28 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2018
    1. his theoryof ethics is not based on religious belief of reward and punishment in the afterlife (as was Plato’s) but on how to achieve happiness in asecular society by rational control of the emotions

      Fascinating how Greek life was revolved around debate, rhetoric, and philosophy. It is fundamental to keep your cool in debates and situations of pressure.

    2. Most enthymemes are derived from thesespecies that are particular and specific, fewer from the common [top-ics].70Just as in the case of topoi, so also in the case of enthymemes,a distinction should be made between the species and the topoifromwhich they are to be taken.

      is this saying that enthymeme revolves around the specific. I do not understand the "species" notion.

    3. for everyone thinks the laws ought torequire this, and some even adopt the practice and forbid speakingoutside the subject, as in the Areopagus too,14rightly so providing;for it is wrong to warp the jury by leading them into anger or envy or

      Is it wrong to warp the jury by leading them to anger or envy if the cause is just?

    4. Thus, one who is going to give advice on finances should knowwhat and how extensive are the revenues of the city, so that if anyhave been left out they may be added and if any are rather small theymay be increased; and all the expenses of the city as well

      Not only does this have to do with deliberation but also ethos. If you want to give advice on finances in order to have a good conversation you must be knowledgeable. Deliberation has to do with choices.

    5. he deliberative speaker[the end] is the advantageous [sympheron]83and the harmful (forsomeone urging something advises it as the better course and one dis-suading dissuades on the ground that it is worse), and he includesother factors as incidental: whether it is just or unjust, or honorable ordisgraceful; for those speaking in the law courts [the end] is the just[dikaion] and the unjust, and they make other considerations inciden-tal to these; for those praising and blaming [the end] is the honorable[kalon] and the shameful,

      Past tense speech is always looking for the blame and to discover what happened.

    6. Each of these [species] has its own “time”; for the deliberativespeaker, the future (for whether exhorting or dissuading he advisesabout future events);79for the speaker in court, the past (for he alwaysprosecutes or defends concerning what has been done); in epideicticthe present is the most important;80for all speakers praise and blamein regard to existing qualities, but they often also make use of otherthings, both reminding [the audience] of the past

      Understand what your goal is and choose the species of rhetoric that fits the occasion and model your tenses after it.

    7. Aristotle’s concept of epideictic is the most problematic of the speciesand it has remained a problem in rhetorical theory, since it becomes the category for all forms of discourse that are not specifically deliberative orjudicial.

      Species then refer to the different tenses of debate. Future, present, and past and their roles in discussion.

    8. Speeches using paradigms are not less persuasive, butthose with enthymemes excite more favorable audience reaction.

      Speeches to excite the audience then require an enthymeme. Better for a speech to use this logical persuasive technique when paired with pathos.

    9. I call a rhetorical syllo-gism an enthymeme, a rhetorical induction a paradigm. And all[speakers] produce logical persuasion by means of paradigms orenthymemes and by nothing other than these.

      These are the only way that logical persuasion can be done. Induction and enthymeme.

    10. [There is persuasion] through character whenever the speech isspoken39in such a way as to make the speaker worthy of credence; forwe believe fair-minded people to a greater extent and more quickly[than we do others],

      It is important to prove that you have practical wisdom. the audience wants to know that you have a right to know what you are talking about.

    11. it is necessary for pisteisand speeches [as a whole] to be formed on the basis of common[beliefs], as we said in the Topics25about communication with a crowd

      It is fundamental to match the beliefs of the crowd and their values when giving a speech.

    12. 3. As things are now,10those who have composed Arts of Speechhave worked on a small part of the subject; for only pisteis11are artis-tic (other things are supplementary), and these writers say nothingabout enthymemes, which is the “body” of persuasion,12while theygive most of their attention to matters external to the subject

      Enthymemes are concluding a premise where one is left out or assumed to be known. This is the majority of all persuasion and Heinrich touches on this as well. It is a syllogism with the obvious logical bridge left out.

    13. If successful,the interlocutor led the respondent into a contradiction or logically indefen-sible position by means of definition and divisions of the question or bydrawing analogies, much as Socrates is shown doing in the earlier Platonicdialogues;

      Just how Heinrich describes dealing with the very political family member at Thanksgiving.

    14. i. Inductive argument, called paradigm, or example,drawing a particular conclusion from one or moreparallelsii. Deductive argument, called enthymeme, or rhetoricalsyllogism, drawing a conclusion from stated orimplied premises

      Inductive/deductive reasoning are the only types of reasoning that we can do. Heinrich discusses this as well.

