273 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. du Pont Corp., a major investor in and producer of leaded gasoline

      I think Kovarik could spend more time digging into the DuPont/GM connection. Seems to me that there is a huge advantage moving auto engines to a fuel that can be patented rather than ethyl that any farmer could distill.

    2. Grain is not “used” for fuel; it is fed to cattle after it is distilled with no loss in food value

      Dual use.

  2. Jul 2019
    1. “unfortunate” that some staff had felt the need to alter their teaching style

      Maybe this is polite British-speak for "it was unfortunate that their previous teaching style was not something they were willing to have recorded, so they rushed to change it when the cameras were switched on."

    2. lecture capture encouraged poor attendance

      And this matters because...?

    1. Morton Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1780-1860

      Horwitz was one of Steinberg's dissertation advisors. His ideas about American law heavily influenced Steinberg's thesis in Nature, Incorporated.

    1. I lorwitz, Transfonnation of American law,

      Historiographic note: Morton Horwitz was one of Steinberg's dissertation advisors. He wrote the most important book about the history of American Law, and his perspective influenced Steinberg heavily. I highly recommend Horwitz's book -- it may be the single most significant book I've read in US History.

    Tags

    Annotators

  3. Jun 2019
    1. 1879 illustration of a prosperous Massachusetts farm,

      I chose this image from several dozen similar ones because it is a farm in Enfield Massachusetts. Anybody know why that's significant? (Answer in Chapter 9)

    1. CC BY NC license

      I've become much more of an advocate of the NC addition tot he open license since I've started noticing how OER texts seem to wind up in walled-garden turnkey learning systems that charge for the homework and assessment modules.

    1. CC BY-SA

      Actually, I've changed the license to CC-BY-NC-SA. I just thought it might be a good idea to signal my intention that the text should NOT become part of a commercialized "walled garden".

    1. WALDEN

      In addition to being a historian, Cronon began his academic career as an English major.

    Annotators

    1. campus grant project

      Can this be duplicated?

    2. obstacles and challenges that were preventing faculty from adopting OERs in their courses—primarily a lack of time, lack of availability of relevant OERs, and a lack of ancillary materials to accompany existing open texts (test banks, PowerPoint files, and other materials often provided by commercial publishers).

      Survey these objections? Is there a way to put $$ to them?

    3. trainings that include data on textbook costs and the impact on students. After the training, faculty participants are offered a stipend of $200 to provide a peer review of an existing textbook

      Add this to the slate of talks I do in the fall.

    4. faculty support and development opportunities, and it became apparent that these elements were critical to the adoption of OERs

      The point is that shifting work should be compensated.

    5. Minnesota State, one of the largest public postsecondary systems in the United States, is comprised of seven universities and 30 two-year community and technical colleges on 54 campuses across the state. The system employs nearly 9,000 teaching faculty and serves approximately 400,000 students each year

      Good summary of MinnState

    1. Students impacted

      Faculty leads, faculty adoptions, students impacted are the three main metrics.

    2. focus their efforts on faculty who could adopt already-existing OERs, as this requires the least amount of money from the institution and the least amount of faculty time

      Low-hanging fruit

    3. how will I get a list of faculty who are interested and a list of faculty who will adopt OERs?

      Old fashioned sales 101

    4. with a strategic OER effort, an institution can achieve a level of 25% of their duplicated student headcount using OERs within a 2–5 year period.

      Build this into a goal statement?

    5. How many students are currently impacted by OERs at your institution? How many faculty are currently using OERs at your institution?

      Two good questions to add to surveys.

    1. The involvement of for-profit companies like Lumen in the production and distribution of open educational resources remains controversial, since they oftentimes wind up charging students for content that is supposed to be free. Advocates for OER also sometimes worry about whether companies will capture and control student data.

      If more OER content was licensed CC-BY-NC-SA, this might dissuade this type of "capture".

    2. For OER to truly scale

      Is this really scaling, or is it productization?

    1. Digital Course Packs combine different course-related materials into a single point of access, including journal articles, e-books, web-sites and links, images, and videos, all in a variety of formats and all presented online.

      This is probably worth formalizing into a "thing" in addition to celebrating things faculty have done individually to achieve same goal.

    1. Faculty engagement[2] with a digital text (for example, faculty annotations that add insights to the text) can also increase student engagement

      Hypothesis as well as the fact that the instructor made the OER for the course probably both positive.

    2. reduced cost and first-day access

      Survey questions should focus on each of these factors.

    3. students’ focus on the quality of the teaching rather than the format of the course materials

      AND, it's usually not an apples to apples comparison -- the ebook is often newer, better, more directly related to course goals, esp. if a specially-remixed OER.

