198 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2021
    1. When I started teaching I liked to think that I was participating in the education of a new generation which would reinforce the foundations of democracy; today I feel more like a job trainer.

      do we need to accept that though? Can we not still push and be those teachers that reinforce the foundations of democracy instead of just providing skills for the work place dependent on context?

    2. We need a pedagogy that is fluid not rigid, adaptable not inflexible.

      I 100% agree with this. This is why community is so important. If we try this on our own we are in danger of creating dogmatic priniciples.

    3. We need to focus on education as the backbone of society, not on education as the backbone of the economy.

      I wonder if it can be both and?

    4. Amazon is providing an “education” within the narrow context of a job description, nothing more.

      I agree but could this also not be seen as "just in time learning" or competency based learning? Is it necessarily wrong to do it this way?

    1. Caregivers, do your children feel safe asking questions, making mistakes, and telling you about their learning experiences even when they are less than perfect? Students, do you see your caregivers and teachers as humans, not just financial, emotional, and intellectual banks? Educators, do our students know we depend on their “taking risks and revealing mistakes in order to help them”? Have we created a community where mistakes are embraced, not penalized?

      I love the term caregivers here. It frames it in such an empathetic way

  2. Jan 2021
    1. Increase access to apprenticeship opportunities by creating multiple pathways to apprentice registration that recognizes a broader array of sponsors, beyond a single employer,and supports a broader approach than the current “employment-first” model.

      This is a fantastic idea! It would make the students experience a lot more broad and would subject them to more experiences in industry.

    2. Be nimble, adaptable,and responsive to emerging needs.

      This may be the most difficult, in my opinion

    3. Lifelong learning

      microcredentials, digital badges, e-portfolios

    4. Language

      This is a large barrier for trades education. There needs to be more intention and thought to the current language that surrounds apprenticeship and trades training (even the term training is problematic)

    5. These skills should be emphasized in K-12 education, in post-secondary education, and in learning on the worksite.

      I 100% agree but in regards to trades education this is a HUGE shift. This is not common in industry and therefore is not common in education (SME's are hired for their technical skills not their pedagogical understanding)

    6. Work-Integrated Learning

      There needs to be a proper definition from which everyone is working

    7. Skills are often viewed synonymously with technical skills; however, to succeed in a career,it is important to have both technical and essential skills. Note that the literature uses many terms interchangeably for essentialskills including: essential skills, enabling skills, soft skills, or fundamental skills. We use the phrase “essential skills” to be consistent with the language used by the Government of Canada.

      There are groups such as skillplan canada that are working on this.

    8. Lifelong learning

      This is a mindset that needs to be built into the DNA of our education system.

    9. Work-Integrated Learning

      I am a fan of this. That being said it needs to be intentional and needs to follow a framework like Kolbs theory.

    10. For those returning for education, our pathways systems work even less well –in general, they simply is notdesigned for this.

      This is not necessarily true. I did it with my Masters.

    11. British Columbia currently has no compulsory trades.

      is this true?

    12. Finally, previous research as well as the engagement conducted on behalf of the Task Force indicates that skilled trade professions are not viewed as valuable careersby many.

      This is slowly starting to change.

    13. It is further worthwhile to note that, unlike other professions,the sole focus of Alberta’s regulated trade professionsis on initial certification. There is no ongoing membership or tracking of certified individuals.

      This is an important issue. Many receive their ticket and then do not pursue any education beyond this. Technology and trades change. Recert should be investigated.

  3. Aug 2020
    1. The cohorts in Extend East and Extend West suffered attrition from the outset, with participation levels dropping immediately to 35 and 37 respectively after the initial face-to-face and virtual introductions. Even with a stated requirement of a minimum of 18 hours participation over a 12-week time frame, some participants were not able to commit or sustain their engagement with the Extend program.

      I imagine that this would be common

    2. Investigations of how a “tool” does or does not affect educational outcomes are too simplistic.

      Could not agree more!

    3. An understanding and appreciation of what research has to say about how people learn.

      How do we do this for trades educators?

    4. Over time, the term “professional development” has taken on the connotation of something that is delivered to educators in order to influence their practice; it is something that is done to and for them. Such professional development activities often lead to certificates ofparticipation.

      The broadcast model.

    5. What levels of personal discomfort will the process of learning cause?

      Very important question!

    6. nforming the framework with research

      Trades educators input

  4. Mar 2020
    1. An electric circuit is formed when a conductive path

      It is important to understand what we mean by conductivity. You can check out this article here to see what I mean.

  5. Oct 2019
    1. Constructionism–the N word as opposed to the V word–shares constructivism’s view oflearning as‘building knowledge structures’through progressive internalization of actions. It thenadds the idea that this happens especially felicitously in a contextwhere the learner isconsciouslyengagedinconstructing a public entity, whether it’s a sand castle or the beach or a theory of theuniverse.

      great quote


    1. Constructionists view knowledge and truth as created, not discovered by the mind.

      This is important and a good quote.


    1. “The sociology of knowledge must concernitself with whatever passes for knowledge in a society, regardless of the ulti-matevalidityorinvalidity(bywhatevercriteria)ofthatknowledge”(p.15).

      regardless of truth?

  6. Aug 2019
    1. Many students commented that they were better able to learn with an onlinebook. One student wrote that he found himself "using [it] a lot and learningbetter than before." Another student noted that the OER text "helped me tostudy and learn what I needed to learn within the course."

