 Aug 2016

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The omnibus test statistic, Pillai’s Trace, indicated the presence of a significant group difference among the log lobe volumes (F = 2.886, df = 4,37; p = 0.040).
ID: 001 Value: log lobe vol Variable: diagnosis ModelID: Pillai's Trace F: 2.886 DF: 4, 37 P: 0.040


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Cerebellar white matter was significantly larger in the ALI group (28.2 cc) than in the SLI group (25.1 cc), F(3,38) = 3.0, p = 0.04, contrast t(38) = 2.96, p < 0.005.
ID: 002 Variable: cerebellar WM vol Group: ALI Cerebellar WM Vol: 28.2 Units: cc
ID: 003 Variable: cerebellar WM vol Group: SLI Cerebellar WM Vol: 25.1 Units: cc
ID: 004 Variable: cerebellar WM vol, diagnosis Group: ALI, SLI F: 3.0 DF: 3, 38 P: 0.04 ContrastDF: 38 ContrastT: 2.96 ContrastP: <0.005
*Break into test of all groups, then contrast is ALI SLI

The contrast between ALI (18.4% white matter) and SLI (17.3% white matter) showed a moderate effect, t(38) = 1.96, p = 0.06.
ID: 006 Group: ALI WMPercentage: 18.4
ID: 007 Group: SLI WMPercentage:17.3
ID: 008 Variable: WMPercentage TestID: TTest T: 1.96 DF: 38 P: 0.06

Though moderate, there was a trend toward a similar pattern in the left VIIA Crus I, where SLI was 1.3 cc smaller than ALI (overall F(3, 38) = 2.0, p = 0.1; contrast t(38) = 1.7, p = 0.09)
ID: 014 Variable: LeftVIIA Crus I Volume Interpretation: SLI Right VIIA CRUS I Volume was 1.3 cc smaller than that of ALI.
ID: 015 Variable: Left VIIA Crus I Volume StatID: DF: 3, 38 F: 2.0 P: 0.1 ContrastDF: 38 ContrastT: 1.7 ContrastP: 0.09

Twentynine of 42 subjects (69%) had either lobule VIIIA larger in right hemisphere with IFG larger in left, or lobule VIIIA larger in left hemisphere with IFG larger in right. Among this subset, the ALN and NC groups tended to have the former, while the ALI and SLI subjects tended to have the latter, X2(1, N = 29) = 6.7, p < 0.01. A comparison including all subjects was also significant, X2(3, N = 42) = 8.2, p = 0.04, which includes subjects where both symmetry coefficients were in the same direction.
ID: 023 Variable: VIIIA asymmetry, IFG asymmetry *Group: VIIIA_Large_RHem_IFG_Large_LHem, VIIIA_Large_LHem_IFG_Large_RHem Group: ALN_NC, ALI_SLI TestID: Chi^2 Chi^2: 6.7 DF: 1 N: 29 P: <0.01
ID: 024 Variable: Group: ALN, NC, ALI, SLI TestID: Chi^2Test DF: 3 N: 42 Chi^2: 8.2 P: 0.04

IFG was asymmetrically leftward in ALN and NC groups, but rightward in ALI and SLI groups. Combining the data from both regions, we found a significant negative correlation between symmetry coefficients for cerebellar lobule VIIIA and IFG for each subject, rs (42) = −0.34, p = 0.02.
ID: 022 Variable: VIIIA asymmetry, IFG asymmetry StatID: DF: 42 R: 0.34 P: 0.02