    4. If the choice were entirely up to you, what would your preferred textbook option be when taking a class?

      Results might be different if we tested their price sensitivity: "Would you pay $50 for a print textbook if an online one was available free?"

    1. faculty have a greater responsibility in designing curricula and assignments that foster enhanced engagement with the core ideas about information and scholarship

      In many cases the info literacy, critical thinking, and communication skills may be more valuable than the course content.

    1. increasingly complex course content environment has produced the need for new service models involving collaboration across campus units to educate and support faculty and students

      This is a great statement. Complex both because of technology, but also new types of interactions between these stakeholders.

    2. wholesalers and publishers

      Should we distinguish between publishers that still believe in the value of their content and others who seem to be saying the content is worthless but they want to capture the homework and assessment revenue?

    3. course packs

      Course packs, library reserves, and quick-printed manuals like "Short Handbook" all have long histories.

    4. Bookstores, like ours at the University of Minnesota, have worked hard to provide students with a range of affordable options including used books, rentals, robust buyback options, discounted digital textbooks

      Role of bookstores and their long-term interest in reducing student costs is often overlooked.

    5. (28%) [of faculty] reported that they do not typically know the prices of the books they assign

      This isn't a good look for faculty.

    6. Some faculty and staff may think course material costs are a minor concern when compared with the sticker shock of tuition

      Analogous to the difference between fixed and variable costs in business. Many firms fail because, in spite of impressive infrastructure, they fail to meet payrolls or pay for the next shipment of raw materials.

    7. difference between graduating or dropping out

      And also difference in course success, GPA, job prospects, and all the other results of performance in these courses the student has paid or borrowed so much to get into.

    8. $1,650 in interest

      This is obscene.

    9. $1,200 for books
    10. student loan debt in the U.S. rose to $1.5 trillion in the first quarter of 2018

      What is the current per capita average? According to Forbes, average student debt of class of 2016 was $37,172.

  4. www.theatlantic.com www.theatlantic.com
    1. archaeological digs should find many pigeon bones in the pre-Columbian strata of Indian middens. But they aren't there. The mobs of birds in the history books, he says, were "outbreak populations—always a symptom of an extraordinarily disrupted ecological system

      The last one, Martha, died Sept 1st, 1914 in the Cincinnati zoo.

    2. her fear is that this data will be misused

      This is probably a sincere and well-founded fear. But that doesn't mean we should lie about the past.

    3. Terra preta, Woods guesses, covers at least 10 percent of Amazonia, an area the size of France

      TP is a mixture of charcoal, pottery shards, human and animal feces -- so at agricultural scale it's clearly a soil amendment rather than the "natural" soil of the region.

    4. plant trees, you get twenty years of productivity out of your work instead of two or three

      Note also that cassava, the staple developed by people in this area, was a tree-crop.

    5. my alarm bells

      Partly because she's on the lookout to protect her interpretation from critics or new ideas.

    6. When Indian societies disintegrated

      And atmospheric carbon levels dropped sharply, possibly contributing to continuing the Little Ice Age.

    7. Aztec

      Most Aztec homes in Tenochtitlán had running water. Rich people had steam baths.

    8. scores of English ran off

      This led to a whole literature (propaganda) of captivity and redemption, which the colonial leaders used to try to dissuade defections.

    9. presentism

      I think a distinction can be made between "judging" the choices people made in the past and trying to appreciate their perspectives, experiences, and world views so we can better understood why they made the choices they did.

    10. streets immaculate

      Their chronicles note with surprise that the streets, squares, and markets are spotless, with not even a stray straw left behind.

    11. Middle East and central Mexico

      Which is an improvement over believing agriculture was invented in the fertile crescent, but still ignores Asia.

    12. 1987 American History: A Survey, a standard high school textbook by three well-known historians, described the Americas before Columbus as "empty of mankind and its works.

      This description seems to rely on a very narrow definition of "mankind".

    13. many plagues, not just one

      And this breaks the back of that argument about viruses rarely being as lethal as they were here. Individual viruses can't communicate with other viruses. Even if they're individually only 50% lethal, four 50% epidemics in a row will reduce a population by roughly 94%.

    14. That's one reason whites think of Indians as nomadic hunters," says Russell Thornton, an anthropologist at the University of California at Los Angeles. "Everything else—all the heavily populated urbanized societies—was wiped out.

      Even when we accept the idea that there were many more natives than previously thought, it's still hard to assess the number of people living in North America, where a century passed before much European exploration settlement began.

    15. high political and ecological stakes

      In other words, what at first might seem to be a historiographical disagreement can become a high-stakes political issue affecting how Americans think of their past actions and choices.