      Students like to learn from digital textbooks

    2. While much work has been done to create, disseminate, and champion OER,relatively little theory#based, generalizable research has been done to examineits use and impacts

      More work needs to be done in this area


    1. These studies show a large majority of students tolerate open materials, at worst.At best, students seem to think well of the open materials presented to them.However, not all open textbooks are of the same quality and further research is needed to better understand student perception of open textbooks using different variables and across disciplines.

      More work needs to be done in this area. Especially as not OER is the same.

    2. Textbook cost goes beyond financial burden.If students are not able to purchase a required text, this may have a large effect on the extent of their learning capabilities in the course

      If a student can't afford to buy a textbook it will affect their performance in the class.


    1. The fact that students saved significantamounts of money by using OER likely colored their perceptions of the value of OER aslearning resources

      This is a great quote

    2. which in some instances appear to revolve more around improvingefficiency rather than learning

      There are two sides to OER. Cost savings and the learning.

    3. First, it isimportant to note that, as stated previously, it is not clear how OER might have been usedin each of the above contexts. In some instances, open textbooks are printed and utilizedjust as traditional textbooks.

      When looking at the results one has to be careful. Context is everything!

    4. ‘I have no expendable income. Without thisfree text I would not be able to take this course.’’

      Cost savings is still a large component for student perception.

    5. Feldstein et al.(2012), surveyed the 1393 students who utilized OER. Of the 315 students who respondedto this survey, 95 % strongly agreed or agreed that the OER were ‘‘easy to use’’ and 78 %of respondents felt that the OER ‘‘provided access to more up-to-date material than isavailable in my print textbooks.’’

      Students strongly feel that OER is useful in their education

    6. In order for faculty to replace commercial textbooks with OER, they not only need to beaware of OER, they also want to know that OER have proven efficacy and trusted quality

      This is important. There needs to be proof of concept.

  7. Jul 2019
    1. The previous section discussed some of the challenges associated with teaching and learning strategies based around learner-generated content. At a broader level, learner-generated content brings into question the role of, and even threatens the authority held by, universities and colleges as providers of credentialed learning:

      LGC is disruptive to the core.

    2. For many teachers and administrators the major obstacle to embracing learner-generated content will be accepting the need to relinquish some degree of control, which they may be apprehensive to do since this is a major departure from the manner in which their jobs have traditionally been done and are expected to be done

      This is a big barrier to co-creation

    3. In many educational scenarios and cases it may transpire that there is still a need for gatekeepers and other quality assurance/control mechanisms; however, the authors believe that the review, editing, and quality assurance of content can be done collaboratively and in partnership with learners,

      This is a complete paradigm shift but one that could be extremely powerful

    4. Information users are faced with the challenge of judging the quality of sources they c

      I see this as a barrier and an opportunity.

    5. Such practices raise questions about the importance of originality from the point of view of academic integrity, and give rise to concerns about copyright, ownership, and intellectual property within the context of both student learning and assessment through learner-generated content.

      This is a common issue throughout all issues and can be solved with cc.

    6. These examples provide evidence that social software can extend the range of experiences available to students, and enable them to engage with multiple digital tools and overlapping knowledge sources.

      We must step outside of our LMS' . There are so many other tools to use.

    7. In a project at Charles Sturt University, a group of second year undergraduate students produced short, three to five-minute talkback radio-style podcasts for pre-class listening by first year students enrolled in a subject that the second year students had successfully completed in an earlier semester (Lee, Chan, & McLoughlin, 2006). The brainstorming of script ideas, as well as the scriptwriting, editing, and recording of the podcasts, was driven by the student producers, with minimal teacher intervention in the process. The task outcomes were to develop a range of technical competencies, to foster generic attributes such as teamwork and presentation skills, as well as to enable students to express and conceptualize their understanding of previously learned subject matter. By engaging in collaborative peer review and critique of podcast scripts, students extended and adapted content for distribution to an audience of peers;

      another good idea

    8. To support his course in General Psychology at the University of Connecticut, Miller (2006, 2007) hosts weekly informal discussions with students following each week’s lectures. During these discussions, students are able to seek clarification on the course material, talk about it in greater depth, and discuss issues not covered during the lecture. The discussions are recorded and made available to other members of the class as a series of podcasts. In this way, the podcasts are about course content (meta-cognitive) rather than simply being recordings of the course content itself (transmission of content). The process of creating and participating in the discussions is an instance of learner-generated content creation. All students in the cohort are welcome to submit questions in advance of the discussion via email; these answers, as well as those asked by students who attend in person, are answered during the discussion. The dialogue can be captured, used, archived, and re-used as a form of “tertiary courseware” (Hartmann, 1999);

      This is brilliant!

    9. Current views of knowledge regard the notion of an instructor-dominated classroom and curriculum as obsolete, and embrace learning environments where students take control of their own learning, make connections with peers, and produce new insights and ideas through inquiry.

      The old methods are obsolete?

    10. maintains that the key focus of learner-generated content is on the process of content creation and knowledge construction, as opposed to the end product itself.

      Focus should be on the process, the knowledge construction and not on the end

    11. The primary purpose of learner-generated content is to stimulate lasting, more permanent knowledge growth within learners through sharing and molding their unique knowledge structures, as well as through their active involvement in one another’s learning trajectories.

      it is constructivist in nature.

    12. The Role Of Content in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

      Just that heading makes me go hmmmm

    13. The challenge for educators is to enable self-direction, knowledge building, and learner control by providing options and choice while still supplying the necessary structure and scaffolding.

