26 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2021
  2. Mar 2021
    1. 14. T. Wilson, J. W. Hastings, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 14, 197 (1998).

      Wilson and Hastings discuss bioluminescence in this article. This is a very large overview and descriptor of bioluminescence, where it covers what it is and what it does.

      The chemical way in which bioluminescence works is described in depth, and explained that the factors which control the intensity of this light can vary. Wilson and Hastings also touch on how this can be credited for some bacteria to sense their density and regulate specific genes through chemical communication.

    2. 1. R. T. Hanlon, Curr. Biol. 17, R400 (2007).

      Roger Hanlon discusses the use of dynamic camouflage, specifically applied to cephalopods.

      Hanlon discusses that these animals are able to camouflage themselves against almost any background, which is a feat non mastered by any land animals. He also categorizes different camouflage patterns. These patterns help to allow the animals that possess them to stay alive.

    3. autonomous systems

      This is a set of things working together but existing and functioning independently.

    4. thermal conductivity

      This is the measurement of a material's ability to conduct heat.

  3. Feb 2021
    1. Dynamic

      This is the characterization of something under constant change, activity, or progress.

    2. disjuncture

      This is a separation of disconnection between ideas, objects, etc.

    3. tether

      Tying with a rope or chain to restrict movement of that which is being connected to. This often refers to two things being connect to one another.

    4. robust

      This is something that carries characteristics of exhibiting vigorous strength and health.

    5. Ecoflex

      This is a blend of recycled polymers and wood byproducts that exhibits the best characteristics of both the polymers and wood.

    6. Thermoelectrics

      This is a object that produces electricity by a difference of temperatures. This can also be described as an object that involves the relation between temperature and electrical condition

    7. aqueous

      This is something that is of or containing water, that is typically used as a solvent or medium. A substance could be dissolved in water, making it an aqueous solution.

    8. quadrupedal

      This refers to being four-footed, where all four feet are used for walking and running. This can be seen in animals such as a dog or cat.

    9. electrowetting

      This is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface, typically hydrophobic, with an applied electric field.

      Uses for electrowetting include applications on lenses, electronic displays, and separating oil-water mixtures.

    10. extensible

      This is the ability to be extended or stretched.

    11. pneumatic

      This is something that is operated by or contains air or gas under pressure.

      An example of this would be container holding pressurized air or gas.

    12. spectral

      This comes from the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends, of visible light, which ranges from approximately 400nm to 700nm.

    13. plumage

      This is the layers of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, color, and arrangement of the feathers.

    14. elastomers

      This is a polymer, either natural or synthetic, that has elastic properties.

      An example of this would be rubbers.

    15. prosthetics

      This is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part. The reason for why this part my be missing may be a result of many different reasons, but these devices are utilized with the intention to restore the normal functions of the missing body part.

    16. 12. M. Stevens, S. Merilaita, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 364, 423 (2009).

      Stevens and Merilaita explain the importance of animal camouflage and their implications in science today.

      While other authors focus on the how animal camouflage would work in general, there is more of a focus on defining camouflage strategies and crypsis, or features of physical appearance but also behavioral traits.

    17. 3. H. B. Cott, Adaptive Coloration in Animals (Methuen, London, 1957).

      Cott and Huxley describe general camouflage and warning coloration and mimicking which animals use.

      This knowledge of camouflage can be utilized to be adapted towards soft machines and how to use dynamic coloration. The ability for this type of technology is not commonly used and replicated by using other technologies.

    18. 7. R. F. Shepherd et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20400 (2011).

      Shepherd and others describe the utilization of a soft robot that is exclusively made of soft polymers.

      This soft quadrupedal robot is utilized as it can produce complex motions. Soft robotics can simplify the more mechanical structures and do not require a mechanically strong and rigid skeleton.

    19. microfluidic networks

      A group or system that deals with the behavior, manipulation, and precise control of fluids that are constrained to a small scale. This often deals with objects that are measured to be in the tens to hundreds of micrometers.

    20. Synthetic systems

      A set of things working together that uses two or more steps to create a product. This is also chemically created to imitate an existing and natural set.

    21. luminescence

      This is the emission of light from an object that is not a result of heat, but a form of cold-body radiation.