    16. Pox Americana, (2001)

      This is an example of the type of book you might want to read for your final paper.

    17. ninety to 112 million

      This is among the higher estimates of pre-Columbian population, although the logic leading to it seems sound. To be safe, I use a mid-range estimate of 65 to 80 million, which would make the populations of Europe, the Americas, and Africa all about level.

    18. Francisco Pizarro was able to seize an empire the size of Spain and Italy combined with a force of 168 men

      And yet when Alfred Crosby wrote a book questioning the military superiority of the conquistadors and positing disease as the main cause, publishers rejected it with single-word responses like "Nonsense!"

    19. The good hand of God favored our beginnings," Bradford mused, by "sweeping away great multitudes of the natives ... that he might make room for us.

      A sentiment that was echoed by Cotton Mather in Magnalia Christi Americana in 1702.

    20. another deserted Indian village
    21. robbing Indian houses and graves

      Not part of the story we usually focus on...

    22. Should we let people keep burning the Beni?

      Point is, this is a question that can and should be answered, but NOT by automatic reflex of claiming what we think ancient people did.

    23. burning created an intricate ecosystem of fire-adapted plant species dependent on native pyrophilia

      Cronon talks about native North Americans managing forest understory with fire in Changes in the Land.

    24. putatively natural state

      To be clear, Cronon is both an environmentalist AND a critic of the pristine myth. See, for example, his article "The Trouble with Wilderness, or Getting back to the Wrong Nature"

    25. make the meager evidence from the ethnohistorical record tell you anything

      If this is true, isn't it equally a danger for the theories that just happen to be older and more advantageous for white Europeans?

    26. a hemisphere thoroughly dominated by humankind

      So the story of Env Hist, that people have not only been affected by their environments but have altered them, enters deep history in the Americas just as it does in other regions humans have lived.

    27. the Beni, a Bolivian province

      We normally think of Bolivia as a nation of the "altiplano" and the Andes. Like the Inca Empire before it, it spreads down the eastern side of the mountains and includes the westernmost edge of the Amazon watershed.

    28. jimmies

      A mostly New England word for sprinkles. Mann lives in Amherst MA.

    1. 14,300 years old

      14,300, not 20,000 or 30,000. This is entirely consistent with current science.

    2. crossing a giant ice field is a ridiculous notion

      Yes, it is. Which is why the coastal route was much more likely.

    3. window into what it means

      I agree, and this is the way these stories should be taken, NOT as evidence they might be true.

    4. Palaeolithic Spain

      Interesting that story about the Solutrean theory that this article links to calls the theory both wildly inaccurate and racist.

    5. that coast is now under water

      Yes! This is true, and interesting discoveries are currently being made on the Channel Islands off California.

    6. only appears when ice is locked up on land and sea levels drop

      Not a land bridge: as wide as Alaska. And not that temporary: probably existed from about 28,000 to about 12,000 years ago. That's 16,000 years, or three times longer than recorded history.

    7. there’s enough evidence

      Show your work! This is a "History Channel" statement. I've read fairly extensively through the peer-reviewed scholarship, and archaeologists don't seem agreed there's "enough evidence". Even the guys that discovered Monte Verde are much less certain about the 33,000 year old finds, and separated them into a different category.

    8. reject the idea that their ancestors migrated from somewhere else

      Vine Deloria Jr. is one of the big advocates for the idea that "we have always been here", but his argument is primarily political rather than scientific. Realistically, isn't a scientific certainty that native Americans have been here for at least 15,000 years enough?

    9. Craig Childs

      Who is not a trained scientist, historian, archaeologist, but apparently many find him a compelling storyteller.

    10. as the Navajo and other Native American tribes believe

      Which is to be expected, since their experience here goes back hundreds of generations. But that doesn't mean that Indian legends are any more valid than the old testament which says Eden was a place in the vicinity of Mesopotamia.

    11. weren't one group of people; they arrived at different times, and likely by different methods

      These are two separate statements, that require two different types of argument and evidence to back them up. Why do I get the sense you're not going to do that...?

  5. May 2019
    1. more detail

      I'll begin with a list of texts you might want to read, in addition to the ones we'll be reading excerpts from together, in the next week or so.

    2. smallish

      So far, we have 5 people registered.

    1. 970s,

      In the US, many social historians AND cultural historians too. Bill Cronon for example -- note his interest in both "history from below" and in literary critic Raymond Williams.

    2. the "wilderne

      Rocky Mountains sanitoria for treating "consumption" might be an interesting topic. Follow Doc Holiday to Glenwood CO...

