550 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. build without pine, and marvel at the thoughtless reckles�ness of his ancestors. .. f


    2. hose given me a few

      So, ending around 1895. When did it really end?

    3. ousand acres of pine land along the Lake Huron coast, south of Saginaw Bay, and destroyed whole towns, many lives, and millioris of dollars' worth of property, the lumbering interests were utterly destroyed. Not a single mill, I am to-ld, in all that region has since been built. It was thought the fire had ruined the future of the bur

      Peshtigo Fire was in 1871 on Green Bay. This refers to the port Huron Fire of October 1871. 1.2 million acres.

    4. to be much greater than was formerly supposed. Clearings are being made, and good crops of Wheat, oa

      This is false on two axes. First, boosters predicted farms would follow the forests. Second, the land was much less valuable as farms than they had predicted.

    5. when tbe pin

      And the celebratory tone has turned...

    6. from the Saginaw Valley to the Straits of Mackinaw, sufficiently large to float a raft of logs, becomes a highway

      By 1880, Michigan is already nearly over.


  2. May 2020
    1. conflict with EauClaire lumbermen, was the logging of the Chippewa River country, theuse of the river, and mastery of a great boom for handling the logs

      There's a story here.

    2. By 1869 there were fifteen saw-mills at or near the Falls of St. Anthony. The Minneapolis lumber busi-ness leaped far beyond that of Stillwater as expansion continued in the1870s and 1880s. By 1890 Minneapolis, cutting close to a half billionfeet, was the premier lumber market not only of Minnesota but of theworld.

      How does this compare with Cronon's claims?

    3. Stillwater continued itsdominance in the St. Croix region, sent 225 log rafts down river in 1869,and had nine mills in busy operation by 1874. The St. Croix Valleypersisted bountifully as a source of white pine. It did not reach its peakuntil 1895, when it produced 373,000,000 feet of lumber

      Stillwater peak

    4. 1864-1906, thestate sold stumpage rights for a total of more than five million dollars.Dr. Folwell writes that the "number of millions of dollars lost to the state,especially to her school and university funds, by a vicious forest policyand unconscionable depredations will never be computed.

      Is there a story here?

    5. Funds and leadership from the East

      Document this phase

    6. it was a later generation that awakened to a realization that essen-tially the same timber yield could have been harvested from the Minne-sota forests in such fashion as to have averted their depletion.

      Is this true?

    7. pioneer Minnesota mills on the St. Croix River.

      First phase


    1. the forest was inexhaustible, its natural destiny was firstto yield lumber and then to be cleared for producing cereal crops,and everyone's well-being would be promoted

      The attitude toward forests


    1. condition of labor in general

      Did the fact that this was a seasonal second job affect the ability to organize?

    2. When we speakof logging districts, we are speaking specifically of river systems,watersheds, the Ottawa in Ontario, the Saginaw in Michigan, theChippewa in Wisconsin. Pineries that were not well served by suchsystems had to await the completion of rail construction beforecontributing their produce.

      Logging districts = river systems

    3. the pinery reached from Lake Winnipeg on thenorth to the westernmost headwaters of the Mississippi on thesouth. Eastward to the ocean, with the important inclusion of theupper Mississippi and its Wisconsin tributaries, the pine regiongenerally encompassed the basin of the Great Lakes and St. Law-rence system, with the addition of most of Pennsylvania. Thus atits Atlantic breadth, it stretched from the head of Delaware Baynorthward to the mouth of the St. Lawrence


    4. July 22, 1852, Wisconsin Congressman BenEastman informed his colleagues in the House of Representativesthat "Upon the rivers which are tributary to the Mississippi, and alsoupon those which empy themselves into Lake Michigan, there areinterminable forests of pine, sufficient to supply all the wants ofthe citizens . , . for all time to come" (Congressional Globe,1851-52).

      So it begins


    1. widespread drought and fire in the Lake States, and was responsiblefor the development of the "Lake Forest" of white pine.

      Is this true? A storm of fires 500 years ago made space for he pines?


    1. Samuel P. Hays is best knownfor his Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The ProgressiveConservation Movement, 1890-1920 (1959)

      Read this too

    2. George Perkins Marsh, whose classic Man andNature, dealing with the role of man as a disturbing agent, was pub-lished in 1864 just as the onslaught on the Great Lakes forest wasbeginning.

