100 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2016
    1. I also saw them develop literary understandings that led to important gains in reading and literary behaviors that en- hanced success with school literacies. But, most importantly, the boys' initiation and enactment of personal, communal, and civic social action, in re- sponse to the critical reading of contemporary re- alistic fiction, included actions that can make a difference in people's lives

      All of these things are so important for students to experience. Now that these boys have had these opportunities and have been able to relate to literature like this they will hopefully have a more open opinion when it comes to future readings than the boy did when reading Little Red Riding Hood as mentioned at the beginning of this article.

    2. This can, in turn, be a vital tool to build on existing knowledge and move the reluc- tant reader to higher levels of understanding.

      This is another really great point. Reading the responses of these boys about the unit they had been working on was truly eye opening. It's amazing how literature could open doors to young students about an issue as large as drugs.

    3. As we read and discussed the texts, it became evident that some of the boys simultaneously raised their awareness of societal issues and responded with personal, communal, and civic sensitivity, moving them to initiate and enact social action as extensions of the texts

      This is a great way to show the importance of student engagement during the lesson. These boys are now taking what they are reading and making it real and making it mean something. Now they have the ability to use books and reading as a form of help should they ever need to, and sometimes that is the best form of comforting when things are rough.

    4. groups of readers who work together to understand what they are reading while exploring their own responses will have a richer experience than when reading alon

      This is such an important part of reading develop and I believe was overlooked by many teachers for a long time. I think now with one of the Daily 5 rounds being read with someone, students are gaining a lot in this area.

    5. As they responded to the texts, the boys began to discover and supplement the fic- tional information with factual information. They began to scrutinize and interrupt the information through cause and effect, hypothesizing ideas and predictions, inferring or deciphering character traits or identifying the author's purpose, as well as bringing personal insight and their own experience to their literary interpretations

      Although not entirely related, this process is so amazing to watch. I've had the privilege of watching first graders this semester transition from reading fiction to nonfiction, and watching them develop these skills was something incredible. I'm sure this author was in awe when these boys made this progress.

    6. contempo- rary realistic literature is defined as picture books that are fictionalized narratives based on socially significant even

      Having this explanation here before the author begins explaining the results of her study is beneficial to have as a reader.

    7. As they increase their engagement with literature, these otherwise reluctant readers can increase their literary understanding and develop their literary voice into social agency to act on their own behalf and on the behalf of other

      This is a great way to encourage both strengthening of literacy skills and engagement. I could see this strategy working very well in a classroom.

    8. I know that a mind "turned off' to literature is a mind often ignored in traditional classrooms, and therefore a mind that will have fewer venues for expression.

      I think this is a great point brought up by the author. I see and hear about this often, but not necessarily in my current field placement. This is sadly the real deal in classrooms, and does need to be changed.

    9. Therefore the student's lack of engagement could lead to boredom at the very least, and aca- demic failure at wors

      This can be true for so many aspects of the academic world for students. Not only in terms of literature but everything we would teach in the classroom as teachers. If students aren't able to relate to the material on any level at all, then there is no sense in teaching because trying to teach without student engagement is not effective or an easy task.

  2. Apr 2016
    1. The author's bias influences a reader's outlook about the personal ity being presented.

      This is a large downfall of this type of reading. I still even now have a hard time deciphering what is a bias and what is not when reading historical content.

    2. In many instances the narrator is a child, and children do not always have access to adult conversations nor do they always realize the seriousness of the situa tions surrounding them; a child's point of view often contains an element of naivete as we

      This is a really great point about one of the disadvantages to learning history content in this sort of way. This combined with some "textbook" readings could and probably does make for a balanced and great social studies curriculum.

    3. An author's foreword or post script often clues the reader about the fictional aspects of the story

      This is a great way to bring readers into terms with the fictional aspects. I have never thought of this, or done it as a student.

    4. in first person narration

      This is so true, even now as a student I am so much more engaged if I'm reading something that is in first person narration than if it were to be in a textbook context.