      This is a good point. We need to approach design understanding that our students are already creators. They will be bored with the traditional systems.

    14. audience” (Rosen, 2006), and that includes our students.

      The web is not just passive.

    15. new modes of community-based sharing and content creation might be applied to the more formal spaces of learning in colleges and universities.

      They are doing it already. How can we make it part of the system?

    16. hough learning management systems (LMS’s) that integrate geographically dispersed learners in asynchronous interactions have been widely available for a number of years, many higher education institutions are discovering that new models of teaching and learning are required to meet the needs of a generation of learners who seek greater autonomy, connectivity, and socio-experiential learning.

      learners are looking for autonomy and social learning

    17. In what is seen as a user-driven revolution, there is a shift away from the production of Web content by traditional, “authoritative” sources, towards content is that is generated by the users themselves.

      great quote

    18. eality, with tools

      Web 2.0 is making collaborative learning easier

  8. Jun 2019
    1. The dissertation project is expected to be completed in the next year. (Passive) In this case, who is doing the dissertation is unclear. Here is the sentence revised into an active voice: I expect to complete the dissertation project in the next year. (Active, where the first person “I” refers to the author, the graduate student)

      I really need to work on writing in an active voice and not passive.

    2. The organization also shows an internal structure, or a conversation of the content that speaks back to prior sections. The arrows on the right side of Figure 6.1show how the topics flow from one section to the next in a linear manner. The arrows on the left side of Figure 6.1represent how the content of one section “answers” a prior one. The paper is a dialog from beginning to end with internal (backward-focusing) linkages. The introduction tells the reader what the paper is about; the conclusion reiterates that by describing the contribution the paper made. The literature review describes prior research; the discussion describes how the paper contributes to that literature. The methods describe the approach the current research uses; the results describe the outcome of those methods. This holistic view of the document is best visualized through an outline. The outline must show both the external flow of one section to another and also the internal connections between sections.

      I never really thought about the back and forth between the sections.

    3. Tell them what you are going to tell them.The reader needs to know this to follow the story. Plot twists and surprise endings common in novels are unacceptable in technical writing. Tell them.Provide the content in a systematic and predictable order. Tell them what you told them.Summarize and highlight the key points of the manuscript.

      I love this method:

      • Tell them what you're going to tell them
      • Tell them
      • Tell them what you told them
    4. The primary reason you outline is because, in the end, you want a document that makes sense to the reader. The outline assists writers in achieving this goal. The process of outlining helps you organize key thoughts, such as main elements that need to be stated. It helps to maintain a vision of the “forest” (i.e., the main message) when crafting the “trees” (i.e., individual sentences). Without it, you may write paragraphs and sentences and forget the overarching frame. When you outline, you create that overarching frame and fill in the details later.

      I've always been a huge fan of the outline. This just solidifies it for me.

    5. Be sure you add keywords that are not in your title to make the keyword list meaningful.

      Have a key word list

    6. The title of your document (whether a paper or proposal) must provide keywords to indicate the general topic of the work and detail words to clarify the specific contribution you intend to make. The title is an invitation to readers to continue to read. It needs to balance between being too general and too detailed.

      this is kind of like writing with SEO in mind.

    7. Smooth or fancy writing does not cover up weak content.

      This is so important and something that I need to remember.

    1. First, there is no doubt you will focus the majority of your time and efforts on literature related to your specific subfield. But you also need to know how your work fits into a broader research framework.

      It is important to think outside of my own small context

    2. The first of the less-obvious reasons to read is to use excellent articles as writing templates for your own future articles.

      This is an excellent point.

    3. This is a great point!

    1. This means that published research with fudged results will become the basis of future research by other scholars.

      This is important. You will be screwing with future research by fudging the numbers.

    2. plagiarism is the intentional or unintentionaluse of another person's ideas and words in an effort to represent them as their own.

      Ignorance is no excuse

    3. This means reviewers have the potential to learn from and potentially steal from another person's work.

      I can see this being a huge problem.

    1. These assertionsare supported by Hattie’s (2008) meta-analysis of student achievement, in which heargues that student learning is deepest when students become their own teachers andwhen their teachers learn from them through feedback and other means.

      Students are their own best teachers. The best teacher in the classroom will always be the students.

  9. May 2019
    1. It is now clear: “Giving away knowledge for free”(OECD,2007) will have to be accompanied by changedlearning models in order to take up effect and scale up.


    2. These dimensions can be used for the analysis and facilitation of open educational practices on the different target group levels

      It is important to realize that OER and OEP is a continuum and not a final destination.

    3. A lack of trust, limitedsharingin institutionalcultures, and low acceptanceof OERs by educators hinder OER use and access

      These are barriers to OER use and OEP. It is very important that much thought is given to these barriers. How else to get around them than to think through them?

    4. The dimension, constituting the individual freedom to practice open education, is divided into the three stages

      This is individual freedom within the context of the institution that OER and OEP are being used in.

    5. However, if OER are used to create resources which are more learner-centred than the ones existing before, if learners are involved into the creation of content which is taken seriously by the teachers/facilitators, if teachers are moving away from a content centred teaching to “human resource” based teaching, if learning processes are seen as productive processes and learning outcomes are seen as artefacts which are worth sharing and debating, improving and reusing, then OER might improve the learning process and then we talk aboutopen educational practices.

      I love this thought. Moving away from content centred teaching to human resource based training. I can dig it.

    6. They are defined as Open Educational Practices (OEP) and constitute the range of practices around the creation, use and management of open educational resources with the intent to improve quality and foster innovation in education

      Improve quality and foster innovation in education.

