33 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2020
    1. In the right conditions, a few molds produce mycotoxins, which are natural, poisonous substances that can make you sick if they are consumed. Mycotoxins are contained in and around mold threads, and in some cases, may have spread throughout the food.

      The bad molds are called mycotoxins

    2. Helminths are multicellular worms (for example, tapeworms and roundworms). Helminths reproduce by releasing eggs; animals may consume the eggs which then develop into larvae that can survive even after the animal is killed. Eating raw or undercooked meat can lead to ingesting the larvae. Thorough cooking destroys the larvae.

      Helminths are worms

    3. Additional symptoms may include vomiting, dehydration, lightheadedness, and rapid heartbeat. More severe complications can include a high fever, diarrhea that lasts more than three days, prolonged vomiting, bloody stools, and signs of shock.

      Symptoms of food poison

  2. Nov 2020
    1. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening reaction that results in difficulty breathing, swelling in the mouth and throat, decreased blood pressure, shock, or even death. Milk, eggs, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts are the most likely to trigger this type of response.

      Symptoms of allergic reactions

    2. Possible symptoms include itchy skin, hives, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea.

      Symptoms of an allergic reaction

  3. Oct 2020
    1. The results of a DEXA scan are most often reported as T-scores. A T-score compares a person’s bone density to the average peak bone density of a healthy 30-year-old population of the same gender. A T-score of −1.0 or above indicates normal bone density. A person with a T-score between −1.0 and −2.5 has low bone density, which is a condition referred to as osteopenia. A person with a T-score of −2.5 or below is diagnosed with osteoporosis.

      T score levels for bone density.

    1. In the third step of bone remodeling, the site is prepared for building. In this stage, sugars and proteins accumulate along the bone’s surface, forming a cement line which acts to form a strong bond between the old bone and the new bone that will be made. These first three steps take approximately two to three weeks to complete.

      Bone remodeling process.

    2. In adulthood, our bones stop growing and modeling, but continue to go through a process of bone remodeling.

      I would challenge that fact.

    3. Bone tissue cells include osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. The osteoprogenitor cells are cells that have not matured yet. Once they are stimulated, some will become osteoblasts, the bone builders, and others will become osteoclasts, the cells that break bone down. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone tissue. Osteocytes are star-shaped cells that are connected throughout the bone and exchange nutrients from bones to the blood and lymph.

      The Asteo Class of Bone Tissue

    4. Your bones are stronger than reinforced concrete. Bone tissue is a composite of fibrous collagen strands that resemble the steel rebar in concrete and a hardened mineralized matrix that contains large amounts of calcium, just like concrete.

      What Is Bone?

    1. Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Cancer is triggered by mutations in a cell’s genetic material. The cause of these changes may be inherited, or it may result from exposure to carcinogens, which are agents that can cause cancer. Carcinogens include chemicals, viruses, certain medical treatments such as radiation, pollution, or other substances and exposures that are known or suspected to cause cancer.

      What is Cancer

    1. Phytochemicals are chemicals in plants that may provide some health benefit. Carotenoids are one type of phytochemical that we will discuss in more detail below. Other phytochemicals include indoles, lignans, phytoestrogens, stanols, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and many more. They are found not only in fruits and vegetables, but also in grains, seeds, nuts, and legumes.

      Pytochemicals

    2. The primary function of Vitamin E is as an antioxidant. Alpha-tocopherol and vitamin E’s other constituents are primarily responsible for protecting cell membranes against lipid destruction caused by free radicals.

      Vitamin E

    1. Excessive exposure to environmental sources of free radicals can contribute to disease by overwhelming the free radical detoxifying systems and those processes involved in repairing oxidative damage.

      Air Pollution

    2. While our bodies have acquired multiple defenses against free radicals, we also use free radicals to support its functions. For example, the immune system uses the cell-damaging properties of free radicals to kill pathogens.

      Free Radicals can also help the body, by killing bacterium like pathogens.

    3. hydrophobic antioxidants are largely responsible for protecting cell membranes from free radical damage. The body can synthesize some antioxidants, but others must be obtained from the diet.