    5. Fictionalized biographies and dia ries used in the social studies pro gram provide a wealth of material that can be evaluated by students for its accuracy and authenticit

      Fictionalized biographies are a really great way to for students to really connect with the history and social studies content. That's what is so unique about those "Who am I" Biography chapter books

    1. Any of these editions will pair well with traditional retellings, such as those by Paul Galdone

      It's so interesting how so many different "new" versions of this could still be worked in! It's amazing how many ways literature and reading can be turned into anything.

    2. but a venue for encouraging critical thinking and inter-pretive thought.

      This is a great point, and one that I could/should have included in my previous annotation.

    3. The traditional flat fairy tale pro-tagonist challenged with a problem usually prevails through some sort of magical intervention, whereas the round, well-developed character in a novel displays a level of growth or understanding through the actions, consequences, and prog-ress of the story. These fairy tale-based novels portray dynamic characters whose relationships, thoughts, feelings, endeavors, and behaviors provide the reader a certain amount of intrigue and realism in an unreal world

      I think that this idea of "blowing up" the smaller picture is such an amazing idea. A possible lesson that could be really cool for students if done correctly would be reading a picture book version of a fairy tale and then a fantasy novel of the same story. This would be a great way to teach character development and styles of writing.

    4. provide a straightforward understanding of right and wrong.

      I think sometimes this reasoning for fairy tales is sometimes over looked. As children are learning not only academics but also social behaviors, this is a great way for them to SEE and then apply.

    5. children between the ages of five and ten are the prime audi-ence of literary fairy tales

      I'm not entirely sure why, but this age group surprised me. I had always thought that fairy tales were target at a younger audience.

  3. edu307class.networkedlearningcollaborative.com edu307class.networkedlearningcollaborative.com
    1. tudents can discuss more readily through literature that seems to distance the matter

      This is a really great idea. Thinking about using fantasy literature to bring up some of those "sore subjects" is an excellent way to address the content in an age-appropriate manner.

    2. As a highly feminized profession, however, many elementary teachers were taught as young people to avoid fantasy and science fi ction.

      This is such an interesting point. I remember even in elementary school all of the science fiction books were basically reserved for boys because they were about aliens and robots but girls were lead more to the fantasy books. And this is true, I do think this would hinder female elementary teachers because we have such little exposure.

    3. Since we fi rst read the words E.B. White penned, “Where’s Papa going with that ax?” most of us understood the power of a great fantasy story. Instead of the terrible fate our small pink hero might have faced, he becomes recognized instead as “some pig” in the words of his dear friend Charlotte. Perhaps as a child you visited the Hundred Acre Wood and learned something about being a loyal friend from “a bear of little brain” named Pooh? Or maybe you have delighted with a child in your own life in Max’s “wild rumpus” that begins “where the wild things are.”

      This was such an incredible opening, it was nostalgic as a reader, and it left me eager to read the rest of the article!

    1. The second technique, that of transposing a mythical character into a modern situation (or sometimes a modern one into an ancient setting) re quires not so much information as imagination. I'm referring, for instance, to the kind of creative mental leap that allows Army veterans in my classes to envision Achilles in a trench in Vietnam as he comes to the painful realization of the ultimate waste and futility of war. The analogies that spring to students' minds are often startling, such as one inner-city woman's remark that Achilles, for all his insight, is basically a kudos junkie, hooked on honor and renown, who couldn't stop fighting if he tried

      This paragraph has probably been my favorite passage from the readings for this module!

    2. view them with detachment. But the effort is worth making, nonetheless. To sensitize my students to the subtle manipulation practiced by the popular media, I have asked them to bring into the classroom for close analysis examples of the mythic images that are our daily fare in the form of advertisements, campaign rhetoric and diplomatic jargon, film plots, folk heroes and hero ines, daily news articles and headlines, and pulp fictio

      I can only imagine this would turn out to be a really engaging and interesting lesson for students to complete. I would have never even thought of these things as a form of mythology.

    3. a myth is a symbolic structure that expresses inner drives, fears and fantasies and endows human experience with order and meanin

      This is a really useful and insightful definition that provides a great explanation.

    1. And by making them aware that myths and folktales embody more than a handful of tales about Greek gods and heroes, that they touch a core that reaches back to the roots of our evolution, we give them incisive tools that help them understand themselves and their place in the world.

      This statement is so powerful. And, I'll be the first to admit even now in my junior year of college, in an education program, I have absolutely no idea about anything in mythology (except after this module I will!!!!)