    7. “Medium” represents a stage in which objectives are still pre-determined and given, but methods of teaching and learning are represented as open pedagogical models. They encourage dialogue oriented forms of learning or problem based learning (PBL) focusing on dealing with developing “Know how”.

      I believe that this is where my current practice sits.

    8. It is about changingthe traditional educational paradigm of many un-knowledgeable students and few knowledgeable teachers to a paradigm in which knowledge is co-created and facilitatedthrough mutual interactionand reflection

      Co creation

    9. We are thus defining the first phase of OER development and diffusion as focussing on access and availability of OER.

      Phase I or OER. Focusing on creation and open access.

    10. Use and reuse –especially with the aim to improve learning and innovate educational scenarios -are still somewhat underrepresented

      This has been my experience as well.

    11. OER play the role of improving quality of learning experiences.

      This is like I was discussing with Rajiv, OER are a trojan horse to OEP

    12. There is too little consideration of whether this will support educational practices, and promote quality and innovation in teaching and learning

      Ohhh, this is an important question and consideration.

    13. The study reveals that there are five main barriers with which individuals are faced when they want to use OER: 1) Lack of institutional support, 2) Lack of technological tools for sharing and adapting resources, 3) Lack of skills and time of users, 4) Lack of quality or fitness of OER, 5) Personal issues like lack of trust and time (Ehlers et al.,2011).

      5 barriers to the use of OER

    1. Value, and encourage academic staff and students to value, the processes ofcollaborative pedagogical planning and not just the products of the process.

      It is important to value the process and not just the product.

    2. Academic developers can play a diplomatic role in acknowledging the perceivedthreat to existing privilege and power, while working to reinterpret the possibilitiesthat this shift might engender.

      This is a legitimate concern.

    3. You work in a university and you get surrounded by people who should like teaching butwho...don’t like teaching and don’t like students...‘they’re so stupid’, ‘they don’t do anywork’, ‘they’re so lazy’...and I think actually, it’s our problem, because they’re not,they’re smart, they’re engaged, they’re interested. (Bovill, 2009, p. 25)

      I love this!

    4. ‘the learning process [is] a collaborative venture of students and teacher.We’re all learning through engagement with the subject and each other.’

      This is very important.

    5. ‘Ireconnected with [my students and] repositioned myself as their advocate.’

      We need to be our students advocates

    6. These student–faculty partnerships to redesign undergraduate courses challengestudents’ customary, and often comfortable, passive role in the classroom, as well asa common academic staff assumption that their disciplinary expertise gives themcomplete authority over the learning process.

      This is a barrier. It is very important to consider

    7. Although much educational development focuses on pedagogical technique, coursedesign might be the most important barrier to quality teaching and learning in highereducation

      separate the tools from the pedagogy

    8. Students as co-creators of teaching approaches

      bringing students in as teaching consultants

    9. Although there are numerous benefits to student participation in pedagogical plan-ning, scholars also issue warnings. Participatory approaches risk unquestioninglyreifying the views of the less powerful (Cooke & Kothari, 2001) – in this case,students. This can lead to an uncritical value being placed on students’ views, irre-spective of the nature of these views (Silva & Rubin, 2003; Shor, 1994, cited inO’Loughlin, 1995) and to ignoring the diversity of motivations and experiences thatdifferent students bring to learning.

      Excellent point to consider in regards to co creation with students

    10. ‘a commitment to more shared responsibility forlearning among students and teachers, a more democratic intellectual community, andmore authentic co-inquiry

      I like the model of co-inquiry. Maybe our outcomes should be more questions than statements

    11. ‘become adaptive experts who both recognizeand even relish the opportunity and necessity for breaking with traditional approachesand inventing new ones’

      Students themselves can create new ways to learn. Should we not be listening to them?

    12. When students make this transition from simply enacting what is required of them tolearn, to analyzing consciously what constitutes and enhances that learning, theychange ‘not just what the learner knows... but also who the learner is’

      I had not thought of that. We don't just want to transform what the students know but rather who they are becoming.

    13. Adopting an active and participatory role in learning is thought to enhance learn-ing processes and outcomes (Kuh, 2008) through, for example: students engaging inmeaningful (as opposed to rote) learning; staff and students breaking down the powerdifferential between them; and students experiencing the freedom to become criticalthinkers and critical beings in the world (Barnett, 1997; Freire, 2003). Student choicecontributes to learners taking more responsibility for their own learning (hooks, 1994;Rogers & Freiberg, 1969).

      This whole paragraph is amazing. I could not agree more.

    14. expectations for students as well as challenge students to demonstrate more activeengagement in learning

      This seems to be becoming more and more of an avenue that others are exploring.

    1. As well as thinking of groups of learners or teachers as communities of practice, it has to be recognised that the very nature of the internet as a communication and collaboration channel means that many similar communities of practice can be linked together more easily into wider networks of practice.

      I love the idea of networking other COP's together.

    2. However our experience is that any such communities of practice are rooted in existing communities.

      How can we create new communities that have engagement.

    3. The main role of this coordinator is to develop a collaboration plan and identify ways in which OpenLearn resources can be used by UnisulVirtual, at the same time motivating staff members to foster the use of OpenLearn resources by the learners within their discipline.

      What a great idea. For discussion to happen it needs to be "worked" . It will not happen on its own

    4. It can take a long time to develop an active relationship with collaborators especially when new technology is involved.

      this would be a significant barrier.

