3 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
    1. In hisCybernetics(1948),Norbert Wiener, a colleague of Bush at MIT, did notrefer to the memex, but its status is easily handled by his dictum that “informationis information, not matter or energy” (Wiener [1948] 1973, 132; also 11–12 for hiscoining the term “cybernetics” from the Greekkuberne, steersman). On this view, ablind man’s cane is part of the cybernetic system that includes the cane, his mind,and his body. InNatural-Born Cyborgs, Andy Clark elaborates on this by affirmingthat a cyborg mind need not sport electro-chemical implants; rather, the brain canhave systemic dependence on, and interaction with, various kinds of external storagedevices (Clark 2003; see also Clark and Chalmers 1998).10

      distributed and/or extended cognition.

    2. However, this paper considers Bushin relation to earlier concerns about memory and information, via the ideas of Robert Hookeand John Locke. Whereas Bush modeled the memex on the associative processes of naturalmemory, Hooke and Locke concluded that an external archive had to allow collective reason toovercome the limits of individual memory, including its tendency to freeze and repeat patternsof ideas.

      Examples of Institutional archive of knowledge: wikipedia, collective knowledge base. Danger of individualism?

    1. And it wasn’t because the people running it put clear rules in place to prevent misbehavior. We know this because when Wikipedia started it didn’t have any programmers (it used off-the-shelf wiki software) and it didn’t have clear rules (one of the first major rules was apparently Ignore all rules).

      The curse of knowledge, but of programming knowledge?