656 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2021
    1. Multiple assessment attempts on the same course material

      This is similar to my idea of multiple opportunities to interact with course content.

  2. Apr 2021
    1. no-stakes

      Maybe not entirely no stakes -- maybe participation credit rather than quiz scores though.

    2. Telling students that frequent quizzing helps learning


    3. Pretesting

      Pretest, survey, framing question that they need to consider and discuss before content lecture?

    4. summary points

      Do this once or twice to model, then ask them to pick it up. Maybe first in large group, then in small, then in pairs, then individually?

    5. memory has two components: storage strength and retrieval strength. Retrieval events improve storage strength, enhancing overall memory, and the effects are most pronounced at the point of forgetting—that is, retrieval at the point of forgetting has a greater impact on memory

      So the spacing of repetition is key. But is the loss in effectiveness from retrieving "too soon" significant?

    6. retrieval effort hypothesis suggests that the effort involved in retrieval provides testing benefits (Gardiner, Craik, and Bleasdale, 1973). This hypothesis predicts that tests that require production of an answer, rather than recognition of an answer, would provide greater benefit

      Again, why not begin "production" with note-taking?

    7. students were instructed to spend the final 5 to 10 minutes of each class period answering two to four questions that required them to retrieve information about the day’s lecture from memory. The students in this section of the course performed about 8% higher on exams

      Might try this, too. Instead of daily discussion (which too many students tune out).

    8. students who completed an exam every day rather than exams that covered large blocks of material scored significantly higher on a retention test administered at the end of the semester.

      More frequent testing leads to more retention.

    9. no significant difference in the benefits conferred by the different types of retrieval practice; multiple-choice, short-answer

      So it wouldn't be the end of the world for me to give some multiple-choice quizzes.

    10. asking them to read passages about 250 words long

      This is all well and good. I'd be curious, though, how results would have differed if students had been asked to read and make a note paraphrasing the passage in their own words. Seems like this crosses the boundary earlier between "absorbing" and "working with" info.

    11. calls up notions of high-stakes summative assessments

      Instead, low-stakes "reminders"

    12. remembering concepts or facts—retrieving them from memory—increases long-term retention of those concepts or facts. This idea, also known as the testing effect

      Does it also matter how the "facts" get into memory? By reading them vs. paraphrasing them in one's own words?

  3. watermark.silverchair.com watermark.silverchair.com
    1. Thoreau's TheMaine Woods, published in 186

      Add this to the list. Thoreau was apparently aware of Springer's book, and cites him in several sections.

    2. Charles T. Jackson's Second AnnualReport on the Geology of the Public Lands Belonging to the T

      And this too.

  4. Mar 2021
    1. to isolate these two aspects from each other is neither possible nor methodologically meaningful

      To isolate origin and value. Or order and disorder. Seems like he's saying we should be open to whatever we find.

    2. producing accidents with sufficiently enhanced probabilities for selection


    3. slip box provides combinatorial possibilities which were never planned

      Never preconceived: not top-down but bottom-up.

    4. activate the internal network of links at the occasion of writing notes or making queries. Memory does not function as the sum of point by point accesses, but rather utilizes internal relationships

      So more info is returned on a query than one had in mind. This is the value of the record and the persistent links. You're not only referring to your library, but you're following all those little pieces of yarn the conspiracy theorist pins between elements on his board. The beauty is that these are available long after you've finished messing with that particular question.

    5. look for formulations of problems that relate heterogeneous things with each other

      Is he saying that the slipbox excels in linking these heterogeneous things?

    6. there will be incidental ideas which started as links from secondary passages and which are continuously enriched and expand so that they will tend increasingly to dominate system

      This process of discovering what you're interested in by observing what you return to repeatedly, and what you link new info to, is entirely believable and very attractive!

    7. preferred centers, formation of lumps

      Clusters of attention.

    8. it gets its own life, independent of its author.

      I'm not sure I believe this, but it's very attractive.

    9. Central concepts can have many links which show on which other contexts we can find materials relevant

      The ability to link to something "distant" and not lose the relative places of the notes might suggest unexpected connections between seemingly disparate ideas.

    10. internal growth

      This idea of internal branching growth and formation of clusters is very interesting.

    11. complexes of ideas

      The network emerges from the pattern and frequency of USE of nodes.

    12. context in which we are working

      Context is key.

    13. arbitrary internal branching

      Anything can be connected to anything. This is easy to do today with bi-directional links (Roam, Obsidian).

    14. we decide against the systematic ordering in accordance with topics and sub-topics and choose instead a firm fixed place

      Avoid creating topics and structuring the notes. Allow the notes to exist in a random order (assuming time of entry is random).

    15. Information, accordingly, originates only in systems which possess a comparative schema

      Information is created by comparison? I suppose at a very basic level (figure vs. ground). Discrimination. A is not B. Or A is unlike B, but like C.

      What comparisons you make depend on what you're looking for, though. So two people with different interests or questions might make different comparisons.

    16. It is impossible to think without writing; at least it is impossible in any sophisticated or networked (anschlußfähig) fashion

      "networked" or "connectable"

      This is the main idea. Thinking = Writing

    17. partners can mutually surprise each other

      Is this required? or a bonus?

