37 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2017
  2. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. 90 + Lhapl<lr :1 FIGURE3.5 Build on First Language Competencies 1. Acknowledge the student's first language or dialect as a valid form of communication. 2. Learn about the student's home language or dialect. 3. Acknowledge the student's need to develop receptive knowledge of Standard English before using English expressively. 4. Provide many opportunities for students to engage in conversation/discussion. 5. Allow students to respond in their home language first, and then to focus on translating their responses into English. 6. Provide second language learners with cues, letting them know when to anticipate being called on or when their turn will be. 7. Provide content·area books that have clear illustrations ol the main concepts presented in the text. 8. Provide opportunities for students to work together with other ESL students and with English·fluent students. 9. Use songs, nursery rhymes, and finger plays to emphasize the sound-symbol system and phonemic awareness. 10. Provide opportunities to learn through hands-on, exploratory, experiential activities

      language competencies

    2. Ono of tho major ways that you cnn focilitalo lhe dovolopment of linguistic diver-sily is hy creating a classroom onvironmenl that acknowledges, vnluos, and crnhancos lhat divorsily.

      creating a positive environment in the classroom.

    3. Foreign Languages in the Elementary School programs range from 50 minutes of direct language instruction each day to 20 minutes of instruction three times per week (Piper, 1993). These programs have met with varying degrees of success in facilitating children's acquisition of a sec-ond language. Programs with an emphasis on rote, pattern drills, and grammatical lessons have had less success than programs emphasizing cultural awareness and oral communication.

      foreign languages in elementary schools. Focus is more on the cultural awareness and oral communication.

    4. Two-way immersion programs, also known as dual language programs, are instructional programs designed to develop linguistic competency in more than one language (Genesee & Gandara, 1999).

      Very interesting concept.

    5. Transitional bilingual education/I'BE has as its goal the gradual transition from tho student's first language to English. This approach is used in self-contained classrooms where children are taught by a teacher who is fluent in both languages.

      taught by a teacher who is fluent in both languages.

    6. Language acquisition refers to unconscious learning of language in 11aturalistic sol· lings with a focus on meaning: in contrast. Janguagc learning refers to conscious rule learning in formal instructional sctlings with an emphasis on tho form of languago

      Language acquisition and learning.

    7. FIGURE 3.1 Factors Influencing Second Language Acquisition LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS Age Cognitive ~bilities Personality Motivation Self-confidence L 1 language competencies LINGUISTIC INPUT Amount and quality of target language (comprehensible input) SOCIAL SETTING L2 learner's role in setting Presence of concrete referents Source of L2 language model

      factors influencing second language

    8. ghm Im-oh ol 11w1alingui~ai1 awan!IIO!;~; • g1 ('al Pr a11d (11trl itir awarc'nPi:s of la11gw11 .. w s11 u< I ttr!' • \\ idc>1 pmspt!C livo!; • rnorP •;rn inl •;kills rnlatnd lo clifforn11l r:0111m1111ic alivn < onlo~ls

      advantages of bilingualism.

    9. Codeswitching is thought to be influenced by social or psychological factors, such as a desire lo add emphasis or to show ethnic unity

      Code switching factors

    10. nstances in which chjldren appear to be mixing the two languages (also known as code mixing

      code mixing

    11. Children who are attempting to learn a language from a different language family will find it more difficult than if they were attempting to learn another language from the same language family. As the second language is learned, children build on their knowledge of language by making connections and comparisons between the home language and the target language. Target languages that are distinctly different from the home language will require more effort to learn.

      Difficulities for children who are learning a second language. If the languages are not from the same language family, it will be more difficult.

    12. Children who are more linguistically flexible and can use more than one dialect will be able lo communicate effectively in a wide variety of settings and interactions.

      When a child has the ability to use more than one language, they have the ability to communicate more effectively in many settings!

    13. Examples of Discourse Modes in Black English

      AAE discourse modes. Call-Response is a popular discourse in rap music today.