Posterior cerebellar lobule VIIIA showed significant asymmetry differences: VIIIA was larger in right hemisphere for ALN and NC (languagenormal) groups (7% and 4% rightward asymmetry respectively), but larger in left hemisphere for ALI and SLI (languageimpaired) groups (11% and 6% leftward asymmetry respectively), F(3,38) = 2.9, p < 0.05, contrast t(38) = 2.7, p = 0.01 (Table 3 and Figure 3).
ID: 016 Variable: Right VIIIA Ratio Group: ALN Ratio%: 7
ID: 017 Variable: Right VIIIA Ratio Group: NC Ratio%: 4
ID: 018 Variable: Left VIIIA Ratio Group: ALI Ratio%: 11
ID: 019 Variable: Left VIIIA Ratio Group: SLI Ratio%: 6
ID: 020 Variable: Posterior cerebellar lobule VIIIA asymmetry Groups: All StatID: FTest DF: 3, 38 F: 2.9 P: <0.05
ID: 021 Groups: ALI, SLI StatID: TTest ContrastDF: 38 ContrastT: 2.7 ContrastP: 0.01

The ratio of cerebellar white matter to cerebellar cortex was similar among groups (approximately 18% white matter and 82% cortex, F(3, 38) = 1.3, p = 0.3).
ID: 005 Groups: ALI, SLI WMPercentage: 18 CortexPercentage: 82 TestID: Variables: WMPercentage, CortexPercentage DF: 3, 38 T: 1.3 P: 0.3

Whole cerebellum and cerebellar cortex volumes did not differ among the four subject groups
ID: 001 Variable: whole cerebellum volume, cerebellar cortex volume, diagnosis Interpretation: Whole cerebellum volume and cerebellar cortex volume did not vary across diagnostic groups NC, ALN, ALI, SLI


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the “age by A/D” interaction was highly significant in the right vmPFC, including the right gyrus rectus (BA 11), medial OFC (BA 11,12), and a portion of the right SgACC (BA 25) (Fig. 1, P ≤ 0.05, RFT corrected)
ID: 001 Variable: age, ADscore, CT Group: All Interpretation: Significant age by A/D interaction in Right vmPFC

Given the slightly different scoring between CBCL 6/18 and CBCL 1½/5 that we have adjusted for, results were verified after excluding subjects assessed with the CBCL 1½/5. Results remained significant—but slightly reduced in spatial extent, confirming the initial finding. Of note, the distribution of the mean cortical thickness in the identified region of interest (mean of the significant area) had a normal distribution at each level A/D scores (confirmed by the Shapiro–Wilk test), which confirmed the validity of using a linear regression model despite some apparent positive skewness in the A/D scores distribution.
Discuss with David

There were no associations between cortical thickness and the Somatic Symptoms score,
ID:012 Variable: CT, SomaticSympotomsScore Interpretation: no association between CT and SomaticSymptomScore

Controlling for IQ and SES had no impact on the results.
ID: 011 Interpretation: IQ and SES had no impact on interactions

the “Handedness by Age by A/D” interaction was not significant, precluding any formal conclusion on the impact of handedness on the aforementioned developmental pattern.
ID: 010 Variable: ADscore, handedness, age, CT Interpretation: No significant interaction of ADscore, age, and handedness on CT of Right vmPFC

When controlling for handedness, results remained significant in the right gyrus rectus and the right medial OFC, with a trend of association in the right SgACC (see Supplementary Fig. 2).
ID: 008 Variable: ADscore, handedness, CT Interpretation: Significant interaction in the right gyrus rectus and the right medial OFC of the Right vmPFC
ID: 009 Variable: ADscore, handedness, CT Interpretation: Association in the right SgACC of the Right vmPFC

There were no “A/D by gender” or threeway “A/D by age by gender” interactions on cortical thickness.
ID: 006 Variable: ADscore, gender Interpretation: No significant interaction of ADscore and gender on CT
ID: 007 Variable: ADscore, gender, age Interpretation: No significant interaction of ADscore, age, and gender on CT

subjects with higher scores had thinner right vmPFC (mean thickness of the significant area) at baseline, but evidenced thicker cortices later in teenage years due to a slower rate of cortical thinning.
ID: 004 Variable: ADscore, Right vmPFC CT Interpretation: subjects with higher ADscore had thinner Right vmPFC CT at baseline
ID: 005 Variable: ADscore, Right vmPFC CT Interpretation: subjects with higher ADscore had thicker Right vmPFC CT as teenagers

Specifically, between 5 and 8 years of age, right vmPFC thickness was negatively associated with A/D scores. The magnitude of this negative association began to diminish at approximately 9 years of age, until a neutral 0 tscore was revealed at ∼12 years of age. The direction of the association then reversed to become a positive trend at age 15, and a significant positive association at age 18.
ID: 002 Variable: ADscore, CT Age? Right vmPFC? Interpretation: Right vmPFC CT negatively associated with ADscore between 5 and 8 yo
*ID: 003 How to annotate changing association with age?