  5. Feb 2021
  6. Dec 2020
    1. New England can be traced

      I can take notes here


    1. Atomicity fosters re-use which in turn multiplies the amount of connections in the network of Zettels.

      ok, makes sense to have one main idea per "block"

    2. try to grasp a whole cluster in a single note. This is especially useful when I can abstract away from the details and carve out a clear concept.

      When reading for argument rather than data.

    3. orthogonal to the content’: they don’t adhere to the succession of pages and sections. Instead, clusters form themselves around any purpose you deem fitting.

      I do this when mapping notes & highlights it MN3.

    1. I can easily process them all at a later date/time if necessary.

      I'm not convinced that this is better than just processing them directly from Hypothesis, which seems like a legitimate step in the process of tending notes in the zettelkasten process.

    2. aggregating my note data

      Readwise does this, I think. There's also a hack for Roam (https://github.com/houshuang/hypothesis-to-bullet)

    3. mobile

      Really? I just shifted from iPad to Macbook to annotate this. Maybe I'll try it on mobile...

    4. time and effort

      This week I have a BUNCH of tagged pages in an ILL book (which I wasn't able to write in) that I need to get into my notes. Might try voice memos because I'm too cheap to keep the Drafts app -- although if my subscription hasn't expired I might use Drafts.

    5. quick methods

      Notability? Otter.ai?

    6. Livescribe pen

      OMG! I had one of those! Just threw it away in my most recent pass through box of abandoned tech.

    7. going through my notes, reformatting them (if necessary), tagging them and expanding on them

      Agreed. But surprised. Isn't this what you were objecting to in the intro?

    8. highlights, annotations, and notes

      Readwise scoops these up really well too.

    9. tool that treats this method the same as the general online modality.

      I've been using Hypothesis for that too, and I've even had my students annotate pdf journal articles and scanned monograph chapters after opening them in chrome. It seems to work pretty well. I'm also enjoying MarginNote 3 for that, and especially for the graphical mindmap. However, I'm only using free tools with my students.

    10. I’d rather be able to highlight, type some thoughts and have it appear in my notebook.

      I just saved this article to Instapaper and then highlighted and commented on this line in it. That will get saved up to Readwise and find its way into my notes workflow. I think this note I'm making here may also find its way into that workflow via Readwise. I'll let you know, Chris, if it does.

    11. too painful

      It's time-consuming, especially starting. But I'm hoping that as I get the workflow down it will become much more streamlined and convenient.

  7. Nov 2020
    1. 12% of Minnesotans age 25-44 (177,000 persons) enrolled in college but nevercompleted a certificate or degree. Of those individuals, 49,000 are persons of color or indigenous

      That also means 128,000 are white. I'm a bit surprised there's no discussion of gender here.

    2. Attainment rates for the basic race categories hide large disparities across ethnicities

      Doesn't this sort-of challenge the idea of grouping these populations by these categories?

    3. Of those, 6,120 credentials must be earned by American Indians, 5,490 by Asians, 32,830 byBlacks, 4,240 by multiracial individuals, 37,300 by Latinx, and 24,050 by whites

      Why? (I'm not asking why that would be a good outcome, I'm asking what part of the goal does this come from?)

    4. Minnesota will need an additional 110,730 persons age 25-44 to complete a postsecondary credential by 2025.

      Were we on track before COVID?

    5. Current estimates show that 62.2% of Minnesotans aged 25-44 years completed a postsecondary credential (Figure 1). This percentage increased slightly as compared to 2015 estimates (57.5%).

      Okay, there's the answer to my earlier question.

    6. over 68% of jobs paying family-sustaining wages require postsecondary education beyond high school.

      So MN needs enough people to fill those jobs. Of course, these are percentages. What's the number of jobs vs. number of people?

    7. In 2015, the Minnesota Legislature enacted a state postsecondary educational attainment goal that 70% of Minnesota adults (age 25 to 44) will have attained a postsecondary certificate or degree by 2025

      What was the number at the time the goal was adopted?

    1. some people do absorb knowledge from books. Indeed, those are the people who really do think about what they’re reading. The process is often invisible. These readers’ inner monologues have sounds like: “This idea reminds me of…,” “This point conflicts with…,” “I don’t really understand how…,” etc. If they take some notes, they’re not simply transcribing the author’s words: they’re summarizing, synthesizing, analyzing.

      Exactly. So the first job is to explain this on day one and show students how to do it.

    2. The lectures-as-warmup model is a post-hoc rationalization, but it does gesture at a deep theory about cognition: to understand something, you must actively engage with it.

      This is actually useful. Lectures are the commercial for the reading, critical thinking, and writing. And they're a dramatic performance of the text.

    3. Failure is the default here.

      You can't just continue claiming this without proof and expect me to believe it based solely on repetition.

    4. underlying truth about your cognition

      Okay, I'm listening...

    5. So why do books seem to work for some people sometimes? Why does the medium fail when it fails?

      Communication requires two parties. If the receiver is unwilling or unable to make an effective effort to get insight and information from a book, then it's also possible that's where the problem resides. I'm interested to see the enhancements to knowledge transfer you're going to propose, but this argument seems a bit like a straw man.

