured in different directions.

    9. α-actinin

      Needed for attachment of actin to Z-lines in skeletal muscle cells.

    10. hESC-CMs

      Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    11. angiogenesis

      The development of new blood vessels.

    12. perivascular

      Around a blood vessel.

    13. vessel lumens

      The inside space of the blood vessel.

    14. vasculature

      The arrangement of blood vessels in an organ or tissue.