 Jul 2016

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right VIIA Crus I differed significantly betweengroups, F(3, 38) = 2.9, p < 0.05, where SLI was 1.9 cc smaller than ALI, t(38) = 2.5, p = 0.02. This effect remained after covarying for cerebellar cortex volume, t(37) = 2.1, p = 0.04.
ID: 012 Groups: ALI, SLI Variable: Right VIIA Crus I StatID: DF: 3, 38 F: 2.9 P: <0.05
ID: 013 Variable: Right VIIA Crus I Volume Interpretation: SLI Right VIIA CRUS I Volume was 1.99 cc smaller than that of ALI.

There were no significant group differences in volumetric symmetry of whole cerebellum, cerebellar cortex, or cerebellar white matter.
ID: 011 Observation: There were no significant group differences in volumetric symmetry of whole cerebellum, cerebellar cortex, or cerebellar white matter.

SLI tended to have proportionally smaller cerebelli (including white matter and cortex), and ALI tended toward larger cerebelli, with NC and ALN falling between the languageimpaired groups,
ID: 009 Interpretation: SLI had proportionally smaller cerebelli
ID: 010 Interpretation: ALI had proportionally larger cerebelli


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Cortical analyses vertexwise across the surface were performed with general linear models to investigate relations of birth weight to regional cortical area and thickness, controlling for variation in age, sex, household income, and GAF as well as scanner used. When a commonly used approach to correct for multiple comparisons was used [false discovery rate (FDR) < 5%], minute effects of birth weight were observed on cortical thickness. However, significant positive relationships between birth weight and area were observed across large parts of the cortical surface (Fig. 1). On the medial surface of the brain, effects were seen bilaterally in the rostral anterior cingulate, retrosplenial, paracentral, precuneus, superior frontal and medial orbitofrontal cortices, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyri. On the lateral brain surface, bilateral effects extended from parsorbitalis to cover parts of lateral orbitofrontal cortices, and there were also effects in the rostral middle frontal, inferior parietal, and superior and middle temporal cortices as well as in the pre and postcentral gyri. A few somewhat more scattered unilateral effects were also seen. Medially, effects extended into the caudal anterior cingulate in the left but not right hemisphere, whereas superior and orbitofrontal effects were more pronounced in the right than left hemisphere. Lateral effects were also more pronounced in the left orbitofrontal cortex, but otherwise, lateral effects also seemed slightly more extensive in the right hemisphere, covering somewhat larger temporal and parietal areas. Because the use of FDR for correction for multiple comparisons may influence the detection of specific effect sites, the full range of effects uncorrected at P < 0.05 is also shown in Fig. S1. Uncorrected, effects were somewhat more extensive, but the general pattern described was similar. A scatter plot of the relationship between birth weight and anterior cingulate area (partial β = 0.19, P < 0.0001) is shown in Fig. 2A. It appears from the plot that the low birth weight cases were not disproportionately influencing the relationship and that the relationship between cortical area and birth weight was also monotonous. The relationship between birth weight and anterior cingulate area remained virtually identical when excluding the low birth weight (1,500–2,499 g) cases (partial β = 0.18, P < 0.0001).
Vague result info currently beyond scope

No significant effects were observed for the striatal volumes, with only a marginal effect observed for putamen (P = 0.062) when congruent reaction time was included as covariate.
ID: 020 Variable: Flanker performance, striatal vol Interpretation: no relationship found
ID: 021 Variable: Flanker performance, putamen vol Model: ? (includes congruent RT) P: 0.062 Interpretation: slight cognitive control effect observed for putamen volume