  8. Sep 2020
  9. Aug 2020
  10. Jun 2020
    1. Towandavillagewasafamouswhitepinecenterfiftyyearsago.Itslocationfavoredthis;for,beingsituatedontheSusquehannaRiver,which,withitstributaries,drainsallthenortheasternwhitepinecountiesofPennsylvaniaandsouthernNewYork,itwasanaturaloutletofthewhitepinelumberproduction.


    2. NoefforthasbeenmadetopreserveorrenewtheforestsofwesternNewYork,andthestreamshaveshrunktomerecreeksordrybedsofsandandgravelinthesummer.TheAllegheny,thatoncewaslargeenoughatOleantopromisenavigation,istransformedinsummertoastreamofsmalldimensions

      Environmental damage

    3. Hisfinancialendcameinthecrashofthe"MillionBank"inwhichIsaacWhippo,WilliamDuerandWalterLivingstonwereconcerned.

      I haven't heard of this.

    4. Duringtheperiodbetween1830and1840NewYorkStateasalum-berproducingterritorywasatthezenithofitscareer,withWestTroyand,alittlelater,Albanyasthegreatwholesalecenters

      1830-40 NY peak

    5. ActuallogdrivingwasbegunbyNormanandAlansonFoxin1813ontheupperHudsonandsoonbecamethemethodoftransportationinallthatcountry.Thesortingwasanaturaloutgrowthandin1849theHud-sonRiverBoomAssociationwasformedforcommonprotectionandco-operativeaction.Themaximumoflogshandledwasreachedin1872when,atthebigboomofGlensFalls,almost200,000,000feetoflogsweresorted.Itwasmagnificenttimber,too,fornothinglessthantwelveincheswascut.

      Glens Falls

    6. riverswereusedfirsttogettheproducttomarketinsteadofgettingtherawmaterialtothemill.TheFoxbrotherswerethepioneerloggersofNewYork.TheyhadamillinWarrenCountyandoriginatedtheideaoffloatingthelogstothemillinsteadofmovingthemilltothelogs.TheysentthefirstlogdrivedowntheSchroon,abranchoftheUpperHudson

      Find out about the Fox Brothers.

    7. 1865lumberhadpasseditszenithinthatStateandwasadecliningindustry.

      1865 pine all done in NY

    8. Itwasessentiallyawhitepinestate,forthismagnificenttreegrewinalmosteverymaindivisionand,insome,almosttotheexclusionofotherspecies.PineStreet,inNewYorkCity,issaidtohavereceiveditsnamefromthefinewhitepineswhichgrewonthefarmofJanJansenDamen.

      Pines in New York City.

    9. MaineforestsweredenudedofgoodpineandSt.John,NewBrunswick,wasrapidlycomingtothesamepoint.By1872theeasternpinewaspracticallyoutofthemarketandfinishinglumbercameonlyfromtheWest

      By 1872 Maine and New Brunswick pine gone

    10. After1867thecartradeinlumberreceivedbyrailincreasedenor-mously

      rail to Boston after 1867

    11. OntheopeningoftheChamplainCanalandtheperfectingofthewatercommunicationswithNewYork,thetradeinlumbershifteditsdirectiontothesouth,andtheywhohadraftedlum-bertoQuebecnowtookitinthesamemannertoNewYorkandothermarketsontheHudson,allofwhichwerebetterthanthoseatQuebec

      how long did vermont lumber go north?

    12. TheroughcharacterofcentralandnorthernNewHampshireresultedinthepreservationofthepinemuchlongerthaninanyoftheadjoiningstates.Aslateas1883MaineandMichiganlumbermenboughtatractof47,000acreswhichwasestimatedtocut250,000,000feetofpine

      pine persisted due to ruggedness

    13. Merrimac,Saco,AndroscogginandConnecticutallflowoutoftheStateintoothercommonwealths,sothatthetimberofNewHampshirehasbeenquitelargelycutbeyonditsborders

      NH rivers

    14. Inthesouth-easternpartoftheState,betweentheSalmonFallsandtheMerrimacrivers,reachingtenorfifteenmileswestofthelatterstream,andextend-ingnorthwardtotheWhiteMountainregion,wasawhitepinesectioninwhichthatwoodwasthepredominatingone.AnotherwhitepinebeltwasalongthewesternborderoftheState,extendingfromtheCon-necticutRivereastforfromtentotwentymilesandreachingfromtheMassachusettslinenorthtothemiddleofCoosCounty.

      NH pinery

    15. ThegreattimbercountyoftheStateisCoos.

      Coos Cty NH

    16. FornearlyfortyyearsafewAmericanfirmsandindividualshavebeencuttinglogsalongtheheadwatersoftheSt.JohnanditstributariesinnorthernMaineanddrivingthemdowntoFrederictonandSt.John,NewBrunswick,sawingthemintolumberatthoseplacesandthenship-pingtheproductintoUnitedStatesmarketsfreeofduty,underanactofCongresspassedin1867andsincethenincorporatedineverytariffact

      New Brunswick

    17. extremesouthwesternpartofMainewastherealbirthplaceofthelumberindustryoftheState,asitwasofNewEnglandandoftheUnitedStates.


