97 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2020
    1. Only S5

      S5 was the only outlier, having performed the worst and did not show improvement

    2. mproved inidentificationor discrimination as a func-tion of training (see Appendix D). Improvement in iden-tificationby e

      rake-lake discrimination and oddity tasks revealed that the overall performance improved postttraining

    3. Finally, the results of minimal-pairs tests showedpositivetransferto word-initial/r/versus /1/ for onlytwo subjects, including S5, who hadperformedmostpoorly on training andposttestsofsyntheticseries

      Hypothesis confirmed only in minor part of whole group: training does provide positive transfer of AE phonemic contrasts /r-l/ when in word-initial position

    4. consistedofanidentificationfunctioninwhichall10 stimuli were labeled with less than 80%accuracyand discrimination was not above 58% correctfor any comparison pair.

      "chance" classification

    5. like-wise, general claimsaboutthe malleabilityofphoneticperceptual processes in adulthood cannot be made onthe basis of one or two specific instances

      right now the general consensus is that the adult brain plateaus in regards to SLA and it is said that plasticity or malleability slows and becomes very difficult or nearly impossible to manipulate However, this study states that not enough is known yet about the science of perceptual training to make a surefire generalization about this topic

    6. development of selective percep-tual skills that become automatic, suchthatphonologi-cally relevantphoneticparameters areabstractedanddifferentiated,whereas nondistinctive variations arefiltered out and ignored

      the brains of developing children are shaping parameters for their L1 language, choosing which phonemic contrasts are necessary to discriminate between and which phonemic contrasts are not relevant

    7. Performance on/w/-/r/

      evidence for statement above; Japanese group performed better when it came to /w-r/, because at least /w/ occurs natively in Japanese

    8. one or more phonetic variantsthatare similar to those present in the native languagemay be easier than learning a contrast in whichbothcategories are phonetically dissimilar to any nativephoneme

      speculation that speakers will have an easier experience in SLA if they are familiar with the variations of the TL

    9. The Japanese were required tolearn adistinctionbetween two phonemes, neither ofwhich are similar phonetically to any phoneme in theirlanguag

      the study comments that it is more difficult for Japanese to learn the /r-l/ distinction than it is for L1 AE speakers to perceive differences in VOT this is probably due to the fact that /r-l/ do not have a similar Japanese counterpart where native speakers might be familiar with

    10. Futurestudies

      comment on how to improve a sequel study

    11. We can speculate that subjectsmay actually havedifferentiatedthree categories duringidentificationposttests,but were unable toreportthisbecause of therestrictionto two response label

      speculated flaw in participant's range of response

    12. Theirposttestperformance remained incon-sistent for both trained-on and transfer stimulus materials

      S2 and S5 were outliers in regards to the improvement of their perceptual performance

    13. Sub-jects S2

      it was noted earlier in this article that S2 who was part of the training group was among the worst performances even posttraining, S2 still showed little improvement

    14. regardless of their pretraining perfor-mance level

      pretraining performance became irrelevant

    15. one canreadily see the positive effects of training on subsequenttests ofperceptionof synthetic seriescontrasting/r/and /1

      improvement among participants posttraining was obvious

    16. straightforward

      in order to simplify the results to provide a concise analysis of whether or not perception in the Japanese group improved, the study will classify performances with 1 of 4 descriptions

    17. identificationfunctions showed highlyconsistent labeling (>90%) of all but the two stimuliclosest to the categoryboundaryand discriminationfunctions had peaksofmost accurate discrimination forcross-category comparison pairs

      "categorical" classification

    18. no majornonmonotonicit

      "continuous" classification

    19. identificationand discrimi-nationfunctions for which performance was above thechance level (p<.01) for some stimuli,butthe identi-ficationfunctionwasnonmonotonicand discriminationpeaks were not predictable fromidentificationcategoryboundaries