    14. Slandard American English (SAE) is often referred lo as the "most correct" form of language used in I he Unilecl Stales and is the form of l,mguage considered appropriate in corporate, business. government, and formal educalional settings.

      "most correct" form of language in the US.

    15. idgin languages have a small vocabulary, simple grammatical struc-ture, and a narrower range of functions than the languages from which the pidgin was developed. Pidgin language use decreases and may even disappear when one group learns the language of the other or if the original reason for communicating, such as trading or selling goods, has ceased.

      Description of how pidgin works.

    16. A pidgin is a language that developed in response to the interaction of two groups of people who did not initially share a language

      What are some more examples of pidgin?

    17. As an early childhood teacher. your role is lo continue to enhance children's language development and to encourage children lo dovolop linguistic flexibilily so they can communicate effectively in a wide vari-ety of sol tings. While you may think that your emphasis should be only on helping children develop lnngungo competencies that will contribute to thoir success in aca-demic sellings, ii is also important for you lo acknowledge the value of their other language compotoncies that will contribute lo their effective communication in fam-ily and community settings (Delpit, 2002; Stubbs, 2002).

      In order to be a successful teacher, i do believe it is important to consider other language competencies and to continue to help "enhance" children's language development.

    18. . Language diversity. This is the variation and number of nouns and modifiers used by the parents. 2. Feedback tone. This is the positive feedback given to children's participation in an interaction. 3. Symbolic emphasis. This is the emphasis placed on focusing on names and associated relations of the concepts and the recall of those symbols. 4. Guidance style. This is parental interaction that uses asking rather than demanding in eliciting specific behavior from the child. 5. Responsiveness. This is parental responsiveness to requests or questions initiated by children.

      Five qualitites of parent's language interactions with their children. Language diversity, feedback tone, symbolic emphasis, guidance style, and responsiveness.

    19. Ethnographic studies have contributed significantly lo our understanding of linguistic diversity. Ethnography uses participant observation in real-life settings and focuses on individuals within their social and cultural contexts.

      The study of observation in a real-life setting. This type of research helped to see the authentic differences in the way language was used (not based on race but rather cultural influences) in their community.

    20. sociolinguistics studies the "relationship between linguistic behav-ior and social situations, roles, and functions"

      Depending upon people's environment and social settings,their language can alter.

    21. Home and school contexts may represent different cultures, subcultures, or both, and may influence language development in noticeable ways. Nonverbal cues (e.g., facial expression) and contextual cues (e.g., shared experience) have different communicative roles in different cultures

      I think this is an important statement! Depending on the school and the home life, can most definitely have an impact on the type of language is used.

    22. power of language to rollect rnltmo and inlluonco thinking was firsl pro-posocl by an American linguist and anthropologist, Edward Sapir (1084-19:19). and his stuclont, Aonjamin Wharf (11l97-l!l41). Tho Sapir-Whorf hypothesis staled that lho way wn think and viow tho world is dotorminnd by our languago (Anderson & Lightfoot. 2002; Crystal. HlD7; flayes, Omstnin, & Gago, HlB7)

      Sapir-whorf- the way we think and view the world is determined by our language.

  3. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. Communication loops, shared reference, CDS, verbal mapping, queslioning, linguistic scaffolding. and mediation all facilitate language development. Through these pnlterns of interaction, children's language clevolopment is enhanced. These inleraction patterns are present in home, community, and school settings, although there may be some modifications due lo the child's level of development and the interaction style of the adults or older children in the environment.

      How the development of language is enhanced.

    2. The human brain appears to bo "prewired" for the development of language (Anderson & Lightfoot, 2002; Chomsky, 2002; Eliot, 1999; Obler & Gjerlow, 1999; Pinker, 1994). As specific regions of the human brain mature, language develop-ment occurs. This maturation begins in the womb as the fetus develops. This sols the stage for later complex development of tho neural connections in the brain that are involved in receiving and producing language. In addition lo brain maturation, 8 critical requirement for language development is that il needs to occm in onviron· ments where language is used in social interaction. In this way, bolh nature and nurture are involved in language development.