    18. 1832-1906

      Bangor 1832-1906

    19. Asmuchpinewaswastedintheflushdaysasiscutnow,


    20. pinewascutalmostexclusively,spruceattractingnoattentionuntilaboutthemiddleoftheNineteenthCentury

      no spruce

    21. PenobscotBoomCompanywascharteredin1832

      boom company 1832

    22. portofBangorupto1890maybesummarizedasfollows:Priorto1832(estimated)200.000.0OOfeet.From1832to1855(surveyed)2,969.847,201feet.From1855to1890(surveyed)5.902.755,919feet.Total9.072.603.120feet.

      Bangor totals

    23. Bandsawswereusedforthefirsttimein1889.


    24. In1832thefirstrailroadinMaine,andamongtheearliestintheUnitedStates,wasbuiltbyGen.SamuelVeazietohaultimberfromtheOldtownmillstoBangor.

      early railroad 1832

    25. Bangor,settledin1769_andincorporatedin1791,jsacitybuiltupbythelumbertrade,and,untilrecently,lumberwasalmostthesolesupportoftheplace.IntheearlypartoftheNineteenthCenturythecitythrivedonthepinetrade


    26. Maine,NewHampshireandVermontcutinarecentseason(1901-2)1,400,000,000feetoflogs,employing40,000menand13,000horsesinthewoods,atanexpenseinwages,horsehireandkeepingofabout$6,500,000.Ofthisaggregatecut,thatac-creditedtoMainewas750,000,000feet;toNewHampshire500,000,000,andtoVermont150,000,000feet

      1901 New England

    27. fourgreatriversystems,theSt.John,thePenobscot,theKennebecandtheAndroscoggin,

      map these

    28. BinghamPurchase,"bywhich,in1793,WilliamBingham,awealthyPhiladelphian,becamepossessedof2,107,396acresat12Jcentsanacre

      Bingham Purchase

    29. in1888over29,000,000feetofpinetimberwassur-veyedattheportofBangor

      1888 Maine

    30. '70's,however,thesawmillshavehadacompetitorinthelogmarketsoftheStateintheshapeofmillsmanufacturingwoodpaper.

      pulp mills begin in 1870s

    31. Penobscot,KennebecandAndroscogginrivers.

      map these rivers

    32. 1,381sawmillsin1840

      1840 Maine

    33. In1832thePenobscotoutputwasnearly40,000,000feet,thatriverbeingthenfarintheleadofallothers,havingimmensetimberresourcesclosebygoodwaterandtheriverbeingnavi-gableforlargevesselstoBangoratthehead

      1832 Maine

    34. In1890Mainehad894sawmillsandtimbercamps,employing11,540hands,

      1890 Maine

    35. In1770theexportationofmasts,boards,staves,etc.,fromNewEnglandwasvaluedat45,000

      Pre-revolutionary lumber trade

    36. urveyalloursaidWoodsandTimber;andalsoetomarksuchofthesaidTreesthatnoworhereaftershallbetinandpropertobetakenfortheuseofourNavy;andtokeepaRegisterofthesame;

      Queen Anne's pines?

    37. 1784Massachusettspassedalawtoprotectthewhitepineyetstandinguponthepubliclandsintheeasternforests(ofMaine),whichitcharacterizedas"byfarthenoblesttrees."Thepenaltyforcuttingthemwas$100atree,

      Why protect these pines?

    38. allpinetreesfitformasts,twenty-fourinchesindiameterandupward,withinthreefeetoftheground,thatgrewmorethanthreemilesfromthemeetinghouse

      Like the King's pines

    39. drivenbywaterpower,andthesawingmachineryconsistedofanuprightsawinaframedrivenbyaconnectingrodfromacrankattachedtooneendofthewaterwheelshaft.

      Water-powered sawmill design

    40. SalmonFallsRivernearthepresentcityofPortsmouth,NewHampshire,andbuiltsoonafterthelandwasgranted,in1631,

      Probably the first sawmill in America

    41. Thehistoryofthosewonderful,virginforestswhichstretchedfromtheSt.CroixRiverofMainetotheRedRiveroftheNorthhasalmostbeenfinished,andtheresurviveonlytheremnantsofthosegreatresourcesinscatteredgroupsoftreesorindecimatedwoodlands,

      So by 1907 he's telling the story of an era and a forest that has just disappeared.


    1. ndustrial Workers of the World (IWW

      IWW is in the forests by 1917 -- when did it arrive?


    1. build without pine, and marvel at the thoughtless reckles�ness of his ancestors. .. f


    2. hose given me a few

      So, ending around 1895. When did it really end?

    3. ousand acres of pine land along the Lake Huron coast, south of Saginaw Bay, and destroyed whole towns, many lives, and millioris of dollars' worth of property, the lumbering interests were utterly destroyed. Not a single mill, I am to-ld, in all that region has since been built. It was thought the fire had ruined the future of the bur

      Peshtigo Fire was in 1871 on Green Bay. This refers to the port Huron Fire of October 1871. 1.2 million acres.