      "inconsistent" classification

    20. they came to discriminate as well as orbetterthanthe Americans in tqeir pretraining perfor-mance

      discrimination ability from the Japanese group improved posttraining

    21. Althoughsubjects showed considerable vari-ability, all eight subjects improved with training


    22. gradualimprovementover sessions with thegreatestimprovementin the first several session

      common for learners to begin plateauing after early stages of SLA

    23. Althoughthere wereconsiderableindividual differ-ences inperformanceon thepretests,the foursubjectsreceivingtrainingfirst(SI-24,henceforthlabeledtheEgroup)didnotdiffer from thefourcontrol(C) sub-jects(S5-S8) as a group. However, this is because Sl andS4 were the best onpretestperception,whereas S2 andS3 were among the worst

      researchers note individual performance of pretest training group affected reliability of the observed level of perceptual ability the group had as a whole

    24. llsubjectswere given theidentificationanddiscriminationtestsoftherock-lockand rake-lake series and the minimal-pairs tests

      participants' perceptual abilities re-evaluated after training for both minimal pair sequences

    25. Eachsubjectthencompleted14 to 18trainingsessions, whichtookplace on separate days over the course ofabout3 weeks

      intensive short-term training

    26. Each subject was tested individually during train-ing sessions. The stimuli werepresentedbinaurallyover ear-phones

      technical details

    27. dentificationandodditydiscriminationtests wereconstructedseparatelyfor the rock-lock and rake-lakesyntheticseries


    28. Intonationcontourswereidenticalfor all 10stimuli

      researchers tried to minimize variability of stimuli

    29. utilizedin previousstudiesand aredescribedindetailin theoriginalreferences

      stimuli was influenced by past studies

    30. difficultyin perceiving andproducingIIIandIII

      common factor among participant group

    31. Eight female native speakers ofJapanesewererecruitedfrom a weeklyintermediate-levelEnglish-as-a-second-languageclasssponsoredby a foreignstudentsorganizationofthe Uni-versity of Minnesota.


    32. trans-feroftrainingtoperceptionofnaturalspeechstimuli

      does the training produce long-term improvements?

    33. fourothersubjectsserved as anindependentcontrol group

      control group for reference

    34. Four subjects received training immediatelyafter completing pretests

      dependent variable

    35. pretraining versus posttraining tests

      researchers will be obtaining data from the participants before they receive training and after they receive training in order to compare their perceptual abilities

    36. intensive con-versationalinstructionandproportionallyhigh everydayuse of Englishproducedvery consistentidentificationfunctions

      previous study found that perception can be improved to a degree

    37. differentiating these phonemes in AEnaturalspeechminimal pairs

      examples: if they heard rock-lock, rack-lack, rick-lick Japanese learners of English would either have great difficulty in distinguishing the words or not be able to at all

    38. /r-l/contrastis not distinctive in Japanesephonology,

      the problem

    39. How easily does a change occur?What is the nature of the change? Does improvement inthe training task with one set of stimuli transfer toother tasks andotherstimuli? Does the change in per-ception ofsyntheticspeech series transfer to tests of/r-l/ perception using real speech?

      main research questions

    40. directly study possible transfer of training effects to theperception of foreign contrasts in natural speech

      researchers note that past studies have not looked at the perception of learners as they try to differentiate phonemic contrasts in natural settings, such as day-to-day/conversation

    41. intensive conversationalinstruction(Withnative speakers) iscorrelatedwith improvedperceptionofthe foreign contrast

      conversational practice provides a lot of avenues in achieving nativelikeness

    42. Americans had difficultydifferentiatingsyntheticoraland nasal vowels/ba/-/ba/,while Hindi speakers, forwhomthe contrast is distinctive, perceived thecontrastcategorically.

      examples of other contrast difficulties to provide evidence that perceptual problems are present for other languages as well

    43. learning a newpatternofspeechproductionin a foreign language is problematic.

      lower plasticity with increase in age

    44. NativeJapanesespeakerslearningEnglishhavedifficultyperceptuallydifferentiatingtheliquidconsonantsIrlandIll,evenafterextensiveconversationalinstruction

      very well-known occurrence/perceptual problem for L1 Japanese speakers

  2. Nov 2020
    1. he neurocognitive approach and the novel word learning paradigm

      This study reveals that manipulating the activation of certain neural functions and the systems that learners use in order to retain phonological processes can lead to more successful and efficient language learning. Further study can help instructors figure out and plan which methods of training would be best in order to promote this shift in neural function.