      Read this

    3. All these theories had in common the notion ofdevelopment toward a mature or climax condition that wouldpersist indefinitely in equilibrium until some cataclysm

      An element of 19th-century science

    4. north of the effective limits of agriculture

      Although they told themselves otherwise

    5. the Great Lakes forest formeda distinct region in the westward advance of the logging empireduring the second half of the nineteenth century

      Why study it as a separate region

    6. a multidisciplinary consideration ofecological and institutional change in the forest environment ofthe upper Great Lakes region



    1. TheopeningoftheErieCanal,in1825,gaveaccesstotheforestsofwesternNewYorkandtothewonderfulpineresourcesofMichiganastheydeveloped;butthroughitsOswegofeederitfurnishedaninlettotheCanadianproducttributarytoLakeOntario,and,inconnectionwiththeRideauCanal,furnishedanewrouteforOttawalumber

      Erie Canal

    2. figuresforloggingcamps

      Good data here on salaries and wages in logging camps

    3. valueofproducts

      Wages decrease but value of product up sharply 1880-90

    4. numberofestablishments


    5. Aremarkableincreaseisnotedinthecapitalinvestedinthelumberindustry,especiallyfrom1880to1890.

      Increase in investment late 19th c.

    6. atanearlydatethereweremillsasfarinlandasthesiteofAugusta,ontheKennebecRiver,inMaine,andasearlyas1682thereweresixsawmillsinKittery

      Early sawmills

    7. itwasnotuntiltheopeningoftheErieCanalanditsfeeders,theWellandCanalandthecanalsconnectingtheSt.LawrenceviatheSorelRiverandLakeChamplainwiththeHudson,thatanylargeimportationofCanadianlumberwaspracticable

      Erie Canal and Canadian lumber

    8. TheDingleylawof1897,

      Long discussion of tariffs and Canadian lumber

    9. whiletitleandallnecessarydutiesandrightsrelatingtheretoremainedwiththeinteriordepartment,themanagementoftheforestreserves,assuch,wasconcentratedintheDepartmentofAgricultureasrepresentedbytheBureauofForestry,which,afterJuly1,was,bytheagri-culturalappropriationactofMarch3,1905,forthefiscalyearendedJune30,1906,erectedintothe"ForestService,"tobeginwithJuly1,1905

      Forest Service established

    10. dirondackForestPreserve


    11. ThegreatHinckleyforestfireof1894arousedthepeopleofMinne-sotatothenecessityofforestprotection

      Hinckley Fire

    12. TheAmericanmethod,orrather,themethodmostgenerallyadoptedbytheforemostAmericanforesters,isnottheplantingoftreesinanopenfieldasonewouldplantturnips,butratheracontinuousselectionandcuttingofonlymaturetimber,

      Forest management

    13. GiffordPinchot,

      Pinchot's explanation

    14. March2,1833,authorizingtheStateofIllinoistodiverthercanallandgranttothepurposeofconstructingarailroad.

      Illinois Central and RR land grant history

    15. MixedwiththewhitepinealmosteverywherewasredorNorwaypine(Pinusresinosa).Thiswasahappycombination,forwhatthewhitepinelackedinstrength'andhardnesstosuititforcertainstruc-turalandmanufacturinguses,wassuppliedbythisheavierwood,sothatfromearlytimestheywerecuttogetherandoftenmarketedto-gether.

      red pine (Pinus resinosa)

    16. FromtheearliesttimesinthehistoryoftheUnitedStatesuntilto-wardtheendoftheNineteenthCenturythenorthernconiferoustimberbeltconstitutedthebasisofthechiefsupplyofforestproductsforthedomestictradeofthecountryandalsoenteredlargelyintoforeigntrade,althoughanimportantcommercewasfoundedupontheyellowpineofthesouthAtlanticCoastandGulfstates.TheearlydiscoverersandexplorerswerestruckbythewealthoftheforestresourcesofthenorthAtlanticCoast,andparticularlywiththewhitepine,Pinusstrobus.Ashasbeenrelatedpreviously,theEnglishCrownmadereservationsofthetreesofthistimbersuitableforships,mastsandspars.ThewhitepinegrewinprofusioninNewEngland.Itwasseldomfoundinsolidbodiesofgreatextent,foritwasusuallymixedwithspruceandotherconifersandhardwoods,

      Pinus strobus

    17. thoughalmosteverywheremixedwiththebroad-leavedtrees,stretchesacrossNewEngland,NewYork,northernPennsylvania,MichiganandWisconsinandintoMinnesota.ThecontinuityofthisbeltisbrokenbyLakeErie.Disregardingtheinternationalboundary,itiscontinu-ouseastandwestacrossthenortheasternstates,Quebec,OntarioandthedistrictaroundLakeSuperior.