    4. to be much greater than was formerly supposed. Clearings are being made, and good crops of Wheat, oa

      This is false on two axes. First, boosters predicted farms would follow the forests. Second, the land was much less valuable as farms than they had predicted.

    5. when tbe pin

      And the celebratory tone has turned...

    6. from the Saginaw Valley to the Straits of Mackinaw, sufficiently large to float a raft of logs, becomes a highway

      By 1880, Michigan is already nearly over.


  11. May 2020
    1. conflict with EauClaire lumbermen, was the logging of the Chippewa River country, theuse of the river, and mastery of a great boom for handling the logs

      There's a story here.

    2. By 1869 there were fifteen saw-mills at or near the Falls of St. Anthony. The Minneapolis lumber busi-ness leaped far beyond that of Stillwater as expansion continued in the1870s and 1880s. By 1890 Minneapolis, cutting close to a half billionfeet, was the premier lumber market not only of Minnesota but of theworld.

      How does this compare with Cronon's claims?

    3. Stillwater continued itsdominance in the St. Croix region, sent 225 log rafts down river in 1869,and had nine mills in busy operation by 1874. The St. Croix Valleypersisted bountifully as a source of white pine. It did not reach its peakuntil 1895, when it produced 373,000,000 feet of lumber

      Stillwater peak

    4. 1864-1906, thestate sold stumpage rights for a total of more than five million dollars.Dr. Folwell writes that the "number of millions of dollars lost to the state,especially to her school and university funds, by a vicious forest policyand unconscionable depredations will never be computed.

      Is there a story here?

    5. Funds and leadership from the East

      Document this phase

    6. it was a later generation that awakened to a realization that essen-tially the same timber yield could have been harvested from the Minne-sota forests in such fashion as to have averted their depletion.

      Is this true?

    7. pioneer Minnesota mills on the St. Croix River.

      First phase


    1. the forest was inexhaustible, its natural destiny was firstto yield lumber and then to be cleared for producing cereal crops,and everyone's well-being would be promoted

      The attitude toward forests


    1. condition of labor in general

      Did the fact that this was a seasonal second job affect the ability to organize?

    2. When we speakof logging districts, we are speaking specifically of river systems,watersheds, the Ottawa in Ontario, the Saginaw in Michigan, theChippewa in Wisconsin. Pineries that were not well served by suchsystems had to await the completion of rail construction beforecontributing their produce.

      Logging districts = river systems

    3. the pinery reached from Lake Winnipeg on thenorth to the westernmost headwaters of the Mississippi on thesouth. Eastward to the ocean, with the important inclusion of theupper Mississippi and its Wisconsin tributaries, the pine regiongenerally encompassed the basin of the Great Lakes and St. Law-rence system, with the addition of most of Pennsylvania. Thus atits Atlantic breadth, it stretched from the head of Delaware Baynorthward to the mouth of the St. Lawrence


    4. July 22, 1852, Wisconsin Congressman BenEastman informed his colleagues in the House of Representativesthat "Upon the rivers which are tributary to the Mississippi, and alsoupon those which empy themselves into Lake Michigan, there areinterminable forests of pine, sufficient to supply all the wants ofthe citizens . , . for all time to come" (Congressional Globe,1851-52).

      So it begins


    1. widespread drought and fire in the Lake States, and was responsiblefor the development of the "Lake Forest" of white pine.

      Is this true? A storm of fires 500 years ago made space for he pines?


    1. Samuel P. Hays is best knownfor his Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The ProgressiveConservation Movement, 1890-1920 (1959)

      Read this too

    2. George Perkins Marsh, whose classic Man andNature, dealing with the role of man as a disturbing agent, was pub-lished in 1864 just as the onslaught on the Great Lakes forest wasbeginning.

      Read this

    3. All these theories had in common the notion ofdevelopment toward a mature or climax condition that wouldpersist indefinitely in equilibrium until some cataclysm

      An element of 19th-century science

    4. north of the effective limits of agriculture

      Although they told themselves otherwise

    5. the Great Lakes forest formeda distinct region in the westward advance of the logging empireduring the second half of the nineteenth century

      Why study it as a separate region

    6. a multidisciplinary consideration ofecological and institutional change in the forest environment ofthe upper Great Lakes region



    1. TheopeningoftheErieCanal,in1825,gaveaccesstotheforestsofwesternNewYorkandtothewonderfulpineresourcesofMichiganastheydeveloped;butthroughitsOswegofeederitfurnishedaninlettotheCanadianproducttributarytoLakeOntario,and,inconnectionwiththeRideauCanal,furnishedanewrouteforOttawalumber

      Erie Canal

    2. figuresforloggingcamps

      Good data here on salaries and wages in logging camps

    3. valueofproducts

      Wages decrease but value of product up sharply 1880-90

    4. numberofestablishments


    5. Aremarkableincreaseisnotedinthecapitalinvestedinthelumberindustry,especiallyfrom1880to1890.

      Increase in investment late 19th c.