    5. n particular, by placing as much emphasis on the environment, tools and support as on the content itself, we are reinforcing our belief that learning does not take place in a social vacuum.

      I believe this is 100% correct.

    6. Furthermore, the delivery of courses is supported by another community of practice represented by the many Associate Lecturers that provide tuition to cohorts of 20-25 students each. Each of these cohorts is in turn a specific community of practice for learners.

      I love this idea. Link OER to cohorts and have tools in place to help sustain communities of practice.

    7. the closed and individualistic nature of the teaching process in the class or lecture room has meant that the collaborative or cooperative design, development and sharing of educational resources has not been a significant feature of such communities.

      This is so true. Many of us teach as an island. We close the doors and spend time with our students but do not open up to a community. How much are we missing out?

    8. Appropriate collaboration and communication tools are also needed if learners are to be able to engage with other learners and create possibly even more meaningful learning experiences that involve others (Lane, 2008a).

      OER can be so much more powerful if there are channels for discussion.

  10. drive.google.com drive.google.com
    1. asdescribedbyEhlers(2011),regardsthesharingoffreelyaccessibleresourcesasintegraltocollaborativepractice.Healsodescribeslearningdesignsthatendorseinteractionandresourcecreationandsharingamongpeers.Fromhisperspective,educationneedstomovefromimmersioninanOERmodeltoanenactionedOEPone.

      I agree that OEP steps beyond just the use of OER

    2. Inwritingthisarticle,Ihavefounditchallenging,infactalmostimpossible,toseparatethecomponentsofanopenpedagogyintoneat,segregateddimensions.

      Perhaps this is why we need to use the David Wiley definition of OER enabled practices

    3. Sheseeslearnersaspublishersandusersofarangeofopentools,withpeerinteractionsandcritiqueembeddedinthelearningexperience.Evenso,designingforasociallyconnectedlearningexperience,asdiscussedearlier,doesnotnecessarilyleadtofullengagementorparticipation.

      Peer review is essential to the process.

    4. Socialcurationappearstobemoreapplicabletoeducationandisdescribedas“thediscovery,collection,andshar-ingofdigitalobjectslikelinks,pictures,andvideosbyanindividualforasocialpurpose”(Seitzinger,2014,p.414).

      Great definition of social curation

    5. Teachingpracticeischangingfromthebroadcastmodeltooneofcurationinourdigitalinformation-richworld,wherelearnerswithaccesstotheWebcanaccessamyriadofresources(Phillips,2012).

      I believe that this is one of the biggest shifts in paradigms that has to occur. From Broadcast to curation

    6. Hefoundthattheuseofmobilelearningandsocialmediawithinalearningcommunityencouragednotonlyconnectivityandsharingofresourcesandknowledge,butalsothedevelopmentofcontentbystudents.

      should we be using the tools that a lot of the students are already using?

    7. “fearofrejection,”aphenomenonthatCocciolo(2009)foundcouldbemitigatedbypeerinfluencesandinvolvementwithinacommunity(p.120).Herecommendedthatacultureofopennesscouldbedevelopedby“designingopenICTsthatconnectuserstocommunitiesthataremeaningfultothem[and]canencouragetheirparticipation”(p.120).Cochrane(2014)obtainedsimilarresults.

      it is hard to get students to engage

    8. However,itisatminimumatwo-wayaffair;ifyoutake,youshouldalsocontribute,andcollaborativemedia-sharingsitesandmodelsofproductionhaveincreasedovertheyears

      sharing is important

    9. Teachersvoicedconcernsthatthescopeoftheirinnovationswastoosimplistic,andexpressedalackofconfidenceinstudents’abilitiestoproducequalityoutputs,therebyputtingtheinstitution’sreputationatrisk.

      an example of why faculty wont engage.

    10. WhendevelopingModelsofOpenEducationforOtagoPolytechnic,BlackallandHegarty(2011)foundthatteacherswithastrongInternetpresenceandidentity(e.g.,maintainedablogorePortfolioorwikiandusedavarietyofothersocialmediaintheirpractice)couldopenlydiscusstheirsubjectsandmoreeasilyengageinnetworkedlearningwithothers.

      It is the ones that are connecting that are giving

    11. Negativeexperiencesinanopenenvironmentcanbecounter-intuitiveandcrushconfidenceinnotonlythetechnologies,butalsoinco-learners.

      Theses need to be monitored and watched closely

    12. (Cochrane,2014,p.69)

      Investigate this paper.

    13. Keytothesuccessofusingmobiletechnologiesappearstobetheinclusionofauthenticlearningactivitiesandassessmentsembeddedinasocialconstructivistpedagogy,usinganheutagogicalapproachtofacilitatestudent-generatedcontent(Cochrane,2014).

      This is very interesting. There has to be systems in place for the learners or community to engage.

    14. Althoughparticipatorytechnologiescanbeusedtoencourageinteractioninlearningandteaching,highparticipationratesarenotguaranteed.

      there is a lot of work that has to go into creating a participatory culture.

    15. Eventhoughmanyrepositorieshavebeendevelopedovertheyearsforopenresourcematerials,notallofthemencourageuserstosharetheirwaresinafullyopenandparticipatorymanner.

      This is a must for all open repositories, Plus the material should be available in a format that makes it easy to access and change.