      Coniferous forest extent

    18. earlierestimatescoveredonlywhitepine,

      Later estimates include red pine

    19. PerhapsthemostremarkableexampleofmistakenestimatehasbeenregardingthepineforestsofMichigan,WisconsinandMinnesota.Thefirstattemptatacensusofthetimberofthesestateswasmadeinconnectionwiththecensusof1880.

      Pine forest underestimates

    20. Theestimateofstandingtimberhasbeenbasedupontheloggingcustomofthetime.Whenitwasthepracticetocutlargetimberonly,asinMichiganforexample,whensixteen-footlogswereofsuchasizethatitrequiredbuttwotofivetomakeathousandfeetboardmeasure,whenonlythebesttreeswerecutandonlythebestlogsfromthetreesweretakentothemill,leavingperhapstwoorthreetimesasmuchtimberincubiccontentsinthewoodsaswaspre-sentedtothesaw,theestimateastothequantityoftimberstanding

      Timber quantities underestimated based on only counting the biggest and best.

    21. bestinformedstudentsofthesubjectbelieve,afterascarefulinvestigationsastheyhavebeenabletomake,thattheforestsyetremaining,ifoperatedalongconservativelines,wouldannuallyproduceinperpetuityanamountofforestproductslittle,ifany,morethanthepresentannualoutput.Ifthatbetrue,theUnitedStateshascometothepointwhereitcannolongerbelavishinitsuseofitswon-derfultimberresources,butmustrigorouslyconservethem

      Is he talking about Pinchot here?

    22. uptoabout1850,inmanyinstancesapositivedetriment.Forestsstoodonmillionsofacresoffertilelands

      Shift from clearing lands to lumber operations

    23. Ottawaregion,unliketheothersections,occupiesanenviableposition,inasmuchasithastheprivilegeofchoosingthebestofthreedifferentmarketsandcanshiptothemallbywaterconveyancetotheUnitedStates,toEurope,ortoSouthAmericaandAustralia.

      Ottawa markets

    24. TheGrandOttawaisaverylargeandimportantriver,over750milesinlength,anddraininganareaof80,000squaremiles.Itreceivesmanytributariesvaryingfrom100to400milesinlength.Thewholevalleyhasbeen,andisnow,mostlycoveredwithdenseforestsofwhitepineandredpine,

      Ottawa River

    25. twenty-ninemills,mostlyoflimitedcapacity,togetherwiththirteenquiteinsignificantones,send70,000,000feetoflumberandlogs(embracingsomesquareandsparrafts)toCleveland,Erie,BuffaloandTonawanda.

      1874 exports to US

    26. millsofRatPortage,RainyRiver,FortFrancesandothercentersintheRainyRiverdistrict


    27. MichiganlumbermenarelargelyinterestedinlumberingoperationsandtimberpropertiesintheGeorgianBaydistrictofOntario.About1890lumbermenintheSaginawdistrictbeganmakinginvestmentsinCanadianpine,andincreasinglylargequantitiesofCanadianlogswereraftedtoeasternMichiganmills80,000,000feetin1891,300,000,000in1894and238,843,024in1898.


    28. LargequantitiesofsawlogswerebeingexportedtofeedMichiganmills

      Across Georgian Bay

    29. WiththedepletionofthepineforestsinMichiganthedependenceoftheAmericanconsumeruponCanadaforaportionofthelumbersupplyincreased.ItbecametheinterestoftheAmericanmanufacturertosecurethissupplyasfaraspossibleintheformofrawmaterialtobeworkedupintheAmeri-cansawmillsinthoselocalitieswherethedomesticforestsnolongerremainedwithinaccess.ItwasequallytheinterestoftheCanadianstoexporttheirforestproductinashighlymanufacturedaformaspos-sible.

      Disagreement over form of timber/lumber export

    30. Fallingoffduringtheprotractedperiodofworldwidedepressionwhichfollowed,itincreasedagainin1880

      Economic conditions effect demand

    31. prosperityreacheditsclimaxin1873,andwasthetimeoftheriseofthegreatlumberingindustryofMichigan,Wiscon-sinandMinnesota,w

      peak just before big pine boom in US

    32. About1870theindustrywasmainlycenteredintheOttawaValleyandontheupperwatersoftheTrentRiverandwaterstributarytotheGeorgianBay.


