36 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2017
    1. Thus, OlpA’s inhibition of the alternative complement pathway significantly contributes to the pathogen’s virulence


    1. Otitis media and acute bronchitis due to H. influenzae are generally caused by nontypeable strains. Hib strains account for only 5%–10% of H. influenzae causing otitis media.

      HIB in otitis media

    1. phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis in the nonimmune host. The unencapsulated strains are almost always less invasive; they can, however, produce an inflammatory response in humans, which can lead to many symptoms. Vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccine is effective in preventing Hib infection, but does not prevent infection with NTHi strains.[4]

      Haemophilus virulence factors

    1. Sinusitis This is infection of the sinuses. Symptoms in younger children may include: Runny nose that lasts longer than 10 to 14 days. Nasal fluid may become thick green, yellow, or blood-tinged. Nighttime cough Occasional daytime cough Swelling around the eyes Symptoms of sinusitis in older children may include: Runny nose or cold symptoms that last longer than 10 to 14 days Nasal fluid that drains down the back of the throat (postnasal drip) Headache Pain over the cheek bones or over the eyes that’s worse when leaning over (sinus pain) Bad breath Cough Fever Sore throat Swelling around the eye that’s worse in the morning

      Sinusitis symptoms Haemophilus

    1. Fluoroquinolones, and a newer macrolide antibiotic such as clarithromycin or a tetracycline like doxycycline, are used in those who have severe allergies to penicillins.[49] Because of increasing resistance to amoxicillin the 2012 guideline of the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends amoxicillin-clavulanate as the initial treatment of choice for bacterial sinusitis.[50] The guidelines also recommend against other commonly used antibiotics, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, because of growing drug resistance. The FDA recommends against the use of fluoroquinolones when other options are available due to higher risks of serious side effects.[51]

      Talks about additional antibiotic treatment, also possible resistances

    2. if symptoms do not resolve within 10 days, amoxicillin is a reasonable antibiotic to use first for treatment

      Antibiotics used only for cases of bacterial sinusitis, also antibtiocis aren't needed for mild cases

    3. Recommended treatments for most cases of sinusitis include rest and drinking enough water to thin the mucus.[44] Antibiotics are not recommended for most cases.[44] Breathing low-temperature steam such as from a hot shower or gargling can relieve symptoms.[44][45] There is tentative evidence for nasal irrigation.[4] Decongestant nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline may provide relief, but these medications should not be used for more than the recommended period. Longer use may cause rebound sinusitis.[46] It is unclear if nasal irrigation, antihistamines, or decongestants work in children with acute sinusitis.[

      This is more for treating symptoms of sinusitis, but I thought this may be relevant

    4. Recommended treatments for most cases of sinusitis include rest and drinking enough water to thin the mucus.[44] Antibiotics are not recommended for most cases

      Treagment for sinusitis

    5. the most common three causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.[27] Until recently, Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterial agent to cause sinus infections. However, introduction of the H. influenza type B (Hib) vaccine has dramatically decreased H. influenza type B infections and now non-typable H. influenza (NTHI) are predominantly seen in clinics. Other sinusitis-causing bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus and other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria and, less commonly, gram negative bacteria.

      list of possible organisms that cause disease

    1. Fever (temperature higher than 100.4ºF or 38ºC, see the table for how to measure a child's temperature) (table 1)●Pulling on the ear●Fussiness or irritability●Decreased activity●Lack of appetite or difficulty eating●Vomiting or diarrhea●Draining fluid from the outer ear (called otorrhea)

      symptoms in children

    1. The most common viruses detected in the MEF in these studies were RSV, influenza viruses, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses, i.e., the same viruses that had been identified in the nasopharyngeal specimens from children with AOM.

      Viral antigens in AOM

    1. Pneumatic otoscopy is the standard of care in the diagnosis of acute and chronic otitis media. In AOM, the tympanic membrane normally demonstrates signs of inflammation, beginning with reddening of the mucosa and progressing to the formation of purulent middle ear effusion and poor tympanic mobility. The tympanic membrane may bulge in the posterior quadrants, and the superficial epithelial layer may exhibit a scalded appearance (see the image below).

      AOM clinical presentation and material for diagnosis

    1. Amoxicillin is the antibiotic of choice unless the child received it within 30 days

      Treatment, if severe

    1. Historically, the relative proportion of bacterial agents in AOM was Streptococcus pneumoniae at 40%, Haemophilus influenzae at 25% and Moraxella catarrhalis at 12%.

      bacterial agents in OM/Sinusitis

  2. May 2017
    1. lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is thought to play a role in inflammation associated with otitis media. All virulent strains produce neuraminidase and an IgA protease, but the role of these extracellular enzymes in invasion is unproven. Fimbriae increase the adherence of bacteria to human mucosal cells in vitro, and they are required for successful colonization of the nasopharynx. The Anton antigen, as defined in red blood cells, appears to be the receptor.