    16. Materialssimplycan-notbesharedandusedadequatelyinanopenlearningandteachingenvironmentunlesstheycanbemodifiedtosuitthecontext

      At least the very option of remixing

    17. “Technicallyspeakingitistheuseofblogs;wikis;video,photo,andaudiosharingsites;forums,chats,andevenemail,thatcombineintowhatmoreinterestinglybecomessociallyconstructedmedia”(Blackall,2011a).

      OERu follows this model.

    18. onewherepeopleareconnectedthroughsocialnetworkedmediatosharetheirideas,knowledge,andresources

      This begs the question as to what networks? Do we use the conventional platforms (ie. Twitter, Facebook) or is it time to investigate a more decentralized network (Mastodon, Diaspora)

    19. “OpenEducationalPractices(OEPs)constitutetherangeofpracticesaroundthecreation,use,andmanagementofopeneducationalresourceswiththeintenttoimprovequalityandinnovateeducation”(OPAL,2011a,p.4).

      Definition of OEP

    20. FiveprinciplesofopennessareconsideredbyConole(2013)tobenecessaryforOEP,comprisingopentoolsandprocessesthatpromote:

      5 principles of open pedagogy

    21. Learningisfacilitatednotonlybyteachersbutmoreoftenthannotbypeers.

      This follows with what I've been saying lately. the best teacher in the room is always the other students.

    22. Thestatusquohaschangedand,asaresult,teachersandlearnersareabletointeractmoreeasily,sharetheirwork,andcollaborateinconnectedlearningenvironments

      This would be a great quote

    23. Wiley’sLaw:Youshouldneveruse“open”asanadjectiveunlessyoucanclearlydescribehowthe“open”thingdiffersfromthenormalthing.

      interesting. This aligns sort of with what Wiley said regarding it's not open unless it utilizes Creative Commons and the 5 R's

    1. OER-enabled pedagogy specifically investigating the value students and faculty find in doing this work, how motivating or engaging they find it, and how it can be improved

      this is such a great point.

    2. These might be appropriate for measuring the influence of adopting OER-enabled pedagogy; however, there may be better metrics. For example,OER-enabled pedagogy could conceivably lead to changes in student creativity, enthusiasm, satisfaction, and other outcomes sometimes labeled “deeper learning.”Pre-existing andnew instruments could be used to measure gains or losses in these areas

      It goes beyond just the typical metrics. What about things like problem solving, creativity, enthusiasm.

    3. For example, consider the following questions

      These are great questions to consider. Consider using them in my own research.

    4. OER-enabled pedagogyand student summaries.

      I would like to try this with my classes

    5. Students were also offered extra credit to create tutorial videos, chapter summaries, and review games for a particular topic; these tutorial resources were also evaluated by the teacher and some were selected to be integratedinto the course.

      What a fantastic idea! Have the students add to the curriculum but not in a typical way.

    6. 1.Are students asked to create new artifacts (essays, poems, videos, songs, etc.) or revise / remix existing OER?2.Does the new artifact have value beyond supporting the learning of its author?3.Are students invited to publicly share their new artifacts or revised / remixed OER? 4.Are students invited to openly license their new artifacts or revised / remixed OER?

      These are such important questions. When working with my students I need to ensure they understand this.

    7. When student works are openly licensed, granting others 5R permissions in their use of the artifacts, each work becomes the beginning of an ongoingconversation in which other learners participate as they contextualize and extend the work in support of their own learning.

      this is such a good way to think. They learn by doing and by building on the previous work of others.

    8. I want junior high school math class to be like that. I didn't know exactly what "that" meant but I knew I wanted it. I didn't even know what to call the idea. For a long time it existed in my head as "soap-sculpture math.”

      I want trades training to be like this as well.

    9. The permissions to engage in the 5R activities that are granted in association with OER lift these restrictions. Consequently,when using OER,as opposed to traditionally copyrighted resources,students are free to engage in a broader range of activities and, therefore,to learn in a broader range of ways

      The use of OER removes restrictions for the students to "play" with the material. To learn by doing.

    10. However, in order to move research in the field forward, there is a need for clarity.

      I never thought of this. In order to move forward we need research but how do you research something that has no definition?

    11. The wide range of variation in the many recent definitions of open pedagogy makes it increasingly difficult to make sense of the term, potentially leading to claims of openwashing and creating other practical problems in the context of teaching and learning practices.

      Great quote

    12. Hegarty (2015) defines open pedagogy as a broad range of attributes from participatory technologies to innovation and creativity.

      I like this but understand that it is not a fully accurate definition.


    1. Even if the technological infrastructure exists to allow materials to be a button-click away, unless lecturers are willing to share their materials or pedagogy, the technological affordance will remain unrealised… the sharing of the pedagogical process, what we see as ‘open pedagogy’.

      This is quite a powerful point

    2. ‘Open pedagogy’ approaches involving collaborative, co-productive and more ‘equal’ roles between ‘teacher’ and ‘learner’ than hitherto implemented are both possible and made more effective by social networking technologies and social networking environments. (Cullen, Cullen, Hayward, & Maes, 2009)

      Should this social networks also be "open"?

    3. The historically more certain boundaries – where information and communications were controlled by universities – is being lost. Institutions are struggling to make sense of how to operate in this changed and permeable space. The mind sets and frameworks of references that we have used hitherto are no longer adequate. Many boundaries have blurred: virtual and physical localities, professional and social lives, formal and informal learning, knowledge consumption and production. (Armstrong & Franklin, 2008)

      The music and Movie industries have struggled with this and have had to pivot. How long before education has to do the same?

    4. However, open education is not limited to just open educational resources. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning. (Cape Town Open Declaration, 2007)

      Open goes beyond so much. Open assessments?