    33. AmericanCivilWar,andthelavishexpenditureswhichresulted,createdagreatdemandforCanadianlumberathighprices,

      Civil War in US lumber history too...

    34. increasingdemandsoftheUnitedStatesforCanadianlumber.

      As American lumber less?

    35. 1835and1836speculatorscameoverfromMaineandNewYorkandpurchasedaboutamillionacresoflandsaidtobewoodedwithpineorspruce.

      More US speculators

    36. therewasnowbutlittlepineleftintheUnitedStatesexceptinMaineandCarolina,

      1840s shortage in US?

    37. nolandshouldbeallottedtosettlersuntilthedistricthadbeensur-veyedandthosepartscontainingmastingorothertimberfitfortheuseoftheroyalnavyreserved

      King's Arrow

    38. In1807Mr.WrighttookthefirstraftofsquaretimberdowntheOttawatoQuebec.

      1807 begins

    39. ThepioneerinthetimbertradeoftheOttawaValleywasPhilemonWright,anadventurousAmerican,

      American develops timber

    40. ThewatershedoftheOttawaembracesaregionofabout80,000squaremiles,muchofitgoodagriculturalland,andproducingorigin-allysomeofthefinestpinetimberintheworld.

      Ottawa cleared for farming?

    41. TheseignioryofLotbiniere,intheProvinceofQuebec,isoneoftheoldestinCanada,havingbeeninthepossessionofthedeLotbi-nierefamilysincetheyear1673.TheseignioryissituatedontherightbankoftheSt.LawrenceRiver,aboutfortymileswestoftheCityofQuebec,andembracesanareaof87,000acresofforest.

      Very early timber stand

    42. thefamousMontmorencysawmills,atthefootoftheFallsofMontmorency,neartheCityofQuebec.

      Early Canadian mill

    43. timberimportedintoLowerCanadafromLakeChamplainfrom1800to1820included10,997,580feetofredandwhitepine,3,935,443feetofoaktimber,34,573,853feetofpineplankand9,213,827feetofpineboards.

      Imports over Lake Champlain

    44. uptothetimeoftheconstructionoftheChamplainCanal,connectingLakeChamplainwiththeHudsonRiver,whichwascompletedin1822,andoftheOs-wegoCanal,connectingLakeOntarioatOswegowiththeErieCanalatSyracuse,N.Y.,completedin1828,timbergrownontheSt.Law-rencewatershedofNewYork,VermontandNewHampshire,largelywenttoMontrealorQuebecandthenceabroad

      US production limited by access to sea

    45. St.Lawrencewatersys-tem,reachingfromtheheadofLakeSuperiortotheAtlantic,withthenever-failingstreamsflowingintoitfromthenorth,givesanadequateoutletforthetimberandlumberproductionofQuebecandOntario,whiletheMaritimeProvinces,withtheirdeeplyindentedcoasts,findmarinetransportationsufficient

      Railroads not important

    46. Withintherough.triangleboundedbytheOttawaRiveronthenortheast,GeorgianBayandLakeHurononthewestandLakeErieandLakeOntarioonthesouth,

      Best commercial pines

    47. TheHeightofLand,whichisthedividingridgeorboundarylinebetweenthewaterswhichflowintoHudsonBayorintotheAtlan-ticnorthoftheStraitofBelleIsle,andthosewhichbytheGreatLakesfindtheirwaythroughtheSt.Lawrencetotheocean,marksasome-whatclearlydefinednorthernboundaryofthemostvaluablesoftwoods.Southofthatlinearefoundwhiteandredpine,hemlock,tamarack,spruce,etc.,ofsizeswhichfitthemforsawmilluse.Northofthatlinewhiteandnorwaypinepracticallydisappearandotherspeciesdecreaseinsizeasonegoesnorthuntil,ofcommercialwoods,spruceofdiminishedsizeisleftstandinginacontinuousforest,ex-tendingtoHudsonBay

      Where the Canadian pines are

    48. AmericancapitalistransformingthelumberbusinessofNewfound-land.Acorporation,TheTimberEstatesCompany,headedbyH.M.Whitney,ofBoston,Massachusetts,acquiredseveralofthelargestpropertiesintheislandandin1904

      American developers

    49. historyofthelumberindustryforthelumbertradeasabranchofcommercewasalaterdevelopmentisthehistoryofprogress,ofsettlementandofcivilization.