      Hydrophobic Antioxidants

    4. Hydrophilic antioxidants act in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood;

      Hydrophilic Antioxidants

    5. The body’s two major defense systems are free radical detoxifying enzymes and antioxidants.

      The two body's defense systems

    6. Atoms and molecules such as superoxide that have unpaired electrons are called free radicals (Figure 8.1.28.1.2\PageIndex{2}2). The unpaired electron in free radicals makes the atom or molecule unstable.

      Free Radicals are unpaired

    7. there is no scientific evidence that antioxidants singularly provide bodily benefits, but there is evidence that certain benefits are achieved by ingesting antioxidants as part of a balanced, healthy, nutrient-rich diet. This is to say antioxidants may go a long way toward preventing damage, but other nutrients are necessary to repair damage and sustain health. No one nutrient acts alone!

      There is no evidence that antioxidants benefit

    1. You may be surprised to find out that the commonly held belief that people need to drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day isn’t an official recommendation and isn’t based on any scientific evidence!

      there is no evidence.

  4. Sep 2020
    1. Body weights of children with Marasmus may be up to 80 percent less than that of a normal child of the same age. Marasmus is a Greek word, meaning “starvation.” It is characterized by an extreme emaciated appearance, poor skin health, and growth retardation. The symptoms are acute fatigue, hunger, and diarrhea.

      Marasmus disease

    2. The name Kwashiorkor comes from a language in Ghana and means, “the sickness the child gets when the new baby comes". The syndrome was named because it occurred most commonly in children who had recently been weaned from the breast, usually because another child had just been born. Subsequently the child was fed watery porridge made from low-protein grains, which accounts for the low protein intake. Kwashiorkor is characterized by swelling (edema) of the feet and abdomen, poor skin health, growth retardation, low muscle mass, and liver malfunction (Figure 6.5.16.5.1\PageIndex{1}1).

      Kwashiorkor disease

    1. When a foreign substance attacks the body, the immune system produces antibodies (Figure 6.3.36.3.3\PageIndex{3}2) to defend against it. Antibodies are special proteins that recognize a unique molecule on harmful bacteria and viruses known as an antigen. Antibodies bind to the antigen and destroy it. Antibodies also trigger other factors in the immune system to seek and destroy unwanted intruders.

      Defintion for Antibodies

    2. The pH scale ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly basic/alkaline). Blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, which is slightly basic. Even a slight change in blood pH can affect body functions. Acidic conditions can stop proteins from functioning. The body has several systems that hold the blood pH within the normal range to prevent this from happening. Some proteins act as buffers and release hydrogen (H+) into the blood if it gets too basic. Proteins can also take hydrogen from the blood if it gets too acidic. By releasing and taking hydrogen when needed, proteins maintain acid-base balance and keep blood pH within a normal range.

      Proper pH balance is the measure of how the acidic or basic substance is measured in the blood.

    3. The most abundant protein in blood is the protein known as albumin. Albumin’s presence in the blood makes the protein concentration in the blood similar to that in cells. Therefore, fluid exchange between the blood and cells is not in the extreme, but rather is minimized to preserve the status quo.

      Albumin's refers to

    4. Fluid balance refers to maintaining the distribution of water in the body. If too much water in the blood suddenly moves into a tissue, the results are swelling and, potentially, cell death. Water always flows from an area of high concentration to one of a low concentration.

      Fluid Balance refers to, biological processes of the body to maintain the status of changing environment.

    5. A major function of hormones is to turn enzymes on and off, so some proteins can even regulate the actions of other proteins. While not all hormones are made from proteins, many of them are.

      Number one function of hormones is to turn enzymes on and off.

    1. The first step in protein digestion involves chewing. The teeth begin the mechanical breakdown of food into smaller pieces that can be swallowed. The salivary glands provide some saliva to aid swallowing and the passage of the smaller pieces of food through the esophagus and then on to the stomach through the esophageal sphincter.

      The first process to digestion of protein

    1. The peptide bond forms between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another, releasing a molecule of water.

      Defintion of Peptide bond