There were no significant effects of birth weight on Flanker performance
ID: 019 Variable: incongruent condition Flanker performance, birth weight Interpretation: no relationship found

Birth weight was positively related to total anterior cingulate area in this subsample (partial β = 0.14, P < 0.001, df = 20, 502).
ID: 018 Variable: birth weight, total anterior cingulate area PartialBeta: 0.14 P: <0.001 DF: 20, 502

no relationship was observed in the congruent condition
ID: 017 Variable: incongruent condition Flanker performance, total anterior cingulate area Interpretation: no relationship found

alid Flanker data were available for 522 participants, and we used reaction time in the incongruent condition, related to cognitive control, as the measure of interest. With GAF, MR site, sex, socioeconomic status, and age as covariates, better Flanker performance was significantly related to larger total anterior cingulate area [partial β = −0.092, P = 0.011, degrees of freedom (df) = 20, 502]. This effect was specific to cognitive control, because the relationship survived adding congruent reaction time as an additional covariate area (partial β = −0.064, P = 0.006, df = 21, 501);
ID: 015 Variable: Flanker performance, total anterior cingulate area Model: PartialBeta: 0.092 P: 0.011 DF: 20, 502
ID: 016 Variable: Flanker performance, total anterior cingulate area Model: ? (includes congruent RT) PartialBeta: 0.064 P: 0.006 DF: 21, 501

Although there did seem to be somewhat stronger effects of birth weight on pallidum and caudate volumes within the low birth weight group, none of the differences among effects in this group and the others reached significance (P > 0.10).
ID: 013 Variable: birth weight, pallidum vol Group: low birth rate Low Birth Weight: 15002499 g P: >0.10 Interpretation: birth weight effects observed on pallidum volume
ID: 014 Variable: birth weight, caudate vol Group: low birth rate Low Birth Weight: 15002499 g P: >0.10 Interpretation: birth weight effects observed on caudate volume

palladium,
Typo?

For selected ROIs showing a significant relationship to birth weight, putamen, palladium, caudate, TBV, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex area, regression analyses were also repeated, including (i) a quadratic birth weight term to investigate possible differential effects in select ranges of birth weight and (ii) an interaction term of birth weight and age to investigate possible differential effects of birth weight at different ages. In no case did the quadratic term or the interaction term exert a significant effect (P > 0.10).
Vague result. Description of regression model

an effect of method of delivery on rostral anterior cingulate area, where larger area was observed with cesarean section (standardized β = 0.09, P = 0.018). This finding did not, however, attenuate the relationship with birth weight, for which the effect size remained virtually identical (standardized β = 0.185 vs. 0.193, both P values < 0.0001) when method of delivery was included or not included in the analysis, respectively.
ID: 010 Variable: rostral anterior cingulate area, birth method Group: c section ModelID: ? StandardizedBeta: 0.09 P: 0.018
ID: 011 Variable: birth weight, birth method Group: c section ModelID: ? StandardizesBeta: 0.193 P: <0.0001
ID: 012 Variable: birth weight, birth method Group: vaginal birth ModelID: ? StandardizesBeta: 0.185 P: <0.0001
*Assumption made about which beta corresponds to which birth method

a unique relationship between birth weight and caudate volume remained (partial β = 0.11, P = 0.002)
ID: 009 Variable: birth weight, caudate vol Model: ? (include TBV as regressor) PartialBeta: 0.11 P: 0.002

These relationships also remained largely similar when excluding the low (1,500–2,499 g) birth weight cases (partial β for putamen: 0.09, P = 0.022; pallidum: 0.11, P = 0.004; caudate: 0.19, P < 0.001; TBV: 0.17, P < 0.001)
ID: 005 Variable: birth weight, putamen vol Group: birth weight >2499g PartialBeta: 0.09 P: 0.022 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with putamen volume
ID: 006 Variable: birth weight, pallidum vol Group: birth weight >2499g PartialBeta: 0.11 P: 0.004 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with pallidum volume
ID: 007 Variable: birth weight, caudate vol Group: birth weight >2499g PartialBeta: 0.19 P: <0.001
ID: 008 Variable: birth weight, TBV vol Group: birth weight >2499g PartialBeta: 0.17 P: <0.001 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with TBV vol