      Lumber = progress


    1. he first logging railroad in Beltrami County was built in 1898 from Nebish northward to Red Lake, a distance of fifteen miles. The road was operated by the Red Lake Transportation Company, which also had a steamboat line across Red Lake. Large amounts of logs were hauled to Red Lake for the Walke

      Red Lake

    2. ometimes a demand for tiemakers and laborers on a railroad project competed with the need for men in the woods and raised wage levels. In 1901 wages with board for sawyers were thirty to thirty-five dollars per month; for teamsters, thirty-five to forty-five; for cooks, forty to eighty; for blacksmiths, forty to sixt


    3. ith the approach of the logging season each fall, hordes of men arrived seeking work in the woods. "They come on every train, on foot, and on horseback," reported a Bemidji newspaper in December, 1900. "For a month past, trains from the west dump their passen gers at Bemidji and give our streets the appearance of an Oklahoma land rush

      Seasonal employment rush

    4. n unsuccessful attempt was made by Bemidji civic and business leaders to induce Walker to build a sawmill in their city.

      Why not?

    5. avorable sites for saw mills.

      These would have been steam-powered or what?

    6. Bemidji was the largest. Rough wagon trails linked the com

      Wagon trails to Fosston

    7. ntil a man-made highway ? the railroad ? was built, no extensive logging operations were possible in the Mississippi headwaters region

      So southern Beltrami waited for the railroad

    8. amboats plied the Red Lake River with supplies for the logging camps along that stream, while the railhead at Fosston

      Fosston too

    9. ed Lake Falls, Crookston, and Grand Forks, th

      Locate on map

    10. ginning in the St. Croix Valley in the 1830's, t

      Follow up


    1. CrookstonandGrandForks,

      Go there?

    2. CrookstonandGrandForks,

      Go there?

    3. Butler&Walker.


    4. In1868,Mr.Walkerformedacom-binationwithLeviButlerandHowardW.Millstoexploitthelumberregions

      Find out about them.

    5. Sept.11,1895Abouteightyearsago,Ienteredin-T?^.PartnershipagreementwithMr.T.B.Walkerforthepurposeofbuyingandhandlingpinetimber,logsandlum-ber.Ipurchasedanundividedhalfin-terestinalargetractthatMr.Walkerowned,andfurnishedmeanstopur-chaseothertracts;wejointlyownedbetweentwoandthreehundredthous-andacres.Mr.Walker


    6. Duringthelastfortyyearshehasalmostcontinuallyemployedanarmyoflaborersinandabouthissawmill,constructinglargebuildingsorworkingatotherenterprises,yethehasneverhadastrikeamonghisemployesnorhastherebeenanydissatisfactionwiththetreatmenttheyhavereceivedorthewagespaid.Foryearsthesawmillsinthenorthwestwereoperatedelevenandtwelvehoursaday.Mr.Walker,however,neverhadthemeninhismillworkmorethantenhoursandpaidthemthemaximumwagesthathaveprevailed.


    7. eldestdaughterofMr.andMrs.WalkeristhewifeofErnestF.Smith,presidentoftheHennepinLumberCompany,

      Also this one...

    8. GilbertM.Walker,hadthecontrcjlandman-agementoftheextensivelumberingandloggingbusinessontheClearwaterriverandthemillsatCrookstonandGrandForks.

      Follow up

    9. extremelysensitivetemperamentandkeenlyfeelsanyunjustcriticism.

      So he's a big baby.

    10. combinationorconspiracyintendedvorestraintrade


    11. Thegreedytaxsharkandtheexigenciesofthetimes,

      Not his fault...?

    12. SoonaftermigratingtotheNorthStarstate,hewasaffordedanop-portunityofrealizingthecomingvalueofthelargevirginforeststhatgrewalongthenorthernborder.


    13. severetaskmaster,

      So he was an asshole.

    14. romanceofafatherlessboywho,bydeterminationandperseverance,hasbecomeanhonoredandrespectedcitizenandanimportantandusefulfactorintheindustrial,educationalandfinancialworld.

      So it's a rags to riches story.


    1. “Authorities” by their nature are untrustworthy.