    6. atanearlydatethereweremillsasfarinlandasthesiteofAugusta,ontheKennebecRiver,inMaine,andasearlyas1682thereweresixsawmillsinKittery

      Early sawmills

    7. itwasnotuntiltheopeningoftheErieCanalanditsfeeders,theWellandCanalandthecanalsconnectingtheSt.LawrenceviatheSorelRiverandLakeChamplainwiththeHudson,thatanylargeimportationofCanadianlumberwaspracticable

      Erie Canal and Canadian lumber

    8. TheDingleylawof1897,

      Long discussion of tariffs and Canadian lumber

    9. whiletitleandallnecessarydutiesandrightsrelatingtheretoremainedwiththeinteriordepartment,themanagementoftheforestreserves,assuch,wasconcentratedintheDepartmentofAgricultureasrepresentedbytheBureauofForestry,which,afterJuly1,was,bytheagri-culturalappropriationactofMarch3,1905,forthefiscalyearendedJune30,1906,erectedintothe"ForestService,"tobeginwithJuly1,1905

      Forest Service established

    10. dirondackForestPreserve


    11. ThegreatHinckleyforestfireof1894arousedthepeopleofMinne-sotatothenecessityofforestprotection

      Hinckley Fire

    12. TheAmericanmethod,orrather,themethodmostgenerallyadoptedbytheforemostAmericanforesters,isnottheplantingoftreesinanopenfieldasonewouldplantturnips,butratheracontinuousselectionandcuttingofonlymaturetimber,

      Forest management

    13. GiffordPinchot,

      Pinchot's explanation

    14. March2,1833,authorizingtheStateofIllinoistodiverthercanallandgranttothepurposeofconstructingarailroad.

      Illinois Central and RR land grant history

    15. MixedwiththewhitepinealmosteverywherewasredorNorwaypine(Pinusresinosa).Thiswasahappycombination,forwhatthewhitepinelackedinstrength'andhardnesstosuititforcertainstruc-turalandmanufacturinguses,wassuppliedbythisheavierwood,sothatfromearlytimestheywerecuttogetherandoftenmarketedto-gether.

      red pine (Pinus resinosa)

    16. FromtheearliesttimesinthehistoryoftheUnitedStatesuntilto-wardtheendoftheNineteenthCenturythenorthernconiferoustimberbeltconstitutedthebasisofthechiefsupplyofforestproductsforthedomestictradeofthecountryandalsoenteredlargelyintoforeigntrade,althoughanimportantcommercewasfoundedupontheyellowpineofthesouthAtlanticCoastandGulfstates.TheearlydiscoverersandexplorerswerestruckbythewealthoftheforestresourcesofthenorthAtlanticCoast,andparticularlywiththewhitepine,Pinusstrobus.Ashasbeenrelatedpreviously,theEnglishCrownmadereservationsofthetreesofthistimbersuitableforships,mastsandspars.ThewhitepinegrewinprofusioninNewEngland.Itwasseldomfoundinsolidbodiesofgreatextent,foritwasusuallymixedwithspruceandotherconifersandhardwoods,

      Pinus strobus

    17. thoughalmosteverywheremixedwiththebroad-leavedtrees,stretchesacrossNewEngland,NewYork,northernPennsylvania,MichiganandWisconsinandintoMinnesota.ThecontinuityofthisbeltisbrokenbyLakeErie.Disregardingtheinternationalboundary,itiscontinu-ouseastandwestacrossthenortheasternstates,Quebec,OntarioandthedistrictaroundLakeSuperior.

      Coniferous forest extent

    18. earlierestimatescoveredonlywhitepine,

      Later estimates include red pine

    19. PerhapsthemostremarkableexampleofmistakenestimatehasbeenregardingthepineforestsofMichigan,WisconsinandMinnesota.Thefirstattemptatacensusofthetimberofthesestateswasmadeinconnectionwiththecensusof1880.

      Pine forest underestimates

    20. Theestimateofstandingtimberhasbeenbasedupontheloggingcustomofthetime.Whenitwasthepracticetocutlargetimberonly,asinMichiganforexample,whensixteen-footlogswereofsuchasizethatitrequiredbuttwotofivetomakeathousandfeetboardmeasure,whenonlythebesttreeswerecutandonlythebestlogsfromthetreesweretakentothemill,leavingperhapstwoorthreetimesasmuchtimberincubiccontentsinthewoodsaswaspre-sentedtothesaw,theestimateastothequantityoftimberstanding

      Timber quantities underestimated based on only counting the biggest and best.

    21. bestinformedstudentsofthesubjectbelieve,afterascarefulinvestigationsastheyhavebeenabletomake,thattheforestsyetremaining,ifoperatedalongconservativelines,wouldannuallyproduceinperpetuityanamountofforestproductslittle,ifany,morethanthepresentannualoutput.Ifthatbetrue,theUnitedStateshascometothepointwhereitcannolongerbelavishinitsuseofitswon-derfultimberresources,butmustrigorouslyconservethem

      Is he talking about Pinchot here?

    22. uptoabout1850,inmanyinstancesapositivedetriment.Forestsstoodonmillionsofacresoffertilelands

      Shift from clearing lands to lumber operations

    23. Ottawaregion,unliketheothersections,occupiesanenviableposition,inasmuchasithastheprivilegeofchoosingthebestofthreedifferentmarketsandcanshiptothemallbywaterconveyancetotheUnitedStates,toEurope,ortoSouthAmericaandAustralia.