      How nature and nurture both play apart. Maturation begins in the womb before the baby is even exposed to the world. once born, the environment in which the infant is exposed to will help with language development.

    3. Theoretical Perspectives nnd Contexts of Language Develop1nent ;1~ 37 TABLE2.2 cambourne's Conditions Supporting Oral Language Development

      Great table explaining the 8 conditions of oral language development.

    4. The difference between what a child can accomplish alone and whal she can accomplish with an adult's (or more capable peer's) mediation or assistance is termed Lhe zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). What a child accomplishes independently is her developmental level. For example, the zone of p

      Developmental level

    5. Thus, language is "taught" through situations in which children are encouraged to imilato others' speech and to devolop associations between verbal stimuli (i.e., words) and objects

      Very similar to Piaget's view in my opinion.

    6. According lo Piaget, lhe second stage of cognitive development is the preopera-tional stage. This stage begins al about 2 years of age and extends to about 7 years of nge. Children in this stage "begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings" (Santrock. 2001, p. 36). Piaget (1955) considered children's initial speech to be egocentric, focused on their own perceptions, which may reflect distorted perceptions or relations. Gradually, as children develop cognitively, their speech becomes socialized, or reflective of more logical thinking

      Second stage of cognitive development according to Piaget, Gaining knowledge of the world through words and images, children can develop more logical thinking.

    7. 28 m Chnpter 2 extensive opportunities for children lo explore language and engage in hypothesis testing of their developing knowledge of language. By ha\'ing opportunities to use and explore language in both its oral and wrillon forms, a child's LAD is activated, resulling in his discovery of the strncturo of his language (syntactic and morphemic knowledge). For example, a wide range of children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate. Opportunities lo draw nnd write encourage children lo communicate f)nd create meaning based on their ideas of how language works. Cognitive Developmental Perspective The cognitive developmental perspective is based on the work of Jean Pingel (1955). The emphasis of this perspective is that language is acquired as maturation occurs and cognitive competencies develop. Whereas the nalivisl perspective emphasizes the inborn language mechanism, the cognitive developmental perspective assumes that cognitive development is a "prerequisite nnd foundation for language learn-ing" (Karmiloff & Karmiloff-Smith, 200'1, p. 5}. This perspective also proposes that a child learns language by using the same mechanisms as for other learning. Thus, there is no unique language mechanism. The close relation between cognitive devel-opment and language is based on the beliof that. for language lo develop, specific cognilivo growth must occur first.

      Cognitive development perspective of Piaget. -As one matures an understanding of language develops.

    8. a wide range of children's literature should bo road lo children so thnl L1iey can .develop and test hypotheses about how language is used Lo communicate. Opportunities lo draw nnd write encourage children lo communicate f)nd create meaning based on their ideas of how language works.

      How a teacher would encourage the nativist perspective for early childhood classroom.

    9. Children ore not taught language: rather, "children actually reinvent it, generation after gen-eration" (Pinker, 1994, p. 32), Children are active participants in their language development. In a sense, children teach themselves language. Through the acquisi-tion process, children construct their knowledge of the ways language is used nnd manipulated.

      Chomsky's and Pinker's views of nature; Language is not taught, it is a biological instinct that is passed down and reinvented from one generation to the next.

  4. Aug 2017
  5. languagedev.wikispaces.com languagedev.wikispaces.com
    1. Vocabulary development is closely__rolated to general linguistic competence and to road ins comprehension.f Children with larger and more developed vocobularie! have more optiorrsfor expressing what they wa[!l to say a~1d1 thus, hav_e grnat.er hn-\ guistic nexibility. One nctivily that contributes to vocabulary development is story-book sharing, where an adull rends to a child. The vocabulary used in storybooks is often more descriptive and precise thnn is the vocabulary used in daily conversa-tions. Storybook experiences expand a child's listening vocabulary.