    5. Open learning is an imprecise phrase to which a range of meanings can be, and is, attached. It eludes definition. But as an inscription to be carried in procession on a banner, gathering adherents and enthusiasms, it has great potential. For its very imprecision enables it to accommodate many different ideas and aims. (MacKenzie, 1975 in Keegan, 1990)

      It is more of a movement or conversation than it is a definition

    1. Despite popular rhetoric along the lines of “you can’t learn from materials you can’t afford,” their rather ingenious experiment showed that increasing access to learning materials by adopting OER instead of traditionally copyrighted resources (TCM) will almost never measurably improve learning. Learning will only improve measurably if you ALSO do something else.

      OMG YES!!!!!

    2. This was justified by the fact that there is a lack of empirical evidence to support expanding the use of OER.
    1. Professors base these grades on a combination of factors and values, such as 10% participation, 20% homework, 30% final exam, and 40% group project. Digital adaptive learning tools can do this too, and then take the student’s score and match it with the next best skill in the subject’s overall scope and sequence.

      This is interesting. This could be interesting in design.

    2. Adaptive learning does not fit easily into the status quo. Besides having to use a blended learning model, in which class-time is divvied up between traditional and electronic learning, teachers must be willing to let students progress at their own pace.

      Could this fit within a trades model?

    3. This is different to simply providing differentiated content for students. For instance, if a learner was not in class during a period when a particular skill was introduced, and years later was learning a new skill that built on that prior knowledge, that learner would struggle. Adaptive sequencing tools could help that student go back to find this gap and learn this content first, rather than following the same sequence as everyone else

      This could be very powerful in trades training.

    4. Practice Engine

      This is brilliant. Start simple and then ramp it up for practice.

    5. A fixed-form assessment is one in which the items are preselected, and every student is tested on the same set of questions (e.g. a final exam).

      fixed form assessment vs. adaptive assessment.

    6. Let’s break these down a little further

      Content, Assement, sequence. The three places adaptive learning occurs.

    7. How do we use testing – or assessment – not simply to rank students but as meaningful windows into why they struggle to learn? And the big one: Can changes in digital curriculum help close the aching achievement gap?

      OMG YES!!!

    8. we define digital adaptive learning tools as education technologies that can respond to a student’s interactions in real-time by automatically providing the student with individual support

      Definition of adaptaive learning

    9. Knewton alone has raised nearly $160 million.


    10. The tools, however, are not a panacea. For several reasons, it’s unlikely that a single tool will ever be able to take over a student’s education and direct them to every single thing they should do. Nor is it likely that we would want it to, as a critical part of education is building student agency – helping students own their learning, make decisions, become lifelong learners, and develop their metacognitive skills.


    11. But a critical challenge correctly noted in this report, written by EdSurge and supported by Pearson, is to decipher just what it means for a learning technology to be adaptive.
    12. Adaptive learning is an enormously promising field. Educators worldwide are using adaptive tools to change their practice. The tools are growing and gaining acceptance in classrooms.
  11. Apr 2019
    1. Vargo et al. (2008) usethe analogy of a car to demonstrate this. Before the consumer drives the car, it has novalue–only when the consumer combines his/her ability to drive with the need totravel to a location does the car incur value.

      absolutely brilliant analogy!

    2. happens to the value for both users and organizations once they start using the co-pro-duced service and/or product.

      What happens once the resource is started to be used.

    3. And secondly, consumers can give feedback at any time, on all elements, notonly on a single selected project or situation (Prahalad & Ramaswamy,2004).

      This allows for real time changes. We can make shifts on the fly and iterate as the students need us to, not as we think we should.

    4. It has also been noted that without accessibility, value co-creation cannot adhere toother important attributes such as deep and ongoing dialogue and interaction betweenconsumers and the organization or shared responsibility of roles

      Communication is soo important. You need dialogue with your students.

    5. However, while research such as thatby Fisher and Smith (2011) have found that balanced relationships and equal access wereimportant factors in the co-creation/co-production process, they also found that mostrelationships between organizations and consumers are unlikely to meet the expectedlevel of mutual reciprocity.

      is it all just a pipe dream? Can you have equity?

    6. For example, the student who struggled within the higher edu-cation system is the same student who might offer the most insightful guidance onhow to improve upon it.

      I could not agree more!

    7. Value co-creation is a two-dimensional concept thatincludes two sub-processes: first, the co-production of value, where the value propositionis created alongside the consumer, and second, value beyond production into the con-sumption of such value, a concept from service-dominant logic known as value-in-use

      Two parts to co creation. 1- coproduction of value and 2. value in use. Building it and using it.

    8. Results further show that the knowledge which organizations extract from consumersoften results in more desirable outcomes than if the organization had worked indepen-dently (Ramirez,1999).

      This seems to be a no shit sherlock statement but at the same time so easy to miss.

    9. knowledge sharing,

      I love this term, knowledge sharing

    10. (1) How does the student integrate their knowledge, experiencesand/or other resources into the value proposition of higher education? (2) Does thestudent have equal access to the development and design of the higher educationvalue proposition? (3) What is the quality of the interactions between the student andthe higher education institution to integrate resources and co-create the value prop-osition?

      excellent questions

    11. Humphreys and Grayson (2008) therefore write thatfor an activity to constitute as co-production, there needs to be a fundamental shift inthe production process, and consumers need to be engaged through design, knowledgeproduction, or feedback that can deeply impact the value proposition.