Birth weight was uniquely and positively associated with each volume (partial β for putamen: 0.11, P = 0.006; pallidum: 0.12, P = 0.002; caudate: 0.20, P < 0.001; TBV: 0.16, P < 0.001)
ID: 001 Variable: birth weight, putamen vol PartialBeta: 0.11 P: 0.006 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with putamen volume
ID: 002 Variable: birth weight, pallidum vol PartialBeta: 0.12 P: 0.002 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with pallidum volume
ID: 003 Variable: birth weight, caudate vol PartialBeta: 0.20 P: <0.001
ID: 004 Variable: birth weight, TBV vol PartialBeta: 0.16 P: <0.001 Interpretation: birth weight positively associated with TBV vol


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No associations were found between the lobes or individual PUs and the following clinical variables: antipsychotic dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, YMRS score, duration of illness, presence or absence of ADHD, and current mood state (manic, mixed, depressed, or euthymic)
ID: 015 Variable: lobe vol, antipsychotic dos in chlorpromazine equivalents, YMRS score, duration of illness, ADHD, current mood state Interpretation: No associations were found between lobe volume and these clinical variables
ID: 016 Variable: PU vol, antipsychotic dos in chlorpromazine equivalents, YMRS score, duration of illness, ADHD, current mood state Interpretation: No associations were found between PU volumes and these clinical variables

When we looked at the gyri in the BPD group, we found only that volumes of the left log POG were significantly and positively associated with scores on the GAF (B = 0.012; t = 2.22, p = 0.035).
ID: 014 Variable: left POG vol, GAF score Group: BPD B: 0.012 T: 2.22 P: 0.035 Interpretation: left POG vol positively associated with GAF score

The left log PL volumes in the BPD children decreased significantly in association with increasing numbers of psychoactive medications (B = −0.04; t = −2.138, p = 0.042) (when we examined the possible relationship between type of medication and change in PL volumes, we did not detect any significant or trend relationship between type of medication and PL volume).
ID: 012 Variable: left PL vol, quantity of medications B: 0.04 T: 2.138 P: 0.042 Interpretation: left PL vol decreased with increased number of psychoactive medications
ID: 013 Variable: PL vol, type of medication Interpretation: no relationship observed between PL vol and type of medication

Within the BPD group, those children with psychotic symptoms had smaller left log TL volumes (B = −0.092; t = −2.066, p = 0.048) than those without psychotic symptoms
ID: 011 Variable: left TL vol, diagnosis Group: BPD_psych B: 0.092 T: 2.066 P: 0.048

No significant group differences were found in the right or left FL
ID: 009 Variable: FL vol Interpretation: no significant difference in FL vol observed

We did find significant group differences in the right MFG (B = −0.144; t = −2.289, p = 0.027
ID: 010 Variable: right MFG vol Group: BPD B: 0.144 T: 2.289 P: 0.027

the BPD group had significant reductions in the left volumes of the STG and FFG, but significant increases in bilateral PHG. These findings are summarized in Table 5.
Annotate all data in the table? Just general comment included in the text?