    2. . As part of a unit on Twain's novel, two days could be used to reac- quaint students with the trickster. A folktale read or recited could open the unit, something like "The Pied Piper," "Puss in Boots," a Native Ameri- can Coyote tale, or a tale about Anansi the spider from Africa.

      This is such an incredible and interesting way to create integration into the lesson. It would give students a great break from the content-specific lessons as well. Sometimes as students a break (even if we don't know it's not actually a break) from the "hard stuff" is so much of a mental boost and refreshing.

    3. ollowing a review at the end of the unit, I give an open-note test. Success on the test is directly related to students' ability to take accurate notes

      As freshman in high school, this is such an important skill. Sometimes it's easy for teachers to forget how there need to be skills taught that we take for granted (such as note taking). This should be done in multiple subjects at this age level because note taking for different subjects require different ways of notes. He is taking not only the instruction of mythology further than others, but also critical "college survival skills".

    4. Finally, publishers usually provide ex- cerpts from one, occasionally two, major works, most often The Odyssey

      This whole concept is actually very interesting. In my high school only the "smart classes" were allowed to read The Oddessy. And yes, our teachers actually labeled classes as AP the really really smart kids who could handle anything, the honors leveled classes as the smart kids, and the academic level (the majority) as underachieving.

    5. ost teachers ac- quire a BA without coming near them. Conse- quently, few high-school curricula require myth instruction because (in a tautological stance) few colleges require undergraduate coursework in it.

      I think this is a great point. So often, especially with a subject like literature if it's not somehow making us "college ready" it's deemed not important. Therefore, when we do have to encounter an aspect, such as mythology, we approach the subject with too much caution to really appreciate it. Very similar to the accounts we read about in the poetry module, actually.

    1. Realizing the limitations of read ability formulas, the writers suggest that many of the books in the sample cannot and should not be used independently by the children for whom they are intended

      This is an interesting point to read right after the previous section about the number of picture books that correlated with each grade reading abilities.

    1. orgia at the turn of the century. Check the picture book shelves for books about aging, other cultures and countries, ancient civilizations, etc.

      Again, I think students being able to see these abstract concepts come to life through the pages of picture books will help them immensely.

    2. ou, are classics in nonfiction science. Picture books also effectively reinforce basic science concept

      I fully believe that picture books are so helpful to learning science. Although science can easily be taught through charts, diagrams, and other forms of "graphics" having the science lesson imbedded within a story with characters, plot, and pictures helps students in many ways.

    3. and is a perfect pattern book for students to use when writing their own similes

      The idea of using picture books to help aide in the lessons of literary terms. I think this would be a great help to students, and plan on using a technique like this in my own future classroom.

    4. Illustrate the effect of mood by sharing Leo Lionni's Swimmy. When Swimmy is with his friends, the pictures are light and airy, but when Swimmy is left alone, the pictures turn dark and somber.

      All of these examples of picture books are great and bring up points I have never really thought about before. This is certainly something that I will be taking away from this reading!

    5. They may entice reluctant readers, nonreaders, and poor read ers

      I think this is a great point. Even though they are still young, the class I am currently doing fieldwork in (1st grade) has so many students who are struggling readers, one who does not even recognize kindergarten sight words. For her, reading is all reading the pictures, and using picture books are the way she is not separated publicly from the rest of her class.

    6. one popular children's book, Where the Wild Things Are, is written at about a sixth grade reading leve

      I am completely bewildered by this! I, like so many others apparently, was under the impression that picture books, specifically Where the Wild Things Are was geared towards the lower-age children.

  4. Mar 2016
    1. r along the way. As one 6-year-old told us, "Poet

      I think this quote from a student is a great depiction of how elementary students see poetry, and shows us why we shouldn't be afraid to teach it!

    2. ring reading time the children could sign up to tape a poem that they had practiced and felt comfortable reading.

      As I was able to see in my own experiences as a student working with poetry, recitation is a component. Up until here in the reading I didn't find this discussed, but I think preparing children and introducing them to recitation at a young age will do nothing but help them in the long run.

    3. Table 1 Daily minilesson topics

      As this whole module is dedicated to informing us how poetry should be included, taught, and worked with in a classroom these ideas are helpful and I'm glad they were included.