    2. ntegrated brain network

      necessary for successful learning

    3. nformation processing

      SL have a more efficient system in order to process language or information in general

    4. SL learnersand LSL learnersrecruit different networks and hubs tohandle the same lexical task

      There is a difference between which parts of the brain the successful learners (SL) and less successful learners (LSL) utilized in order to process the exact same lexical tasks.

    5. One important area for phonological processing, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (BA 22),also showed less activation at T2 than at T1 for our learner

      Evidence that more proficiency for a second language increases activity in pSTG (post Superior Temporal Gyrus). This hints that the more proficient someone becomes, the more their brain efficiency is globalized.

    6. despite the lack of differences between learners and non-learners in their behavioral performance, their brain activation patterns differed significantly

      No evidence on behavioral level, but the fMRI scans of their neural activity showed the discrepancy between the leaner and non-learner group.

    7. The purpose of the present study was to examine neurocognitive signatures of successful learningof new vocabulary in a second languag

      main goal

    8. successful learners,compared to less successful learners, performed more accurately in all three conditions of the sounddiscrimination task at T2

      Researchers expected for the learner group to outperform the non learner group.

    9. did notcomplete the study across the six-week period

      Common occurrence in research studies for participants to not continue and complete the whole experimental period. This article mentions that any data collected from individuals that dropped out was not used in the final analysis of their findings.

    10. uSEM could be used to examine contemporaneous and lagged (sequentially) relationshipsbetween ROIs in a blocked-fMRI study, whereas euSEM is used for data from er-fMRI studies

      further explanation on the use for uSEM and euSEM

    11. uccessful learners (SL) group and less successful learners (LSL) group

      categorized into one of two groups based on response accuracy. 96% or more was considered successful and anything lower was unsuccessful.

    12. T1 equilibration

      fMRI requires machine calibration

    13. MRI images

      Main vehicle for evidence in methodology

    14. wordepicture association judgment task

      Learner group underwent an extra task where they were asked to listen to a word and identify if a picture was the correct association with the word.

    15. T and O discrimination task

      the target for this tasks was to see the participants' sensitivity to segmental features of the learned words

    16. xperimental condition

      (1) tone discrimination (2) onset discrimination (3) nonlinguistic pitch judgement and discrimination of low tone, 90 Hz vs high tone, and 100 Hz. Respectively, the conditions are T, O and P judgements.

    17. ound discriminationexperiment during the pre-training fMRI scan, and then six weeks later the post-training fMRI scan

      fMRI scans were done prior to exposure to training and then after in order for researchers to view any neural changes in the brain

    18. Their response accuracy in the recognition task during thetest phase of each training session was used to indicate their L2 learning success after that trainingsession.

      Data analysis: the data and results from the recognition test helped the researchers categorize if their L2 training was successful

    19. participants completed a recall testas well as a recognition test without feedback

      recall test and recognition test sans feedback as part of methodology

    20. judged to be perceptually natural andaccurate by four native Mandarin speakers

      judgment test by native Mandarin speakers for acceptability of pseudoword stimuli

    21. 6 monosyllables of the CVC structure

      Stimuli: 16 monosyllabic CVC pseudowords

    22. The learners underwent 18 training sessions(three per week) in six weeks and learned 48 Chinese pseudowords

      Short-term training

    23. native speakers of Englis

      English L1

    24. Thirty-nine right-handed (Snyder&Harris, 1993) healthy adults

      Participants: 39 adults (no children as plasticity would be highly varied; adults are known for lower plasticity); being right-handed is an interesting note, but means that all adults are left-brain dominant. Researchers' attempt to keep variation low and the experimental group uniform.

    25. brain connectivity

      Study focus is relationship between brain connectivity and learning success.

    26. Thus, we will perform“effective connectivity”analyses ofour data

      This study wants to build on top of past research. The focus in on not only the correlational relationship between brain activity and L2 learning but also their causal relationship.

    27. uSEM and euSEM

      unified Structural Equation Modeling and extended unified Structural Equation Modeling

    28. functional changes in the brain that occur in the L2 word learners.

      Understanding the functional changes in the brain can help identify which part(s) of the brain a "successful learner" utilizes versus what an "unsuccesful learner" is lacking.