    15. It seems likelythat Aristotle taught rhetoric to the young Alexander, and if so, whathe would have taught him were practical skills in public speaking andan ability to evaluate speeches by others who came before him, withwarnings about the moral dangers inherent in rhetoric.

      The implications of rhetoric used in the wrong way are devastating. An example is Nazi Germany which became so powerful because of rhetoric. Rhetoric is deeply powerful and dangerous in the wrong hands.

    16. Logic and dialectic belong in that class. Aristotelian scholars of late antiquity and the Middle Ages regarded rhetoric as one of thesemethods or tools, largely on the basis of what is said in On Rhetoric

      Rhetoric involves every discipline.

    17. f Plato’s call for fitting the speechto the souls of the audience (1.2.3). These become Aristotle’s Bthos,or the projection of the character of the speaker as trustworthy;pathos, or consideration of the emotions of people in the audience;andlogos, inductive and deductive logical argument

      This is the origin of the fundamentals of all rhetoric.

    18. By composing speecheson such themes (as described in his Antidosisand elsewhere), hesought to condition students’ moral behavior so that they would thinkand speak noble, virtuous ideas and implement them in civic policy,thus providing a response to claims that rhetoric was an art of decep-tion and flattery

      To be able to use rhetoric to pursue actions that are moral and just is something that all of the great leaders of our time have done. Specifically Abraham Lincoln, who used the n word but in the end freed slaves. Actions speak louder than words.

    19. With this he contrasts (183b36) the educational techniqueof the sophist Gorgias in which, he says, students were assignedready-made speeches to memorize, “as though a shoemaker were totry to teach his art by presenting his apprentice with an assortment ofshoes.”

      To memorize a speech is to not be ready to adapt to the audience as you are speaking.

    20. They were, hecomplains, concerned only with judicial rhetoric and its parts andneglected deliberative oratory, a finer genre, and they gave too muchattention to arousing emotions to the neglect of logical argument.

      Pathos and ethos are the most powerful.

    21. Their rivalries and argumentscontrast with values commonly found in Middle Eastern and FarEastern cultures, where strong central governments discouraged orprevented public debate (and where organized athletics did notdevelop).

      Just how Heinrich's argues in TYFA. A society must be willing to have debates and discussions to truly be free.

    22. Thus in 347 b.c.e., inanticipation of or soon after the death of Plato, Aristotle left Athensand went first to Assos in Asia Minor and then to the island of Lesbos,where he did much of his biological research

      It is fascinating that he had an interest in biology despite being the master rhetorician.

    23. In 335 Aristotle returned to Athens andopened his own school there in the peripatos(“colonnade,” thus thename “Peripatetic” school) of the gymnasium of the Lyceum, not farfrom where the Hilton Hotel now stands

      Contrast between the grandness of the ancient versus the new creates interest in the thought being proclaimed.

  2. Sep 2018
    1. Dylan left the prison moved to write a song. In “Hurricane,” released on his 1976 album Desire, he narrates Carter’s tale of inequity in eleven linear verses: How can the life of such a manbe in the palm of some fool’s hand?To see him obviously framedcouldn’t help but make me feel ashamed to live in a landwhere justice is a game.

      This is pathos because the author articulates a powerful and heartbreaking story about a man whose life was ruined by a flawed justice system.

      In TYFA, Heinrich argues pathos relies on simplicity. The song lyrics are elementary and everyone can connect to them.

    2. When I was growing up in Morocco, my encounters with America were primarily cultural. I watched Little House on the Prairie on television, pined for Michael Jackson’s red leather jacket, and copied Prince’s dance moves

      This is an ethos appeal because the author shows a depth of knowledge in the culture of America despite being raised in a different country. His appreciation of these shows invokes practical wisdom.

    3. But familiarity with America’s culture and use of its educational resources did not translate for me into an endorsement of its foreign policy, which is why I have always found the concept of winning hearts and minds to be absurd.

      The author is attempting to augment his rhetorical character by coming across as open minded.

    4. I am an anthropologist of religion. I did my first stint of fieldwork with middle-class Londoners who identified as witches, druids, and initiates of the Western Mysteries.

      The author makes an ethos appeal by showing his practical wisdom. His academic background shows his ideas are worthy of attention.

    5. How could so many people have believed something so obviously wrong?

      In TYFA, Heinrich says to make your opponent's point seem extreme, and yours the logical and reasonable one.