8 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. NADH is a common biological reducing agent. NADH is an acronym for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Insetad of an anionic donor that provides a hydride to a carbonyl, NADH is actually a neutral donor. It supplies a hydride to the carbonyl under very specific circumstances. In doing so, it forms a cation, NAD+. However, NAD+ is stabilized by the fact that its nicotinamide ring is aromatic; it was not aromatic in NADH.

      NADH is a biological reducing agent. It can be used to reduce carbonyl to alcohol.

  2. Jan 2021
    1. 2.4 Å apart
      • Covalent bond length range : 1-2A
      • Hydrogen bond length range: 2.7 - 3.3 A
    2. Using spectroscopic experiments and computer simulations, Andrei Tokmakoff at the University of Chicago and colleagues show that the line between a hydrogen bond and a covalent bond is blurrier than your textbook suggests (Science 2021, DOI: 10.1126/science.abe1951) .

      Recent work on Hydrogen bonding. Andrei Tokmakoff relates hydrogen bonding to covalent bond in F-H-F(-) ion in water using Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy

  3. Dec 2020
    1. blockchain
      • Invented by Satoshi Nakamoto
      • It is a shared ledger that stores transaction details
    2. double-spending problem

      One of the two main challenges in introducing new coins into the system.

    3. asymmetric encryption schemes

      Important for the development of Bitcoins

  4. Jul 2019
  5. May 2019
    1. increased resistance toprotease degradatio

      fluorine substitution in the protein secondary structure leads to increase in the protein's resistance