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  1. Jun 2021
    1. The convolution codes that are used for demonstrating the capabilities of the soft-input decoder are Super Orthogonal ... and hard-input decoders assuming both On-Off Keying (OOK) and Binary Pulse Position Modulation (BPPM) schemes.More editions

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    1. 5.3 Decoder interface The decoder implementation is general and is not platform dependent. The decoder only requires a stream of MP3 data to produce a stream of output samples. The decoder interface is therefore very simple, but needs ...Full view

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    1. Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. Y (or W) chromosomes lack genetic recombination, are male- (female-) limited, and show an abundance of genetically inert heterochromatic DNA but contain few functional genes. X (or Z) chromosomes also show sex-biased transmission (i.e., X chromosomes show female-biased and Z-chromosomes show male-biased inheritance) and are hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. Their unusual ploidy level and pattern of inheritance imply that sex chromosomes play a unique role in many biological processes and phenomena, including sex determination, epigenetic chromosome-wide regulation of gene expression, the distribution of genes in the genome, genomic conflict, local adaptation, and speciation. The vast diversity of sex chromosome systems in insects—ranging from the classical male heterogametic XY system in Drosophila to ZW systems in Lepidoptera or mobile genes determining sex as found in house flies—implies that insects can serve as unique model systems to study various functional and evolutionary aspects of these different processes.


    1. Supermassive black holes are classically defined as black holes with a mass above 0.1 million to 1 million M☉.[9] Some astronomers have begun labeling black holes of at least 10 billion M☉ as ultramassive black holes.[10][11] Most of these (such as TON 618) are associated with exceptionally energetic quasars. Even larger ones have been dubbed stupendously large black holes (SLAB) with masses greater than 100 billion M☉.[12] Although they noted there is currently no evidence that stupendously large black holes are real, they noted that supermassive black holes almost that size do exist.[13] Some studies have suggested that the maximum mass that a black hole can reach, while being luminous accretors, is of the order of ~50 billion M☉.[14][15]

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    1. black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform

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