      Ottawa markets

    24. TheGrandOttawaisaverylargeandimportantriver,over750milesinlength,anddraininganareaof80,000squaremiles.Itreceivesmanytributariesvaryingfrom100to400milesinlength.Thewholevalleyhasbeen,andisnow,mostlycoveredwithdenseforestsofwhitepineandredpine,

      Ottawa River

    25. twenty-ninemills,mostlyoflimitedcapacity,togetherwiththirteenquiteinsignificantones,send70,000,000feetoflumberandlogs(embracingsomesquareandsparrafts)toCleveland,Erie,BuffaloandTonawanda.

      1874 exports to US

    26. millsofRatPortage,RainyRiver,FortFrancesandothercentersintheRainyRiverdistrict


    27. MichiganlumbermenarelargelyinterestedinlumberingoperationsandtimberpropertiesintheGeorgianBaydistrictofOntario.About1890lumbermenintheSaginawdistrictbeganmakinginvestmentsinCanadianpine,andincreasinglylargequantitiesofCanadianlogswereraftedtoeasternMichiganmills80,000,000feetin1891,300,000,000in1894and238,843,024in1898.


    28. LargequantitiesofsawlogswerebeingexportedtofeedMichiganmills

      Across Georgian Bay

    29. WiththedepletionofthepineforestsinMichiganthedependenceoftheAmericanconsumeruponCanadaforaportionofthelumbersupplyincreased.ItbecametheinterestoftheAmericanmanufacturertosecurethissupplyasfaraspossibleintheformofrawmaterialtobeworkedupintheAmeri-cansawmillsinthoselocalitieswherethedomesticforestsnolongerremainedwithinaccess.ItwasequallytheinterestoftheCanadianstoexporttheirforestproductinashighlymanufacturedaformaspos-sible.

      Disagreement over form of timber/lumber export

    30. Fallingoffduringtheprotractedperiodofworldwidedepressionwhichfollowed,itincreasedagainin1880

      Economic conditions effect demand

    31. prosperityreacheditsclimaxin1873,andwasthetimeoftheriseofthegreatlumberingindustryofMichigan,Wiscon-sinandMinnesota,w

      peak just before big pine boom in US

    32. About1870theindustrywasmainlycenteredintheOttawaValleyandontheupperwatersoftheTrentRiverandwaterstributarytotheGeorgianBay.


    33. AmericanCivilWar,andthelavishexpenditureswhichresulted,createdagreatdemandforCanadianlumberathighprices,

      Civil War in US lumber history too...

    34. increasingdemandsoftheUnitedStatesforCanadianlumber.

      As American lumber less?

    35. 1835and1836speculatorscameoverfromMaineandNewYorkandpurchasedaboutamillionacresoflandsaidtobewoodedwithpineorspruce.

      More US speculators

    36. therewasnowbutlittlepineleftintheUnitedStatesexceptinMaineandCarolina,

      1840s shortage in US?

    37. nolandshouldbeallottedtosettlersuntilthedistricthadbeensur-veyedandthosepartscontainingmastingorothertimberfitfortheuseoftheroyalnavyreserved

      King's Arrow

    38. In1807Mr.WrighttookthefirstraftofsquaretimberdowntheOttawatoQuebec.

      1807 begins

    39. ThepioneerinthetimbertradeoftheOttawaValleywasPhilemonWright,anadventurousAmerican,

      American develops timber

    40. ThewatershedoftheOttawaembracesaregionofabout80,000squaremiles,muchofitgoodagriculturalland,andproducingorigin-allysomeofthefinestpinetimberintheworld.

      Ottawa cleared for farming?

    41. TheseignioryofLotbiniere,intheProvinceofQuebec,isoneoftheoldestinCanada,havingbeeninthepossessionofthedeLotbi-nierefamilysincetheyear1673.TheseignioryissituatedontherightbankoftheSt.LawrenceRiver,aboutfortymileswestoftheCityofQuebec,andembracesanareaof87,000acresofforest.

      Very early timber stand

    42. thefamousMontmorencysawmills,atthefootoftheFallsofMontmorency,neartheCityofQuebec.

      Early Canadian mill

    43. timberimportedintoLowerCanadafromLakeChamplainfrom1800to1820included10,997,580feetofredandwhitepine,3,935,443feetofoaktimber,34,573,853feetofpineplankand9,213,827feetofpineboards.

