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  1. Jul 2021
    1. However, with the exception of killed whole virus vaccines, all currently available vaccine designs only provide spike protein as the target immunogen, thus limiting T-cell immunity to spike epitopes.

      Killed whole virus vaccines may provide better immunity against future variants, because they can recognize the inner parts of the virus - eg nucleocapsid - in addition to just spike proteins

    2. Surprisingly, we found that the decreased in neutralization of B.1.351 strains was similar to that of distantly related coronaviruses, namely, SARS-CoV (43.8-fold for BNT162b2 and 33.5-fold for mRNA-1273) and WIV1-CoV (44.3-fold for BNT162b2 and 26.5-fold for mRNA-1273), suggesting that a relatively small number of mutations can medicate potent escape from vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody responses. These substantial differences in neutralization could not be explained by differences in spike protein expression (Figure S4B) nor in the amount of pseudovirus used in the assay (Figure S4C).

      Could this suggest that the Beta (B.1.351) variant is more similar to SARS-CoV-1? Should more variants evolve in this direction, could its behavior go beyond escape to full ADE?

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