18 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2017
    1. The Dengue Virus (DENV), is a type of virus that stems from the family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, which also includes other similar viruses such as West Nile Virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis, Yellow Fever Virus, and Zika virus (1).

      Both Dengue virus and Zika virus cause hemmorhagic fever and while both infect the host by a mosquito bite, Zika is passed onto other humans by body fluids wheras Dengue is transmitted by bites

    1. Thus, OlpA’s inhibition of the alternative complement pathway significantly contributes to the pathogen’s virulence


    1. Fever (temperature higher than 100.4ºF or 38ºC, see the table for how to measure a child's temperature) (table 1)●Pulling on the ear●Fussiness or irritability●Decreased activity●Lack of appetite or difficulty eating●Vomiting or diarrhea●Draining fluid from the outer ear (called otorrhea)

      symptoms in children

    1. Amoxicillin is the antibiotic of choice unless the child received it within 30 days

      Treatment, if severe

  2. May 2017
    1. 9 of 10 fecal cultures containing the organism when inoculated to CAL agar and incubated for 40 h at 25 degrees C.


    1. Since the organism was first identified in 1976 during an outbreak at an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia, Legionella has been recognized as a relatively common cause of both community-acquired [1,2] and hospital-acquired pneumonia

      Outbreak and environment

    1. Penicillin V 500 mg PO BID for 10d or Benzathine penicillin G 1.2 million U IM once or Amoxicillin 500-875 mg PO q12h or 250-500 PO q8h for 10d

      strep c/g treatment

    1. noted above, typical exudative pharyngitis with fever and adenopathy indistinguishable from GAS tonsillopharyngitis can be caused by large colony group C and G organisms, especially S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.


    2. Groups C and G streptococci are typical chaining cocci that are Gram positive, facultative anaerobes which produce small or large colonies on sheep blood agar.

      Lab work

    1. human upper airway and frequently are asymptomatic colonizers of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract.

      Where it is found in humans

  3. Apr 2017
    1. he most common mechanism employed by pathogens, including GBS, to resist AMPs is to decrease the charge on their cell surface [133]. Since AMPs are positively charged and the bacterial cell surface is negatively charged, the initial interaction between them is electrostatic.


    1. Even in patients with CNS involvement, however, recovery without neurologic sequelae within weeks to months can be expected. Death caused by CSD in patients who are immunocompetent is extremely rare.
    2. Complete recovery without sequelae occurs in nearly all patients.
    3. Patients can become confused and disoriented, and their condition can deteriorate to coma.


    4. In general, lymph nodes become enlarged in the 1-2 weeks after exposure.


    5. In most patients, the disease resolves spontaneously within 2-4 months.

      Not a fatal disease for most patients

    6. Bartonella henselae,

      This is the bacteria that causes catscratch disease