    29. identification of the direction of influences

      The study wants to classify the types of influences rather than simple finding evidence of their presence.

    30. first goal

      First goal is to explore the the causal relationship between L2 learners and experience-dependent neural changes (this being the dependent variable). This study compares the neural changes between L2 learners and non-learners.

    31. thesuccessful learners' network, on average, had reduced local efficiency but increased global efficiency ascompared with that of the less successful learners, suggesting that a more cost-efficient network or-ganization underlies sound-to-word learning abilities for the better learners

      fMRI shows activation in a global sense in the scans of "successful" learners. Does this mean the brain to is working more efficiently?

    32. between brain localization and brain organization, and will undoubtedly lead to newinsights into the bilingual brain in the years to come.

      Article hints at possible related study to further knowledge and understanding of bilingualism. Brain localization and brain organization.

    33. learning of a second language (L2) in general is much more difficult and often less effective ascompared to learning of afirst language (L1), especially when the learning takes place later in life.

      Acknowledgement of regression of plasticity in adulthood. SLA is not impossible the older one is but does become more difficult and the retention rate is much lower.

    34. But whatchanges are taking place in the brain as learning progresses? Howcan we identify differences in brain changes that reflect successesof learning?

      Research questions Studying the changes of the brain can show and track the degree of plasticity in language learners.

    35. neuroimagingmethods especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI

      fMRI is the main tool to collect data in this specific experiment

    36. The evidence so far suggests that bilingual learners have enhanced neural activity involving thiscontrol network for the effective use of the target languages while inhibiting the unintended language.Importantly, this enhanced activity is modulated by the degree of L2 proficiency: increased proficiencytends to lead to decreased brain activity, especially in the prefrontal cortex, indicating a more efficientuse of the control network for language by the proficient bilingual

      HYPOTHESIS: Bilingual individuals' brains process language more efficiently, which in turn hints that their brains work more efficiently in a broad sense as well, not just with language.

    37. understanding distinct vs.overlapping neural systems

      examples: which areas only process language and which areas process multiple stimuli?

    38. dentify individual differences by examining the functional neuralcorrelates associated with the learning of novel L2 words before and after training

      Researchers want to look at the neural activity and mapping of pre-training and post-training in regards toe L2 learning

    39. surge of interest in neurocognitive studies

      fairly new studies, but the increase in interest shows that the evidence is promising and should be explored more

    40. native Japanese speakers

      Another case study that showed learners who were exposed to L2 training had a growth increase in the density of gray and white matter in the brain. The control group with no training exhibited no changes.

    41. These data again also suggested thatit is possible to use patterns of neural activity to differentiate good learners from poor learners

      Evidence that the data provided by recording neural activity can also indicate who is a "good" versus "poor" learner.

    42. recruited twenty-four native Chinese speakers

      Another case study used as evidence This one involved 24 native Chinese speakers being trained to learn a made-up orthography that resembles Hangul characters.

    43. tronger left posterior STG activation

      "successful learners" group indicates that increased activation here is related to phonological processing

    44. rightSTGandrightIF

      Increased activation in these areas were associated with the "less successful learners" group

    45. classified

      participants in the Hindi case study were split into either "successful learners" "less successful learners"

    46. a real word-learning task

      pragmatic tasks that simulate real-world samples rather than made-up Hindi words

    47. native English speakers to learn Hindi dental-retroflex contrasts

      cross-reference with another case study involving L1 English participants learning Hindi contrasts

    48. both the expansion of preexisting language-related areas

      analysis of fMRI information at a short-term stage, language-related areas in the brain already begin to grow

    49. six adult native speakers of English

      A small pilot case study

    50. increased tone-identification performance was associatedwith an increase in the spatial extent of activation in left superior temporal gyrus (

      fMRI provides evidence of increased neural activity in the left superior temporal gyrus as their performance increased.

    51. short-term language training studies

      Short-term language training studies are still fairly new in the field. Researchers want to explore what effects already begin to appear in the neural patterns at the short-term stage.

    52. 39 native English speakers who had no prior knowl-edge of Chinese or other tonal language

      Participants: 39 L1 English speakers, no experience with Chinese