    3. ical. Evolutionary history shows not only how humans have steered the evolution of other species through breeding, hybridization, and direct genetic manipulation but also how human actions have produced unintended evolutionary consequences, such as pesticide res

      Evolution by natural selection vs. breeding by deliberate selection.

    4. terns of land use. Only in the early republic did a market-driven cycle of unsustainable agricultural expansion, specialization, and abandon- ment oc

      I don't recall that Donahue completely explained why the colonial approach changed and became unsustainable in the early republic...

    5. n them and their world; the birds act in history as informants about the qualities of the engineered environments upon which they increasin

      The birds aren't "agents", but they are a barometer.

    6. show that state conservation was not a heroic intervention on behalf of nature but rather a flawed and imperious project that did social, economic, and cultura

      Was it even really envisioned as an "intervention on behalf of nature" or was that just a rationalization?

    7. exposing the constructed

      Is this just the "linguistic turn" catching up with EnvHist?

    8. t past efforts to speak for nature have masked social and cultur

      "I speak for the trees" says the Lorax.

    9. plain. The presence of coal seams or fertile soils in particular places has certainly mattered to human history, but to talk of coal or soils as

      Yeah, "agency" seems to imply choice. But it would be completely accurate to say that these natural features influenced (to some extent determined) the choices available to people.

    10. e the ideal of the human agent a

      It's also important to note that not all humans have equal amounts of agency or freedom of action.

    11. to define the roles of animals - creatures that might be recognized as h

      Even if not conscious, could the ability of herds of prey animals or domesticated cattle to react to human activities (to flee or resist) be considered agency? Either way, it's probably important in historical analysis.

    12. e Anthropoc

      Maybe this is a model: not ALL human interventions in the natural world rise to the status of the anthropocene.

    13. ted, "there is hope in hybrid landscapes," born of the realization that the natural can persist, and sometimes thrive, in

      This is especially hopeful in the world we occupy right now.

    14. - for approaches that see all environments as interweaving the natural and the cultural in com

      Hybridity

    15. d other categories

      What does the historian mean by the term "category of analysis"?

    16. June 2013

      Not entirely up to date, but pretty recent.

    1. lets us focus on critique without a requirement that we devalue the work

      An even more valuable element is that the critiques stay IN CONTEXT rather than appearing out of context in reviews, blog posts, etc.

    2. tensions and tradeoffs of revision

      Making annotation an important element of versioning things like textbooks.

    3. collapsed the distance and distinction between producer and consumer

      Another goal

    4. performative publishing

      Another useful term

    5. laminated and multi-vocal text

      Nice description -- design principle.

    6. process and product

      Discuss work-in-progress as a valid publication.

    7. disruptive of formal education and enabling of student-centered and interest-driven learning

      To what extent are these actually at odds?

    8. web annotation as a disruptive media practice, as well as web annotation as performative publishing

      Disruptive of hierarchy.

    1. emphasizing the need to spend as much (or more) time on an online class as an in-person class

      Esp. time spent reading vs. listening to lectures

    2. cooperation among students

      Hypothesis

    3. introductions, announcements, online office hours, and prompt response

      Online office hours -- maybe Zoom access?

    1. the risk that overly onerous and inflexible attribution requirements are simply disregarded

      This seems to be a key point, and this post doesn't really make it clear whether OUR's attribution requirement is onerous. Is the point to make it possible for an educator to find the original source, or to prevent anyone ever viewing a page without a visible attribution? It seems to me those are two very different things.

    2. increases student success, reduces the cost of education, and supports rapid experimentation and innovation in education

      It will be interesting to see if we can build layered materials that present important ideas or content at a variety of levels of detail/complexity for different subsets of students. For example, a module on the Columbian Exchange that has a “slider” to increase the depth of the coverage for different audiences.

    3. openly license a complete set of competencies

      And then once they've opened their competencies and credentialing, how do they continue to charge tuition? As a student, why wouldn't I just cut out the middleman?

    4. Open Credentials Open Assessments Open Educational Resources Open Competencies

      I'm not sure I'm against this. But it is incredibly disruptive. In this world, the difference between a Harvard BA and a Bemidji State BA could be substantially reduced. Since I'm at Bemidji State, I suppose I should welcome this change and work to hasten it. But there still seems to be a missing element, and it seems to me a bit like a publisher's dream of capturing the entire value-chain in the learning app "Stack".

    5. Z degree

      Doesn't reducing the cost of every other element of education to zero put an inordinate spotlight on the fact that the only value-add left that the institution is charging for is the credits themselves? That they're basically an accreditation gatekeeper? Is this where higher ed wants to shine the spotlight??

  6. www.environmentandsociety.org www.environmentandsociety.org
    1. intersection of energy and environment.

      And how is this currently changing as the grid changes?