    4. e found that the decision of what to teach in the daily reading and writing miniles sons could not be made more than a day or two in advance.

      A great example of formative assessment to catering to what it was the children were liking or responding best to.

    5. he class had ani mated discussions about where a particular poem belonged on the bulletin board.

      I think this could probably be seen as a positive unintended effect of the unit; it proved how versatile poetry can be!

    6. s (Strickland, Morrow, & Pelovitz, 1991). They are free to share things that they have discovered and en joyed in their reading with each other.

      When reading it's so beneficial to be able to bounce ideas off each other. I still even find myself doing this with college readings. After I do an assigned reading I often still find myself either picking up my phone to text a classmate or conversing with them about what it was we read and checking my understanding.

    7. ext, a trade book is read aloud to the students by the teacher. The book is selected to illustrate some literary element (i.e., char acter development, desc

      I've never heard of books being used for something like this before, and I think it really is an awesome idea to use a designated book for one particular topic.

    8. e decided to collaborate by constructing a poetry unit.

      Perhaps collaborating on a difficult unit like poetry is a great idea. Even though most things are now done as a grade level team collaboration, I think it would be particularly helpful in a task as daunting as poetry

    1. what inspires kids to write is their teacher's dedication and attitude to ward the process"

      This is one of the things that has probably been pushed on me the most from my professors in the Education Department, and because of their consistency in teaching us future teachers this, I now realize it's importance and am glad to see it in a published work.

    2. y making time to write poetry yourself so that you can better prepare to teach the writing of poetry to students

      I think this is so important; if you are going to try and teach children poetry and to write poetry, you have to be comfortable and aware with doing it yourself first.

    3. he following are two stu dent poems that came out of that lesson.

      These two poems by students really illustrate what it is this article is working to get out. Poems don't have to be daunting at all, children can make up great poems with a scenario as simple as eating cookies or jumping on the bed! I was surprised to read these and how simple yet complex they were for some reason.

    4. eachers are encouraged to preread and mark the student text in order to determine key points for discussion.

      Not even in the terms of poetry, but as a student learning to become a teacher in general, I thought this was interesting. Often we think teachers kind of make up their discussions as we go, but this is just a reminder how important it is for teachers to come to the classroom prepared!

    5. he fundamentals of writ ing poetry will come through the imitation process.

      I think this is a great idea in getting children to write their own poetry. I guess what comes along with the innocence of childhood is the absence of fear. Children will write just to write, very few will be concerned what their classmates or teacher will think unlike older students.

    6. ittle or no original thinking is required in order to complete such scrip

      I agree, that because poetry reading, writing, and interpretation of poetry is such an individualized process and learning experience this type of instruction probably is not the most beneficial.

    7. t is sad that many teachers, particularly ele mentary school teachers, do not approach the teaching of poetry writing at all

      I think because we are not exposed to this in the early years of our schooling is part of what makes it so challenging as we reach middle and high school. Perhaps if this is something that we have been working with all along with so many of our other subjects, we would begin to see the task less daunting and abstract.

    8. o have skill in the teaching of poetry methods and conventions, as well as an understanding of how to analyze and interpret poetry

      I think I understand what they are getting at in terms of you don't have to necessarily be an expert in the "art" of poetry, but you probably have to have some amount of decent knowledge to teach it, no? Or maybe that's just me being mislead, I'm not really sure!

    9. t...enhances thinking skills, and pro motes personal connections.... Such attributes deserve a closer look.

      I still find myself struggling with poetry so often. The opportunity for open interpretation is so different than the regular "plug and chug" method of thinking we're used to it often becomes overwhelming to have to form our own opinions.

    10. o matter what our personal feelings about po etry are, as teachers we must endeavor to teach po etry to our students. P

      This is so important not only in the realm of poetry but in teaching in general. Even if maybe you don't personally love a subject, it is imperative that your students see you willing to learn and grow on your prior knowledge along with them as they learn it at the same time.

    1. who not only can read but who also choose to read for pleasure and self satisfaction

      I think the second part of this is so important, and I wish this was emphasized more in my own educational career. When students can successfully read and enjoy the benefits of it, I think they are much more well off than those who only have to read what they have to.