      This is a great example of why reading is so vital to children. Children are exposed to a large amount of vocabulary when reading books! The more vocabulary they take in, the more capable they are to express their needs and wants.

    2. To be able lo function successfully in a society and its culture (and subcultures), children need lo develop a wide range of language competencies. Nol only do chil-dren need lo acquire an oral language, they need lo be able to use that language effectively in a variety of sellings. Further, in literate cultures, children need lo develop competencies in using written language as well. Throughout life, people communicate in a variety of settings: talking on the phone with friends, interact-ing t·vith a store clerk as they purchase groceries, listening lo a radio talk show, and using language in professional or educational settings, such as an attorney in a court of law or a college professor and his students in a university classroom. Our lan-guage competencies allow us to participate effectively in a variety of social events and occupational settings and in our daily routines.

      Why language is important!

    3. At school, children spend much of t11eir Lime listening to t11eir teacliersoi· to their classmates. Their ability lo listen and understand their teacher's directions a,id instruction and the contributions by their classmates influences what and how much is learned; however, explicit attention to developing listening comP.etencies may be absent in many classrooms (Wolvin & Coakley, 1985). ---Z'he ways in which children use longuagcrto-servo different purposes or func-tions have also been found to preclicL later language skills. In a longitudinal study, Wells (1986} identified two oral language characteristics that were effective in pre-dicling children's subsequent overall achievement. For 2·year-olds, the use of a range of functions for speech was identified as n predictor of later achievement. For 31/2-year-olds, the effective predictor of later achievement wns the children's compe· tent use of a range of different sentence types. Another aspect of school success related to oral language competencies is a chilcl's social-interaction skills (Windsor, 1995). Children who have oral language competencies wHI be more successful in communicating with both teachers and peers. Their success in carrying on conversations and in responding in learning activities will contribute to further success at school. Children who have difficulty communicating may be ignorod by peers or excluded from informal social or col-laborative interactions.

      ways in which schools can help with language skills.

    4. 16 ~h Chapter 1 TABLE 1.2 levels of Language Knowledge Level I. linguistic Knowledge II. Metalinguistic Knowledge Ill. Verbalization of Metalinguistic Knowledge FIGURE 1.4 Definition Knowledge of how to use language to communicate Conscious awareness of specific features of language Can verbally respond to questions about specific language features Typical Age of First Evidence Toddlers and preschoolers Preschool and kindergarten late kindergarten and primary Developmental Progression of Three Levels of language Knowledge Level Ill: Verballzalfon of Metalinguistic Knowledge Level II: Metalinguistic Knowledge Level I: Linguistic Knowledge Example Beginning to use language effectively to communicate needs and Intents Begins to focus on and manipulate specific sounds In rhyming games or to notice how alphabet letters represent sounds; "Oh, there's a J. That's my name, Jon." Can explain how cup and pup sound alik

      Great table to break down language knowledge levels

    5. A word is composed of one or more meaningful linguistic units. The smallest unit of meaning in lanfil@ge is the morpherqe. There are two types of morphemes: (affree morphemes are used alone as words (e.g., house, turtle, book), and (b) bound morphemes must be attached lo free morphemes (e.g., the final-sin houses, the ·l)' in slowly, and the -ing in going).

      Morpheme types

    6. Phonological Knowledge As children hear and perceive oral language, they learn that language is embed-ded in a sound-symbol system. Phonological knowledge refers to knowledge about sound-symbol relations in a language. A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of sound, which is combined with other phonemes lo form words. Phonemes consist of sounds that are considered to be a single perceptual unit by a listener, such as the Im/ sound in the word mother

      1 of the 5 aspects! Smallest linguistic unit of sound.