      Imports over Lake Champlain

    44. uptothetimeoftheconstructionoftheChamplainCanal,connectingLakeChamplainwiththeHudsonRiver,whichwascompletedin1822,andoftheOs-wegoCanal,connectingLakeOntarioatOswegowiththeErieCanalatSyracuse,N.Y.,completedin1828,timbergrownontheSt.Law-rencewatershedofNewYork,VermontandNewHampshire,largelywenttoMontrealorQuebecandthenceabroad

      US production limited by access to sea

    45. St.Lawrencewatersys-tem,reachingfromtheheadofLakeSuperiortotheAtlantic,withthenever-failingstreamsflowingintoitfromthenorth,givesanadequateoutletforthetimberandlumberproductionofQuebecandOntario,whiletheMaritimeProvinces,withtheirdeeplyindentedcoasts,findmarinetransportationsufficient

      Railroads not important

    46. Withintherough.triangleboundedbytheOttawaRiveronthenortheast,GeorgianBayandLakeHurononthewestandLakeErieandLakeOntarioonthesouth,

      Best commercial pines

    47. TheHeightofLand,whichisthedividingridgeorboundarylinebetweenthewaterswhichflowintoHudsonBayorintotheAtlan-ticnorthoftheStraitofBelleIsle,andthosewhichbytheGreatLakesfindtheirwaythroughtheSt.Lawrencetotheocean,marksasome-whatclearlydefinednorthernboundaryofthemostvaluablesoftwoods.Southofthatlinearefoundwhiteandredpine,hemlock,tamarack,spruce,etc.,ofsizeswhichfitthemforsawmilluse.Northofthatlinewhiteandnorwaypinepracticallydisappearandotherspeciesdecreaseinsizeasonegoesnorthuntil,ofcommercialwoods,spruceofdiminishedsizeisleftstandinginacontinuousforest,ex-tendingtoHudsonBay

      Where the Canadian pines are

    48. AmericancapitalistransformingthelumberbusinessofNewfound-land.Acorporation,TheTimberEstatesCompany,headedbyH.M.Whitney,ofBoston,Massachusetts,acquiredseveralofthelargestpropertiesintheislandandin1904

      American developers

    49. historyofthelumberindustryforthelumbertradeasabranchofcommercewasalaterdevelopmentisthehistoryofprogress,ofsettlementandofcivilization.

      Lumber = progress


    1. he first logging railroad in Beltrami County was built in 1898 from Nebish northward to Red Lake, a distance of fifteen miles. The road was operated by the Red Lake Transportation Company, which also had a steamboat line across Red Lake. Large amounts of logs were hauled to Red Lake for the Walke

      Red Lake

    2. ometimes a demand for tiemakers and laborers on a railroad project competed with the need for men in the woods and raised wage levels. In 1901 wages with board for sawyers were thirty to thirty-five dollars per month; for teamsters, thirty-five to forty-five; for cooks, forty to eighty; for blacksmiths, forty to sixt


    3. ith the approach of the logging season each fall, hordes of men arrived seeking work in the woods. "They come on every train, on foot, and on horseback," reported a Bemidji newspaper in December, 1900. "For a month past, trains from the west dump their passen gers at Bemidji and give our streets the appearance of an Oklahoma land rush

      Seasonal employment rush

    4. n unsuccessful attempt was made by Bemidji civic and business leaders to induce Walker to build a sawmill in their city.

      Why not?

    5. avorable sites for saw mills.

      These would have been steam-powered or what?

    6. Bemidji was the largest. Rough wagon trails linked the com

      Wagon trails to Fosston

    7. ntil a man-made highway ? the railroad ? was built, no extensive logging operations were possible in the Mississippi headwaters region

      So southern Beltrami waited for the railroad

    8. amboats plied the Red Lake River with supplies for the logging camps along that stream, while the railhead at Fosston

      Fosston too

    9. ed Lake Falls, Crookston, and Grand Forks, th

      Locate on map

    10. ginning in the St. Croix Valley in the 1830's, t

      Follow up


    1. CrookstonandGrandForks,

      Go there?

    2. CrookstonandGrandForks,

      Go there?

    3. Butler&Walker.


    4. In1868,Mr.Walkerformedacom-binationwithLeviButlerandHowardW.Millstoexploitthelumberregions

      Find out about them.

    5. Sept.11,1895Abouteightyearsago,Ienteredin-T?^.PartnershipagreementwithMr.T.B.Walkerforthepurposeofbuyingandhandlingpinetimber,logsandlum-ber.Ipurchasedanundividedhalfin-terestinalargetractthatMr.Walkerowned,andfurnishedmeanstopur-chaseothertracts;wejointlyownedbetweentwoandthreehundredthous-andacres.Mr.Walker


    6. Duringthelastfortyyearshehasalmostcontinuallyemployedanarmyoflaborersinandabouthissawmill,constructinglargebuildingsorworkingatotherenterprises,yethehasneverhadastrikeamonghisemployesnorhastherebeenanydissatisfactionwiththetreatmenttheyhavereceivedorthewagespaid.Foryearsthesawmillsinthenorthwestwereoperatedelevenandtwelvehoursaday.Mr.Walker,however,neverhadthemeninhismillworkmorethantenhoursandpaidthemthemaximumwagesthathaveprevailed.


    7. eldestdaughterofMr.andMrs.WalkeristhewifeofErnestF.Smith,presidentoftheHennepinLumberCompany,

      Also this one...

    8. GilbertM.Walker,hadthecontrcjlandman-agementoftheextensivelumberingandloggingbusinessontheClearwaterriverandthemillsatCrookstonandGrandForks.

      Follow up

    9. extremelysensitivetemperamentandkeenlyfeelsanyunjustcriticism.

      So he's a big baby.