    2. The people who want to add a censorship regime to a health crisis are more dangerous and more stupid by leaps and bounds than a president who tells people to inject disinfectant.

      This is a good point.

    3. H.L. Mencken once said that in America, “the general average of intelligence, of knowledge, of competence, of integrity, of self-respect, of honor is so low that any man who knows his trade, does not fear ghosts, has read fifty good books, and practices the common decencies stands out as brilliantly as a wart on a bald head.”

      Nice Mencken quote.

  3. Apr 2020
    1. private allocators of public capital taking a direct governing role

      But this is corporate governance today.

    2. private institutions who govern in their stead.

      This deserves a closer look.

    3. American institutions are organized entirely around the short-term horizon of financiers

      Wouldn't it also be reasonable to say that these institutions have been organized by globalists who assume that the gold standard is efficiency. They base their decisions on a model of comparative advantage that doesn't assign any value to national security. So it makes sense to make masks and ventilators in China, until it doesn't. (I think Chamath said something like this recently)

    4. The

      Okay, the first block quote was from the WSJ article he cited. Where's this from?

    5. Herbert Hoover

      Hoover was an associationalist, and seems to have honestly believed that businesses would do the right thing if given a chance. They didn't.

    6. an America uncomfortable with having democratic institutions take care of its people

      Or did it reveal an America frustrated that democracy had failed to take care of its people?

    7. clarification usually takes a few years, because we have to let the illusions drop

      I wonder how long it will take in this case, as we'll also have to sift through all the alternate realities of the filter bubbles?

  4. Mar 2020
    1. modified one-party system

      The question then might be, are you willing to go back to that more stable arrangement if you're going to be the party out of power?

    2. When winning the majority becomes possible, the logic of cooperation dissolves.

      Why Congress never gets anything done these days.

    3. political histories tend to be presidential histories

      Somebody should write a political history that focuses on Congressional majorities.

    4. Whose grievances get heard?

      So it's not really democratizing discomfort, it's extending discomfort to those who had been insulated from it by always being the rule-setters.

    5. self-described independents who tended to vote for one party or the other were driven more by negative motivations.

      How have the strategies and messages of campaigns encouraged this? Is it due to a lack of imagination/innovative ideas in campaigns?

    6. We are a collection of functional parts whose efforts combine into a dysfunctional whole

      In addition to possibly being true, this approach seems to have the advantage of giving the other side the benefit of the doubt for being "rational actors" rather than "deplorables".

    7. hopeful about Obama

      Is this critique specifically about the inability of individuals such as presidents to break away from the machine, or is it more widespread than that?

    8. We focus on their genius

      Klein is talking about journalism, but to what extent is this approach repeated in political history?

    9. Introduction

      From Why We're Polarized by Ezra Klein, 2020


  5. Jan 2020
    1. instea

      I'm not sure. maybe "in addition"...

    2. White

      Full name. I had to check to see if you were talking about Hayden White here.

    3. Which came first: geology theories or religious doctrines? Neither

      Not really, though. Scripture was clearly first, both chronologically and in importance for De Luc.

    4. an active hand

      A key issue seems to be ideas of duration. How could fossils of sea creature QUICKLY make their way to mountaintops? Only miraculously...

    5. God was activ

      You're digging into particular denominational theologies here. Where does the Calvinist idea of predestination fit in?

    6. Whiggish

      You should probably explain what you mean by Whiggish.

    7. two epistemological schools

      What about the idea of CHANGE at all, evidenced by erosion? Where does this fit in your binary?

    8. catastrophist

      This is turning out to be a big element of your binary.

    9. de Luc had the funding

      Begs the question, was there anything political in his decisions about interpretation?

    10. o find more t

      Idea that there should be continuity in things like the volume of water available on Earth is a sign of what?

    11. Biblical criticism


    12. moral view

      He's speaking a completely different language here. Theory is judged not on its relationship to observation, but on its contribution to a moral system.

    13. a clear basis in nature in combination with the account of the Bible

      I'm not sure you've demonstrated this . It still seems to me De Luc is shoehorning observations into interpretations that support his preconceptions.

    14. enough if it cannot be proved impossible

      Contrast with Hume and other Scots.

    15. Indian philosophe

      Cycles are a key element of many eastern religions. How does the interaction between east and west (imperialism) at this time inform metaphors available to western thinkers?