    2. environmental history of things that en-vironmental science and policy care about.

      This is ideal for my current cooperation with ENVR.

    3. Before the energy of environmental historians can reach the public, the obstacles to transmission posed by jargon, obscurity, and an inward-looking orientation toward historiography must be removed

      This is a better statement of this than McNeill's recent post in the AHA blog.

    4. omni-presence of complex and mixed attitudes,

      Especially toward the environment? Or is this equivalent to the complexity of other issues like class?

    5. engaging environmental history with contemporary discussion is the best hope for “us” historians, inviting us to address a widened audience, adding vigor to our minds and value to our research, and deepening the meaning we find in our lives

      It will definitely be good for us -- will it be equally good for the public?

    6. Turning hindsight into foresight

      Is this a useful four-word definition of history?

    1. But it cannot tell you about how OER adoption makes a student feel less poor in the eyes of his peers.

      I'm reminded of something I read or heard recently about student evaluations and the value of instructor "kindness" to students. Hard to quantify, but probably key.

    1. was considering

      At this point I'm leaning toward assigning an excerpt rather than the entire essay. Or maybe, as the group did, assigning just sections of the text.

    1. OER should be a no-brainer for any provost concerned about retention and graduation rates; the key is presenting it in a way that makes that clear.

      That's been my experience so far.

    2. won’t betray any confidences here

      ??? Am I being too open about this process?

    3. Jillian Maynard, from the University of Hartford, and Jeremy Anderson, from Bay Path University, led a session on developing a strategic plan for OER on your home campus. I went to that one having previously selected a different one -- born to be wild, that’s me -- because upon closer reading, I made the connection to a law that NJ recently passed requiring public colleges to develop plans for OER (or “inclusive access”)

      This seems very much like what I was talking about yesterday with MinnState folks and reported on my blog.

    1. adjunctification of institutions founded on “gift” logic

      I still don't see how institutions are continuing to miss the inevitable outcome, when adjuncts who feel no connection to an institution hop right over to the Mother-of-all-MOOCs online institution that makes the first credible bid to disrupt/replace them?

    2. OER movement had become so successful that the publishers have launched a disingenuous takeover, going so far as to brag about their paywalled platforms containing OER

      "Inclusive Access" and "Netflix of Books" (do you mean Kindle Unlimited?) not necessarily the same thing. Netflix DID make movies more accessible at lower net cost.

    3. “ZTC” (zero textbook cost) icon

      Another great idea! Would a 0 (zero) with line through it in icon help it live at top of list?

    4. photos of students holding whiteboards saying “I just spent $$$ on textbooks

      Good idea! I wonder if I could convince student government to do this on my campus? Just emailed Student Senate members to ask...

    5. tell faculty what to do

      I get the raised eyebrows, but don't things like transfer curriculum requirements provide some degree of direction that the faculty at, say UMass, maybe don't feel?

    6. As DeRosa put it, “my institution is very good at cutting costs. The point is to provide the best learning environment.”

      Wish I was there, at my alma mater too! 1. Cutting costs, check; 2. Improving learning, check; when do we get to 3. streamlining instructor workloads? Currently in midst of argument about course caps at my school.

    1. general history journals, or in books or digital forums

      My beef is more with historians who don't even know they're doing it, and do things like put coded markers to interpretive structures into narratives in textbooks. Undergrads from other majors in surveys, who will never read historiography, miss these markers and don't realize they're reading a story told through a particular lens.

    2. don’t want anyone, even me, telling historians how they must write

      Ultimately, isn't the market going to do that?

    3. impossible to express novel ideas without novel language

      Aren't MOST new ideas explained by way of metaphors or analogies to known ideas?

    4. relentlessly abstract and obscure prose, often in imitation of models once current in literary criticism and philosophy

      Sometimes that obscure language actually helps historians make subtle but important points. I'm thinking of something like Hayden White's Metahistory here. Having said that, I'm pretty unforgiving when something I'm reading puts me through that "foreign-language" wringer but then doesn't pay off with a big insight.

    5. Nobel laureate physicist Ernest Rutherford allegedly claimed that “all good science can be explained to a bar[tender].”

      Long tradition of top-level physicists like Hawking writing for the general public.

    6. The Point Isn’t to Sound Smart. The Point Is to Communicate.

      As grad students we're exposed to all kinds of jargon and specialized analysis and argument. But it's not really that much more difficult to understand that just as most regular people (who ARE interested in history) aren't interested in our professional arguments, they aren't interested in our technical language. Failing to adjust our language to our audience is just sloppy, like using the passive voice.

    1. he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available

      Recording the trail we wander through this info seems to be a key feature of the Hypothesis annotation view we return to whenever we open the page.

