13 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2019
  2. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. "No people spend more freely, I believe, than West Indians,"

      During the 18th century, many owners of West Indian sugar plantations made fortunes through the use of cutting edge technology in their business ventures -- these successful entrepreneurs came to be known as "Sugar Kings." Some of these men and their families then journeyed back to England to buy estates with their newly earned money, and the sugar lobby gained power in Parliament as the recently-returned Sugar Kings took up seats in the legislature.

      Read about the British West Indies here.

    2. library subscription book

      Circulating libraries were particularly popular -- especially among women -- during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Unlike today's libraries, patrons had to pay a fee to access their services and take out books. Libraries also sold other items like stationary products to turn a profit. Mr. Parker wants to see the library subscription book in order to check how many people have signed up to use the library -- and are thus staying in Sanditon -- for the season.

      See resources here and here for more information about circulating libraries.

    3. French boarding school

      This seems apparently to refer to simply a boarding school that teaches French, but references are unclear. French was, however, a subject of great importance in the Regency era, as this article explains.

      References to "French Boarding Schools" in England can be found here and in an advertisement here.

    4. bathing machines

      Bathing machines were small shed-like boxes of wood or canvas mounted on wheels and propelled into the water (sometimes pulled by horses). The occupant would change inside the bathing machine and step down from it into the water, thereby guarding the occupant's (usually a woman) modesty. See Heath's Mermaids at Brighton at the top of this text.

      [History of bathing machines] (http://www.victoriana.com/Etiquette/bathingmachine.htm)

      Images of bathing machines

    5. West Indian

      During Austen's life, the British Empire had significant holdings in the Caribbean (the West Indies). These colonies would not begin becoming independent until after World War II.

      History of the West Indies

    6. nankin boots

      Generally spelled "Nankeen," a type of short walking boot made with a pale brown cotton cloth originally produced in Nanjing, China.

      Information about Nankeen boots

    7. enclosures

      During the 18th and 19th Century, Parliament passed the Inclosure Acts, which expanded landowners' ability to enclose previously publicly-held lands for their own use. This practice was protested against by commoners who had relied on the lands for communal use.

      History of enclosures

      More history of enclosures

      The Inclosure Acts

    8. straw hats and pendant lace

      Straw hats would have been a common seaside accessory for Regency-era women. Lace was also becoming more readily available -- and affordable -- in the early 19th century with the perfection of lace-making machines in 1813. Up until the 19th century, lace was generally handmade and thus expensive, but by the time of Sanditon's writing was much cheaper.

      A history of lace

      On straw hats vs. lace

    9. South Foreland and Land's End

      South Foreland and Land's End are points on opposite ends of England's southern coast.

    10. Camberwell

      A district of London.

  3. Feb 2019
    1. Lambert Simnel be the Widow of Richard

      Lambert Simnel: another pretender to the throne, notably not a woman -- why should Simnel then be "the Widow of Richard?"

    2. Perkin Warbeck

      Pretender to the throne; claimed to be the second son of Edward IV, one of the "Princes in the Tower"

    3. very severely treated by Historians

      Reference to Shakespeare's Richard III and, perhaps, 18th century literature like Nicholas Rowe's play, The Tragedy of Jane Shore