    16. synchronistic

      Is this the word you want to use? Readers could hear echoes of Jungian synchronicity, which may be distracting if unintentional.

    17. Anglicans

      Why Anglicans rather than, say, Presbyterians? Is there a religious-political angle to this story?

    18. the millenium coming faster

      Interesting detail here.

    19. share a friendship

      Explore these networks more -- this could easily lead to a dissertation!

    20. Scottish Enlightenmen

      Good! Pursue this a bit. Mention David Hume's essay on miracles.

    21. deistic beliefs

      But again, many deists believed deist ideas, but many were trying to stay respectable when they secretly harbored much more atheistic convictions.

    22. heat in bodies

      Maybe add a note here describing the state of the science of thermodynamics at this point, to orient the reader.

    23. otherworldly intervention.

      Along the lines of "two Books", scripture and nature?

    24. late enough

      do you mean "not too late"?

    25. I would like to offer

      Needs one more sentence: SPECIFICALLY what are you going to add to the conversation?

    26. temporality

      Are they really? Or is the issue causality?

    27. the binary geological

      I think you've located an interesting question here; don't think you need to argue it is the only or central debate going on.

    28. publishing of The Origin of Species

      You might want to examine how Erasmus Darwin's Zoonomia and Chambers' Vestiges were already working on the minds of scientists and the public in the first half of the 19th c.

    29. redibility,

      Another issue: these scientists need to be heard, and this can influence the language they use independent of their actual beliefs.

    30. disseminated and then reconciled


    31. hosen episteme

      Is the choice based on belief? Or on political reality of their times? Didn't some of the scientists who posited a "clockmaker" deity do so only because they were afraid to make the leap to atheism?

    32. visibility of two trends

      You are claiming that the vast majority of relevant geologists were religious and fell mostly in these two groups?

    33. this viewpoint

      These are two flavors of the religious argument. Where's the scientific POV? Also, is there precedent for including god in ideas of agency?

    34. I am in agreement


    35. knowledge from science and from religion as equals

      Doesn't it do this by ignoring their accuracy and looking at ways they were deployed to support power?

    36. “socio-political” tool

      It may be, but isn's she discounting science's very real role finding things out?

    37. cris[es] of faith

      Doesn't this beg the question, what caused the crises of faith?

    38. n the historiography

      Just in the historiography? Or in people's approaches to religion and science?

    39. whole denominations’

      There's an implication here that scientists are not representative of their denominations that could be explored.

    40. are


    41. More recently,

      There's an implication of narrative here that you might want to spell out.


    1. replication of the face-to-face inter

      To what extent can distance learning remain individualistic, and how much depends on these replications of in-class activities?


  6. Dec 2019
    1. Access Compromise

      No less true today

    2. can the community call anyone’s behavior “openwashing” if it conforms with the international standard-setting instrument’s definition of OER?

      Maybe this is an argument for celebrating the progress made in the UNESCO Recommendation but NOT acknowledging it as the final word on OER.

    3. free and perpetual, which were clearly articulated in the public draft, have been inexplicably removed in the final version

      Opening the door for public funds to be used to create OER that could later be shifted to a less open or non-open format.

    4. I added retain as the 5th R after coming to understand that retain is actually the fundamental permission that must be granted with regard to an open educational resource.

      Yes, it helps to read these declarations adversarially, to imagine what someone looking to abuse they system might do.

  7. Nov 2019
    1. three-quarters of college students who attend public institutions

      Can we see some data that compares their outcomes to those of the other 25% who go to private? I think that would clarify the situation tremendously.

    2. Why not both

      This is a good point. Would you rather be a certified HVAC person or one who in addition had taken some business courses and could more effectively work for themselves?

    3. College graduates account for a third of American entrepreneurs

      This will work better if a startup's business plan doesn't end with expected purchase by Google, Facebook, or Amazon.

    4. college earnings premium is at an all-time high

      Because unions have lost so much power.

    5. they make the places they live and work more productive

      This is important. It needs to be a positive sum game, or it's pointless.

    6. retooling their skills

      The assumption is that if more folks gain credentials they firms will hire them automatically? What about wage gap between US and other regions at similar education levels?

    7. college diploma or an advanced degree is a key to economic success

      But she failed to say, success for whom? For the individual who'll get a higher-paying job? For the corporations that will get the benefit of their skills? Or for society?