The bipolar group had significantly smaller log left TL volumes compared with the control group (B = −0.050; t = −2.258, p = 0.029).
ID: 008 Variable: left TL vol Group: BPD B: 0.050 T: 2.258 P: 0.029

the BPD had significant reductions in the right and left POG (right: B = −0.116; t = −2.027, p = 0.049; left: B = −0.136; t = −2.592, p = 0.013).
ID: 006 Variable: right POG vol Group: BPD B: 0.116 T: 2.027 P: 0.049
ID: 007 Variable: left POG vol Group: BPD B: 0.136 T: 2.592 P: 0.013

Interestingly, both age and Verbal IQ for all children in this study (both BPD and HC combined) showed inverse relationships with PL volume, such that children with higher Verbal IQ scores were more likely to have smaller PL volumes, and older children were more likely to have smaller PL volumes.
ID: 004 Interpretation: Observed inverse relationship between age and PL volume
ID: 005 Interpretation: Observed inverse relationship between verbal IQ score and PL volume

The bipolar youth had significantly smaller log right and left PL volumes relative to the HC (right: B = −0.080, t = −2.154, p = 0.037; left: B = −0.102; t = −3.122, p = 0.003), after controlling for the significant effects of age, Verbal IQ, and log cerebral volume (see Table 4 for summary of regression models).
ID: 002 Variable: right PL vol Group: BPD B: 0.080 T: 2.154 P: 0.037 Interpretation: BPD youth had smaller right PL volumes than HC
ID: 003 Variable: left PL vol Group: BPD B: 0.102 T: 3.122 P: 0.003 Interpretation: BPD youth had smaller left PL volumes than HC


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LDC and TDC did not explain any additional variance to FA.
Result, Unknown model, etc. *finish

When FA and ADC in forceps major were entered, FA was still significantly related to incongruent RT (β = −0.11, P < 0.01), whereas ADC ceased to be significant.
ID: 024 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: FA of forceps major, ADC of forceps major *how do we annotate that DTI parameters were included pairwise? does it matter that they were entered pairwise? we have a beta for each FA that varies by its DTI pairing
ID: 025 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: FA Beta: 0.11 P: <0.01
ID: 026 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: ADC P: insignificant

In this analysis, both cortical area (β = −0.10, P < 0.002) and FA (β = −0.13, P < 0.000005) contributed significantly to explain RT.
ID: 037 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: SA of right caudal anterior cingulate, FA of forceps major Model: Multiple regression analysis? SA_Beta: 0.10 SA_P: <0.002 FA_Beta: 0.13 FA_P: <0.000005

In contrast to the cortical results, where a linear reduction in strength of the relationship with age was seen, the relationship between ADC/FA and cognition was strongest around 6–10 and above 16 y, with correlations not significant in the middle part of the age range (Fig. 3)

Analyses run separately for the youngest and oldest parts of the sample did not yield significant results for either ADC or FA. In contrast to the cortical results, where a linear reduction in strength of the relationship with age was seen, the relationship between ADC/FA and cognition was strongest around 6–10 and above 16 y, with correlations not significant in the middle part of the age range (Fig. 3). The coefficient strength at different ages was generally not very different and should be interpreted with caution.
Annotate? Old ADC, Old FA, Young ADC, Young FA *finish this

The relationship between right anterior cingulate surface area and incongruent RT was plotted as a continuous function of age. The relationship was strongest for the youngest part of the sample, and it decreased linearly in strength with age

In forceps major, both ADC and TDC explained unique variance in incongruent RT (ADC β = 0.53, P < 0.005; TDC β = −0.43, P < 0.02), and the same was seen when ADC was entered with LDC (ADC β = 0.22, P < 0.00002; LDC β = −0.15, P < 0.005).
ID: 032 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariates: ADC and TDC *how to annotate?
ID: 033 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: ADC Beta: 0.53 P: <0.005
ID: 034 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: TDC Beta: 0.43 P: <0.02
ID: 035 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: ADC, LDC
ID: 036 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: ADC Beta: 0.22 P: 0.00002
ID:037 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: LDC Beta: 0.15 P: <0.005