    2. hich skills to teach to particular children. Setting up needs groups for skill instruction is more efficient and sensible than offering blan ket instruction for all children, some of whom may already know what you are teaching.

      Although sometimes ranked grouping of students may not be the best, for phonics and reading skills I think it is so important. Since we never finish learning how to be good readers, children should never be "strung along" to keep up with the more advanced students nor should the more advanced be "dragged backwards" by those whose literacy skills are just not improving as rapidly.

    3. Research has shown that children absorb the language they hear and read, and, in time, use that language as part of their own

      I think this is very commonly overlooked, specifically the heard language part. Adults often assume that children are "sponges and absorb everything" which, is true, but repetition of adult language does not at all have to be a bad thing. If we talk around children with proper, valuable, and educated language, then them repeating us should be nothing but good.

    4. Thus, there is strong support for the value of phonics instruction

      Maybe this is my own ignorance, but I didn't even know that the benefits of phonics instruction was up for debate.

    5. phonics instruc tion and children's literature

      Combining phonics instruction and children's literature is the key. Phonics is a strong base of literacy and combining children's literature through the instruction will help students along the way.

    6. hat through repeated readalongs, assisted reading (Hoskisson, 1975), and shared-book experiences (Holdaway, 1982), many children will begin to read spontane ously

      Even though I think what he's getting at is that these methods probably don't or won't work best for teaching beginning readers, I can't help but overlook the error here. These types of learning to read are not so much reading skills, but more so memorization, which may be helpful to a degree, but does not result in reading.

    1. would have put all the words with r-controlled vowels in bold or another color

      This would be a great addition to the program; to be able to clearly identify and exemplify the goals of the lesson.

    2. Many of the characters have animations.

      Being able to literally "have the characters come to life" digitally of course, is probably so cool. Except, it may change how students think about characters. Of course, only if they were to use this tool every time. Often times as we read we create a mental representation or illustration of the characters in our heads, and if the characters become electronically manipulated it may make it so everyone has the same visions which may not allow the same "magical illusion" of reading many of us have.

    3. All of the required tools are there but young users would never be overloaded

      I think this is such a good point. There are so many tools and apps that teachers can use in the classroom to enhance educational experiences, but often there are just too many possibilities for editing and use that younger students can't work it. Or even sometimes it is too overwhelming for the teacher to think about using in front of the classroom.

  5. Feb 2016
    1. nferences

      In my experience writing conferences between both peers and teachers was so overlooked during my time in elementary school. I am glad to see so many teachers pushing for this.

    2. t the beginning of the year, the time for writing may be about 15 minutes. Later, as the children develop their writ ing fluency, the time may extend to 45 minutes.

      I understand why the allotted time increases, but it's interesting to read that it increases by so long.

    3. alking about their topics with peers provides good rehearsal, but children can easily get off task.

      Not only this, but this can also help them bounce ideas off one another and really get their brains thinking.

    4. pelling and phonics: initial and final consonants digraphs: ch, sh, th, wh r-blends: br, er, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr /-blends: bl, cl, fl, pi, si short vowels long vowels: silent e; a: ai, ay; e: ee, ea; i: y; o: oa, ow; u: ew r-controlled vowels: ar, er, ir, or, ur vowel variant

      I'd be curious what possible mini lessons could be on this topic

    5. write for a few minutes, then circulate among children to answe

      The idea of teachers modeling is so important; I've learned through my professors that students HAVE to see you struggle and work as a reader and writer, and I now realize this is so important.

    6. ach child draws an illustration about the new or ongoing topic he or she has selected to write about.

      The fact that children work best when they are able to work best when they have their mental picture represented is so overlooked by many teachers. When children are given time to get out their ideas on paper without words they can then use that as reference when they are writing, and that is an invaluable tool.

    1. RGs are made up of students who come together by choice, not assignment, to read and respond to a chosen piece of literature and develop re lated projects. The teacher meets with one LRG each day

      Not only can these types of student-selected groups help students reading abilities, but also help them develop socially. If they are able to meet people with similar interests then they may be able to make friends, and in turn may help feed a love of reading.

    2. hese activities are intended to assist students in drawing upon past experiences or schemata before reading in order to enhance comprehension.