    2. the entire process by which man profits by his inheritance of acquired knowledge The prime action of use is selection

      Implications for education?

    3. provide the individual with information-generating aid

      Interesting that there was apparently recognition of the importance of info creation as well as manipulation and consumption.

    4. concepts that we have never yet imagined

      Has this been achieved by people, or have algorithms taken on this task and automated this process beyond our ability to directly interact with these concepts?

    5. Both the language used by a culture, and the capability for effective intellectual activity are directly affected during their evolution by the means by which individuals control the external manipulation of symbols

      As it becomes easier for individuals to manipulate symbols, what happens?

    6. Korzybski

      General Semantics, A.E. van Vogt, Null-A...

    7. every composite process of the system decomposes ultimately into explicit-human and explicit-artifact processes

      But the increase in efficiency and effectiveness comes from improving the interface so that the relationship between the artifact and the human is easier to manage. A graphical user interface that requires less work on the user's part (even if it required more work for the system programmer) improves those synergies and emergent opportunities. There's an increased benefit when those interfaces can be proliferated widely.

    8. the development of "artificial intelligence" has been going on for centuries

      And the prior evidence is pretty strong for an "emergent" set of new insights and capabilities as these intellectual tools (artificial light, writing, printing, libraries, universities) proliferated.

    9. hope was to make a better match between existing human intelligence and the problems to be tackled

      This seems to echo back to that "aboriginal" example above, where our current seemingly enhanced intelligence derives quite a bit from a circumscribed set of "problems to be tackled" that no longer involve survival, but are more focused on things like making phone calls. Does it matter whether our external "intelligence amplifiers" actually deskill us as humans and make us more dependent on thought-labor-saving technology, as long as we don't lose access to it? Did writing put an end to a rich oral tradition in antiquity? Does Wikipedia and Google search make us more forgetful of "facts"?

    10. synergistic principle gives increased phenomenological sophistication to each succeedingly higher level of organization

      Emergent properties again -- is there an implication that a new (higher?) level of emergence may await?

    11. system is actively engaged in the continuous processes (among others) of developing comprehension within the individual and of solving problems; both processes are subject to human motivation, purpose, and will

      A working definition for education in the digital age?

    12. new innovation in one particular capability can have far-reaching effects throughout the rest of your capability hierarchy

      There's a sense here that some emergent new ability will be discovered once the difficulty of "routine" tasks diminishes.

    13. We find three general categories of process capabilities within a typical individual's repertoire. There are those that are executed completely within the human integument, which we call explicit-human process capabilities; there are those possessed by artifacts for executing processes without human intervention, which we call explicit-artifact process capabilities; and there are what we call the composite process capabilities, which are derived from hierarchies containing both of the other kinds.

      But they shade into each other. Is reading an explicit-human process? What about when a text-to-speech app reads to you? Is that composite? What about when an app keyword-searches a bunch of documents for you and returns only those with the info you want?

    14. even quite different higher order processes may have in common relatively high-order sub-processes

      This must be a useful insight for UI designers.

    15. Every process of thought or action is made up of sub-processes

      Does this focus on the pencil-stroke enhance or detract from the explanation of how to write a document? At what point does this granularity become a detriment?

    16. truly complex situations

      As others have noted here, the idea that the aborigine surviving by her own wits in the outback is tackling less complex situations than the white dude using a telephone seems a bit backwards. A more accurate statement might be that the aborigine does not have the necessary tools and information to build a telephone network. But that's the point, isn't it? That neither do WE. Being the beneficiaries of a technological patrimony and standing on the shoulders of giants doesn't actually make us superior to the aborigine. If anything, it might make us less adaptive and more brittle.

    17. In such a future working relationship between human problem-solver and computer 'clerk,' the capability of the computer for executing mathematical processes would be used whenever it was needed. However, the computer has many other capabilities for manipulating and displaying information that can be of significant benefit to the human in nonmathematical processes of planning, organizing, studying, etc. Every person who does his thinking with symbolized concepts (whether in the form of the English language, pictographs, formal logic, or mathematics) should be able to benefit significantly.

      This is an important suggestion that most thought is symbol manipulation and that computers could be built to assist with it, if not to do it themselves.

    18. considering the whole as a set of interacting components rather than by considering the components in isolation. 1a3

      Considering human supported by smartphone in similar terms as we once considered human supported by library.

    19. extensions of means developed and used in the past

      Do we tend to miss this point, that these new technologies are a continuation of earlier "means" that included language, narrative, writing, printing, libraries, etc.?