The same was true when FA was entered with TDC (β = −0.12, P < 0.005) and LDC (forceps major FA β = −0.14, P < 0.00005)
ID: 027 Variable:Incongruent RT Covariate: FA of forceps major, TDC of forceps major
ID: 028 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: FA Beta: 0.12 P: <0.005
ID: 029 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: TDC P: insignificant
ID: 030 Variable: Incongruent RT Covariate: FA of forceps major, LDC of forceps major
ID: 031 Variable: Incongruent RT Convariate: FA Beta: 0.14 P: <0.00005

a positive significant effect on anterior cingulate surface area for boys (partial β = 0.18, P < 0.10−6) was found.
ID: 021 Variable: Anterior cingulate SA Covariate: Sex Group: male Model: PartialBeta: 0.18 P: <0.10^6

Significant positive RT relationships with forceps major were seen for both ADC (β = 0.18, P < 0.014, corrected for the number of comparisons) and FA (β = −0.20, P < 0.0014, corrected).
ID: 022 Variable: RT, ADC of forceps major ModelID: ? Beta: 0.18 P: <0.014 Interpretation: Positive RT relatonship
ID: 023 Variable: RT, FA of forceps major ModelID: ? Beta: 0.20 P: <0.0014 Interpretation: Positive RT relationship

There were no effects of sex on RT
ID: 020 Variable: RT Covariate: Sex ModelID: ? P: insignificant

Additional analyses showed relationships of marginally less strength in the left hemisphere (artial β = −0.24 vs. −0.02 in the young and older groups, respectively, with congruent RT as a covariate)

Partial β was −0.23 (P < 0.05) for the younger sample compared with −0.02 [not significant (n.s.)] for the older sample. With RT from the congruent condition included as an additional covariate, the corresponding partial β values for incongruent RT were −0.32 (P < 0.05) for the younger group and −0.01 (n.s.) for the older participants.
ID: 011 Variable: SA Group: Young ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.23 P: <0.05
ID: 012 Variable: SA Group: Old ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.01 P: insignificant
ID: 013 Variable: SA Group: Incongruent_Young ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.32 P: <0.05
ID: 013 Variable: SA Covariates: Group: Incongruent_Old ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.01 P: Insignificant

A cluster of negative effects covering the entire right anterior cingulate was found for the young group (cluster size = 2,077 mm2, clusterwise P = 0.019, corrected)
ID: 007 Variable: RT, Cluster size Group: Young Cluster size: 2077 Units: mm^2 P: 0.019 Interpretation: Cluster of negative effects found in right anterior cingulate of young group

Mean incongruence effect (cognitive conflict) on RT was 14.8% and negatively related to age (Pearson r = −0.33, P < 10−19)
ID: 006 Variable: Incongruence effect on RT Covariate: Age Mean: 14.8% ModelID: Pearson CorrelationCoefficient: 0.33 P: <10^19

both were negatively related to age (Spearman ρ, congruent RT = −0.53, P < 10−53; incongruent RT = −0.61, P < 10−76)
ID: 004 Group: Congruent CorrelationCoefficient: 0.53 P: <10^53 ModelID: Spearman
ID: 005 Group: Incongruent CorrelationCoefficient: 0.61 P: <10^76 ModelID: Spearman

Mean reaction time (RT) in the congruent condition was 789 ms (SD = 217) vs. 906 ms (SD = 293) in the incongruent condition (t = 20.83, P < 10−75)
ID: 001 Variable: RT Groups: Congruent, Incongruent ModelID: TTEST T: 20.83 P: <10^75
ID: 002 Variable: RT Group: Congruent MeanValue: 789 SD: 217 Units: ms
ID: 003 Variable: RT Group: Incongruent MeanValue: 906 SD: 293 Units: ms

The same type of analysis was done for thickness of the right caudal anterior cingulate to test whether the observed effects were specific to area. Although thickness did not survive permutation testing, a significant relationship was found (partial β = 0.11, P < 0.05). When congruent RT was added as a covariate, this relationship ceased to be significant (partial β = 0.09, n.s.).
ID: 018 Variable: right caudal anterior cingulate thickness ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.11 P: <0.05
ID: 019 Variable: right caudal anterior cingulate thickness Covariates: congruent RT ModelID: ? PartialBeta: 0.09 P: insignificant

PMID: 23150548


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Scope = Area and volume in normal brain development