    8. will require cultivating their skills

      Or is it more an issue of unlocking their critical faculties and teaching them to question the inevitability of the dominant narrative? Training more engineers doesn't seem like it would guarantee more equitable income and opportunity distributions.

    9. transformed American higher education from a province of the privileged into a shared commitment to our future

      It would be interesting to trace the transition from the original agricultural and technical focus to R1.

    10. educated citizenry emerged and a skilled workforce

      High schools also taught the children of immigrants to be Americans.

    1. we cannot wall ourselves off in exclusive silos that separate the types of education and the different job markets

      Do we need to rethink the fairly explicit anti-vocational approach we've often taken to liberal arts?

    2. higher education with increasing entrepreneurship and higher productivity,

      I think this may be a more compelling angle than higher wages, which were to a great extent a function of labor unions.

    1. My own university estimates that first-year students can expect to pay between $2,290 and $4,100 for books and supplies.

      University of Waterloo (Canada)

    1. the overwhelming majority of faculty have no formal training whatsoever in teaching and learning.

      So the argument is that faculty are stupid, or are such narrow specialists, or are so time-constrained that this is best left to professionals?

    2. open textbook publishers may have actually been reinforcing publishers’ messages

      The idea may have been to equal the commercial texts before surpassing them, but I agree it's clearly time for phase two, where we use the advantages of the new platforms to take our texts somewhere else.

    3. leveraged faculty’s widespread lack of understanding of instructional design to redefine “quality.”

      Instructional design becomes one of those moats.

    4. effective instructional design

      Effective instructional design, like accessibility, is great until it is used to prevent instructor-created content from overtaking expensive commercial texts. If subject-matter experts continue to believe they are not qualified to produce content, publishers continue to win as they have been all along. This argument was once made in "quality" terms; now the argument is shifting to pedagogy and access.

    5. Me: If I cross out these lines about the publisher’s copyright and write “Licensed CC BY” above it, have I made this book more effective at supporting student learning? Student: (ponders briefly) I guess not?

      Yeah, you did, because the price dropped when you did that. Or doesn't reducing cost support student learning anymore?

    6. each become more focused on executing the strategies aligned with our specific goal

      This idea that you can't do everything and it's time to choose suggests not only that the goals aren't the same, but that they're so different as to be mutually exclusive. Is this perspective a result of having chosen one (student success) that it turns out you think might be better met in the commercial space than in open?

    7. critically examine all of our assumptions about conferences

      Personally, I'm feeling kind of bad about in-person meetings from a carbon-footprint perspective. I wonder if it's possible yet to do a virtual conference?

    8. as currently constituted, the conference does not leverage all the energy, enthusiasm, passion, and leadership ability in our increasingly large and increasingly diverse community

      Fair statement. But why rather than trying to harness that energy are you calling it quits. Or are you saying that energy = commercial publishers you were promoting?

  8. Oct 2019
    1. potentially acquire new students, programs, geographic reaches

      So it's not primarily about economies of scale in physical plant operation.

    2. systems of higher education

      Does being part of a system mitigate the need to merge to some extent?

    3. When colleges wait too long, their financial, political and enrollment value declines to the point that they may be unable to find a willing partner.

      I suppose it matters a lot whether you're seeking to acquire, be acquired, or to merge as equals with a similarly-sized peer.

    4. mergers are a well-tested approach to rapidly securing growth, stability and value

      In general, or in higher ed?

    5. merger as a proactive option

      It would be interesting to consider the book even if an institution wasn't facing merger or consolidation, but I wonder if fear of "putting ideas in people's heads" will prevent that?

    1. Administrators at all but the most selective institutions believe their institutions are threatened by scaling flagship national universities that are making substantial investments in their online programs,
    1. identifying politicised collective actions that are already underway

      The point is, all three of these things are already happening and all three will continue into the future. There's no "choose one" future ahead.

    2. this led students to reflect

      Just using Linux led to that?

    3. widespread recognition that ‘agency’ is collective, spanning human and more-than-human entities, and transcending individualism

      Is this really the key?

    4. OER also opened the doors to radically multiple perspectives on history, science and society

      Again, cool, and I think this is what I'm doing. But how does it address/prevent the previous two scenarios?

    5. Privacy by design become standard

      This is all well and good, but how does it address the choices made by the nomads in scenario 2? Doesn't seem connected at all.

    6. realign ‘competences’ as a collective, embedded, embodied and political, rather than individual, practice

      But still taught to individuals.