      We involve the students (learners) from the very beginning.

    12. By deviating from traditional consumer/organizational roles, the producer nolonger presumes to understand the needs of its consumers, and instead opens the for-merly closed producer-process to allow for more consumer involvement. Consumers areallowed and encouraged through co-creation to share opinions, complain, negotiate,endorse, and interact with their organization in new ways

      We need to start asking the students what they need.

    13. Value co-creation further takes the perspective that it is unnecessary to distinguishproducts from services or vice versa, as all products contain service elements, and withinall services there are product (otherwise known as‘goods’) elements (Gummesson,2007).

      This is a great point. it is all inter related.

    14. Examples of student resources include their intellectual abilities,study habits and methods, sense of responsibility and personality (Díaz-Méndez & Gum-messon,2012) as well as their perspectives and opinions on their learning experiences.

      Students add their experience as a resource. Why didn't I think of that?

    15. The process of value co-creation can allow for institutions and students to worktogether to improve the student experience and enhance students’ability to act as part-ners
    1. However, further validations in particular focusing on the assessment of emotional ownership arenecessary

      Challenge accepted!

    2. The re-use phase contains the actual usage of the resources –as similar resources will be used, this can also be a starting point for developing collaborative teaching scenarios. Re-use also should take feedback into account. Feedbacks should be shared between the collaborators so that all partners receive positive comments for their efforts as well as improvement suggestions.

      Feedback! This is so very important. Use it, try it then give feedback on it.

    3. This phase should consider the following principles:

      This could be a great exercise with my foundations class.

    4. Thus, I would recommend the following principles

      These design principles are so on the money.

    5. The importance of the concept is that there is a much stronger binding to the artifact than to other resources which are just downloaded and / or used (such as a picture taken from an internet search)

      They have some stake in the game.

    6. not-invented-here

      This is a fair point. i had never thought of that before

    7. the adoption has still not reached its potentials

      There is a long way to go

    1. one that can build digital literacy, multimodal communication skills, and self-efficacy. In this model where experience is both a component and an outcome of the pedagogy, ePortfolios may be among the most powerful examples of high-impact practices and experiential learning.

      Our students need digital literacy. I teach in the trades setting and I see this is a skill that is lacking. By teaching our students digital literacy skills we are preparing them for a market that requires those skills more and more.

    2. Building an ePortfolio is a way for learners to capture, integrate, and reflect on experiences across time and academic/co-curricular/personal/professional dimensions

      Reflection is a key point to this. So much more can happen when students are given time to reflect.

    3. The magic of the “e” in ePortfolio is not that it signifies a digital format, but that it captures the pedagogy of experience, evidence, and engagement.

      This is such a good idea. Again it is not necessarily about the electronic abilities. It is about the pedagogy that goes with it.

  12. 201806-dcs-uploaded-doc.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com 201806-dcs-uploaded-doc.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com
    1. Beyond the practical implications, this study suggests the need for further researchshowing how user experience can inform how faculty and students are engaged in theadoption and use of open textbooks

      This is a good quote. There is so much more that needs to be done.

    2. opportunities nonetheless exist for engaging andbuilding upon open textbook use to increase interactivity and enhance teaching andlearning for users.
    3. I’m now offering students the ability to interact with information and their interaction iswhat leads the classroom. It’s not just the method of information that’s being changed,it provides the opportunity for students to access more original material in a way thatpromotes interactive learning.

      The interactivity adds a lot of value

    4. Finally, 33% (5) of students cited portability as a factor influencing their decisionto use an open textbook in their current course, and 30% (8) cited portability as afactor influencing their preference for using open textbooks over traditional textbooksin the future. One student indicated on the survey: ‘I don’t have to carry it around withme everywhere.’ The focus group data added weight to this finding. For example, onestudent reported that the ability to easily access the online textbook from multiplelocations – from a lab, in the classroom, on public transport, during class breaks –allowed students to better manage their time in light of their busy school, family andwork schedules

      This is so interesting! I would never have thought about that.

    5. Additionally, ease of use for faculty involved the ability to integratethe new resource into their existing course materials. For example, some participantsreportedly moved pieces of content so that the textbook material was organisedaccording to the order in which they preferred to present it to the class, while otherstook material they had created and added it to the textbook.

      I love this! It is so powerful.

    6. As such,we aim to move beyond evidence of open textbooks as cost-saving mechanismstowards a consideration of how far open textbooks can effect positive teaching andlearning outcomes

      To me this is the most important and exciting part

    7. While many teachers underestimated the potential impact that theseresources could have on student learning, others reported that they lacked the technicalskills to effectively integrate the new resource into their courses.

      This could be a common issue. There are issues with faculty perception.

    8. Thematerials were offered as supplemental content to teachers and learners in all schooldistricts in Scotland, but only some districts chose to adopt the programme and it wasultimately up to teachers to determine how to incorporate the resources into theircourses.

      This is how it starts though isn't it? As supplemental? Then it can start to grow beyond that to something larger.

    9. It goes beyond just cost savings

    1. ps’:  Understanding,  Need  and

      I think reflection is key in this process.

    2. ts:  a)discussing  benefits  of  using  OER,  b)  showing  examples  of  how  other  people  use  them,  c)  reassuring  lecturers  that  reusing  materials  created  by  others  is  good  prac

      This is such an important step and should be the beginning of any process

    1. Basic Electricity for Electricians

      This says basic electricity

    2. making post-sec

      Everything you see here is important. Try this out ok?