    1. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities must develop a program to offer a Z-degree at three additional colleges by expanding the use of open educational resources, including custom and open textbooks. The system office must provide opportunities for faculty to identify, review, adapt, author, and adopt open educational resources. The system office must develop incentives to academic departments to identify, review, adapt, author, or adopt open educational resources within their academic programs.

      Are these three separate charges, or are the second and third considered only as means to the first? The point is, will the system office be able to "provide opportunities" to departments and faculty that are not able to create Z-Degree outcomes?

    2. This appropriation includes $250,000 in fiscal year 2020 and $250,000 in fiscal year 2021 for developing and offering courses to implement the Z-Degree textbook program under Minnesota Statutes, section 136F.305. This is a onetime appropriation.

      Since Z-degrees are defined as Associates Degrees with zero textbook cost, it seems likely that 2-year institutions will be the focus of much of this effort. Is there a way for 4-year institutions to apply for some of this appropriation to incentivize OER adoption that will save students $$ but not immediately lead to a new Z-Degree?

    1. students spent a mean of £572 on books and equipment in their first year, falling to £465 in year 2 and £490 in year three

      Similar to US expenses.

    2. difference in textbook use in the North American context compared with that of the UK. Rather than “required reading”, students are presented with a reading list, which may (depending on the subject) contain text-books, reference material, and primary sources either individually or anthologised. These lists are not limited to books - online resources, video/film and materials prepared internally may also be cited. In the North American model, one specified textbook is more likely to be used as the basis for a whole course.

      The difference might actually be that similar activities are done by US instructors in the LMS and are not as visible as they seem to be in the UK.

    1. The Disquantified Reading Group

      This is not only a great reading list, but a model of how perhaps to structure a reading course with outward-facing content that makes its appeal wider than the single-semester cohort.

    1. fleeing humanities and related fields specifically because they think they have poor job prospects

      But again this is a generalization across a WIDE range of different schools, so conclusions about places where students rack up $200k debts may not apply to places where they do not.

    2. democratization of access has diluted the prominence of the humanities

      Or maybe the humanities & History courses have failed to adapt to the needs and interests of these new students?

    3. history majors, which fell by 20 percent

      This seems to be the bigger issue. Can we craft a better pitch for why students ought to major in History? If not, can we focus more on OTHER ways to add value for majority of undergrads in other majors?

    4. 1950. Since then, the humanities have seen three eras. The first ran from 1955 to 1985. As normal schools around the country, set up to educate teachers, transformed into comprehensive universities, men and women alike poured into English and history majors; then, when the economy soured and the growth of higher education slowed in the 1970s, the boom turned to bust, and humanities majors collapsed nationwide. The second phase began around 1985 and ran to 2008. This was a long period of stability; majors in the four largest (and easiest to track over the long term) humanities majors held steady, with modest fluctuations. Since 2008, the crisis of the humanities has resumed, with percentage drops that are beginning to approach those of 40 years ago. Unlike the drops of the ’70s, though, there’s no preexisting bubble to deflate. And there’s no compelling demographic explanation. Five years ago, it was reasonable to look at these numbers and conclude that the long-term story is all about gender. Men majored in humanities fields at the same rate in the 1990s as they had in the 1950s, while women, seeing more options in the workforce, increasingly turned to majors in business fields.

      The interesting elements here are teacher-training (Normal) schools becoming universities and the decrease in women students as they increasingly found viable career paths beyond the "Mrs" degree.

    5. wake of the 2008 financial crisis

      Interesting to correlate this change with non-recovery from Great Recession for most people.

    6. History is down about 45 percent from its 2007 peak

      But what can we say about the "peak" that could help us understand the change?

    1. 60 percent of the institutions responding to the survey offered graduate-level history courses, and the average graduate enrollment fell over 12 percent, from 205 in 2013–14 to 180 in 2016–17.

      This is a completely different issue. How many new History MAs and PhDs does American actually need per year?

    2. enrollment in introductory history courses does not appear to be leading the overall decline

      Because undergrad History surveys fill a core requirement, but also because they support other programs, esp. where faculty are not distracted by focus on grad students/research? How many of the surveys at PhD schools are taught by senior faculty vs. contingent?

    3. total undergraduate history enrollments rose 5 percent from 2015–16 to 2016–17. In sharp contrast, enrollment in undergraduate history courses fell 6 percent between 2014–15 and 2015–16 at the 17 responding institutions classified as Master’s Colleges and Universities

      History course enrollments up at institutions like mine where BA is highest degree, down at MA and PhD institutions. What TYPES of courses increased? What happened to major/minor numbers?

    4. total undergraduate enrollments in history courses fell 7.7 percent, from 323,883 to 298,821.