      Virulence for haemophilus

    1. It has several virulence factors that play a crucial role in patient infl ammatory response. Its capsule, the adhesion proteins, pili, the outer membrane proteins, the IgA1 protease and, last but not least, the lipooligosaccharide, increase the virulence of H. infl uenzae by participating actively in the host invasion the host by the microrganism.

      Virulence Factors

    1. The pathogenesis of H. influenzae infections is not completely understood, although the presence of the capsule in encapsulated type b (Hib), a serotype causing conditions such as epiglottitis, is known to be a major factor in virulence. Their capsule allows them to resist phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis in the nonimmune host. The unencapsulated strains are almost always less invasive; they can, however, produce an inflammatory response in humans, which can lead to many symptoms.

      Virulence of Haemophilus

    1. Amoxicillin, a type of penicillin, used to be the main antibiotic used for sinusitis but it has become less effective. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin, generic) has replaced amoxicillin as the antibiotic recommended for treating acute bacterial sinusitis in both children and adults. It is a type of penicillin that works against a wide spectrum of bacteria.

      Antibiotic Treatment

    2. Brain Infection


    3. The elderly are at specific risk for sinusitis. Their nasal passages tend to dry out with age. In addition, the cartilage supporting the nasal passages weakens, causing airflow changes. They also have diminished cough and gag reflexes and weakened immune systems and are at greater risk for serious respiratory infections than are young and middle-aged adults.

      Elderly risk factors

    4. Chronic sinusitis and recurrent acute sinusitis are also assocated with disorders that weaken the immune system or produce inflammation in the airways or persistent thickened stagnant mucus.

      Factors preventing sinus draining

    5. An allergic reaction to fungi is a cause of some cases of chronic rhinosinusitis. Aspergillus is the most common fungus associated with sinusitis.

      Fungal causes

    6. Bacterial sinusitis usually causes more severe symptoms and lasts longer than viral sinusitis.

      Bacterial is worse than viral

    7. However, when a cold or other viral upper respiratory infection blocks the nasal passage and prevents the sinuses from draining, bacteria can multiply within the mucus lining of the sinuses, causing sinusitis.

      Blocked drainage

    8. Viruses cause 90 – 98% of acute sinusitis cases.

      Viruses cause 90-98% of Acute Sinusitis cases

    9. Viruses are the most common cause of acute sinusitis, but bacteria are responsible for most of the serious cases.

      Sinusitis Causes

  3. onlinelibrary.wiley.com onlinelibrary.wiley.com
    1. S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and S. aureus (12, 18, 21–24, 63) (Table 1). The introduction of vaccination of children with the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 in the USA brought about a decline in the incidence of S. pneumoniae and an increase in H. influenzae in sinusitis

      Common bacterial causes

    1. The three most commonly recovered bacteria associated with otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis

      Causative Bacteria

    2. In a hospital-based study, bacteria were cultured in up to 90% of nasopharyngeal secretions and 43% of middle ear fluid obtained from patients with AOM. S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were identified in 57%, 52% and 56% of nasopharyngeal secretions respectively, and less frequently in middle ear fluid (22%, 21% and 4% respectively).

      prevalence of bacterial infections

    3. The viruses most commonly coincident with otitis media were adenovirus (70%), influenza virus types A and B (65.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 63.2%), enterovirus (62.5%), coronavirus (55.6%), rhinovirus (55.6%) and parainfluenza virus (types 1, 2 and 3; 55.3%).5 Interestingly, AOM and OME were associated with different viruses, with AOM most frequently associated with coronavirus (50%), RSV (47.4%) and adenovirus (46.5%), whereas new-onset OME occurred with influenza virus (34.5%) and enterovirus (34.4%).5 US researchers also confirmed a high frequency of association of otitis media with rhinovirus (44%) and RSV (56%).25 Among unwell children attending hospital for AOM, viruses common in URTI were detected in 35% of patients acutely ill with AOM. Among these children, the most commonly identified viruses (using viral culture) were RSV (41%), influenza (types A, B and C combined; 23%) and adenovirus (17%).24

      prevalence of viral infections

    4. Common viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection are frequently associated with AOM and new-onset OME. These include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and coronavirus. Predominant bacteria that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

      Organisms that cause otitis media

    1. Signs and symptoms AOM implies rapid onset of disease associated with one or more of the following symptoms: Otalgia Otorrhea Headache Fever Irritability Loss of appetite Vomiting Diarrhea webmd.ads2.defineAd({id:'ads-pos-1420',pos: 1420}); OME often follows an episode of AOM. Symptoms that may be indicative of OME include the following: Hearing loss Tinnitus Vertigo Otalgia

      signs and symptoms