      Overall decline in undergrad enrollment dropped substantially over a three-year period that does NOT seem to correlate with an economic crisis or other obvious "cause".

    1. economic returns of education after high school

      Is change in lifetime income potential a way of measuring higher education's social contribution? Is it too broad? Can it account for distributive injustice?

    2. rankings have focused on the input side of the equation, not the output.”

      This is incredibly ham-handed, but not necessarily a bad question to be asking, esp. as digital education begins disrupting brick-and-mortar schools. Can we be more explicit about the value we add as educators?

    1. not-yetness is the space that allows for emergence

      Collaboration requires a space where the answer isn't yet decided, doesn't it?

    1. If big publishers really add value to OER, then open-wrapping is not necessarily a bad thing, said Jhangiani. This is different to "openwashing" where publishers spin a product as open while continuing proprietary practices, he explained. "However, in order for this role to actually be beneficial to the community, they would need to radically change their mentality so that they do not price gouge and do not limit the choices and formats available to students and faculty," said Jhangiani. "They also need to stop behaving like parasites who simply absorb OER into their catalogues and instead also contribute resources back to the commons (like Cengage did a little bit last summer)." 

      To return to a question from an earlier convo, what impact would a CC-BY-NC-SA license on the OER have on the ability of these parasites to use our work?

    1. implicit social contract

      To what extent does the fact that Hypothesis annotations show up in our feeds (and are thus useful for us tracking our movement through texts) while mere highlights do not, determine usage patterns ?

    2. text as an unfinished thing

      In another sense, though, it makes the reader's process more visible so that the reader no longer needs to trespass into the author's territory. I've always been dissatisfied with the lit-crit position that the author must be completely decentered and her contribution minimized to make room for the reader. THIS seems to create a real space for the reader, and in so doing maybe it also allows the author to reclaim some of her space.

    3. whatever client they choose just as they can use their browser of choice

      Interesting -- what would it look like to have a shared annotation layer that could be accessed by a variety of tools?

    1. allowed course registrants to annotate either in a private coursegroup or in public—

      This would definitely solve the web-reticence issue some students might have -- but what does it look like in practice?

    2. Afteractivating Hypothes.is in the browser, a learner can annotate any piece of text on a webpage with her own ideas, to whichother learners could respond (Principle 1). Tags can be attached to a Hypothes.is annotation, enabling the aggregation of webannotations that are scattered across webpages through a tag (Principle 2). Because Hypothes.is adheres to the Open AnnotationModel, annotations are uniquely identifiable and retrievable, allowing portability of ideas not widely supported in threadeddiscussion forums (Principle 2). The search functionality of Hypothes.is offers means to aggregate annotations according to avariety of criteria such as by tags, users, user groups, and annotated web URLs. Users are thus able to enter the discourse notonly from a specific webpage (e.g., the textbook), but also from the search page that provides another view of the discourse(Principle 3)

      Alignment statement for Hypo

    3. oundaries between different learning and discourse spaces (e.g., public vs. private, formal educationvs. workplace learning) are to be crossed if not totally dissolved

      This is probably a long-term goal of mine that I might as well own up to.

    4. At the individual level, this principle supports reflection on and reuse of one’s earlier ideas. At the group level, thisprinciple facilitates collaborative discourse by enabling learners to incorporate peers’ ideas to solve new problems

      Students can watch their ideas evolve and a class can trace changes across a series of readings.

    5. spatiotemporally distributed on the web.

      So maybe the more reasonable long-term strategy is to build these web-based linkages rather than try to capture all these network-resident learning elements within an LMS.

    6. Networked learning, in contrast with the broader terme-learning, is defined as “learning in which information andcommunications technology (ICT) is used to promoteconnections: between one learner and other learners; between learnersand tutors; between a learning community and its learning resource

      Should I start exploring this too?

    1. boilerplate thing

      Sounds like those 19th-century Chapman books filled with platitudes about the upstanding men of the regions. https://openlibrary.org/publishers/Chapman_brothers

    2. idea that the land was prehistoric, suspended in stasis, before the arrival of white people

      The idea of wilderness is definitely in play here, but let's not overdo the criticism of 18th-century people for not having 21st-century environmental values.

    3. settler later wrote that the natives said

      There's got to be some evidence of what the Indians said to each other that's not filtered through this "settler" lens -- maybe have students read this alongside Colin Calloway's Scratch of the Pen.

    4. how big the gap between critical history and the “popular history” that makes it to best-seller lists

      There's a BIG difference between the gap between academic and popular history and this, which seems more in the tradition of Glenn Beck and Bill O'Reilly "history".

    5. 19th-century ideology of Manifest Destiny

      Or at least of an uncritical embrace of the turner thesis.