      Before this semester I never realized just how important pre-reading activities are. Each time I do guided reading in my field placement or help the teacher with a reading check with students, it makes all the difference to have them do a "sneak peek" of the book.

    3. ost always placed into ability groups for reading instruction, a practice which can be detrimental to self-esteem and reading devel opment.

      When students know they are being ranked they certainly feel pressured. I am currently in a field placement and the students very much so know who is in the "good" reading group and who isn't, and sometimes it's frustrating for them to watch the other groups' instructional time in things like guided reading.

    4. ny times reading teachers feel chained to the basal.

      This idea that teachers feel chained to the basal becomes apparent to students. Students can very much so pick up when a teacher is not passionate or not able to convey all their wants and beliefs.

    5. hird, the teacher must communicate the importance of reading by setting an example.

      Teachers setting an example is another big deal for students. If they don't see you reading they see no point in doing it themselves.

    6. odes, i.e., writing, speaking, and listening. The classroom routine should invite children to write, respond, discuss, and become throughly involved with books?no

      I think this idea of making reading a social time is brilliant. All too often students dread reading instruction because sometimes it is far too meticulous.

    7. children spend up to 70% of allocated reading instructional time engaged in completing worksheets and workbook page

      I know for me personally when I have to complete a worksheet with reading I often don't know what I just read, I only read to make sure I got the answers correct. This whole process takes away all of the reason behind the reading.

    8. read independently only 7 to 8 minutes per day; and intermediate grade chil dren typically spent only about 15 minutes per day reading independently (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1

      The interesting thing about this is SOOO many schools now require 20 minutes of reading every night, and often the children are encouraged to read anything, even a magazine. I hope that maybe with this requirement children begin to enjoy reading and will do it without being told they have to.

    9. ) a lack of time spent reading, and 2) the use of worksheets to manage the classroom. We know that childre

      I very much agree that time spent reading can and does have an influence in the students' interest in learning to read and fluency. I still even see this in myself even today. I think this also goes hand in hand with the idea of children being able to read about things that interest them instead of just what is required for school.

    1. This student’s parents were astounded by the change in their daughter. She had been an uninterested reader and was transformed into an enthusiastic one. She began to request copies of books featuring girls in Afghanistan

      This is so encouraging to read about, being able to see the growth of a student simply because she is now able to see herself as part of the story and relatable to the character is going to really help her in the long run. Kudos to the teacher for becoming so actively involved in the fight for justice.

    2. For African American children, Rosa Parks and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. are not enough

      I think this is a particularly interesting point in that many students hear of only names like this, not the others such as writers, judges, mathematicians, etc like the article continues to expand on.

    3. rames the problem with the metaphor of “mirror” and “window” books.

      I've never heard of the "mirror" and "window" books before, and now I understand the importance.

    4. When the CCSS were open for public comment in 2010, I (Gangi) made that criticism on the CCSS website. My concerns went unacknowledged.

      It's surprising to me that an issue this important went so unnoticed. Whether the comment was supported by other readers or commenters, or not, I would hope that the creators made this huge issue of more importance, but I guess not.

    5. When the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were introduced in 2009—2010 , the literacy needs of half the children in the United States were neglected.

      The wording of this statement/statistic is incredibly powerful, and really makes you second-guess any prior opinions you may have had about the selections of the Common Core.

    1. One student commented that what might have been a good idea 200 years ago was no longer valid. Another wondered aloud why we even needed to focus so specifically on things “black.”

      The fact that students are bringing up these thoughts is so important in considering how students should be introduced/working with literature in the classroom

    2. Serve as soft role models in the absence of physically present male role models by providing motivation, direction, and hope for the future and suggesting what is worthwhile in life.

      This characteristic of a must-read text really stuck with me. The thought that some students will only be able to find this comfort in a book brings awareness to a topic that I knew existed, but selfishly didn't think much about. I am thankful that this article was able to bring this to my attention.

    3. An enabling text is one that moves beyond a sole cognitive focus—such as skill and strategy development—to include a social, cultural, political, spiritual, or economic focus.

      This type of text is something completely new to my vocabulary and knowledge

    4. particularly those students who have not mastered the skills, strategies, and knowledge that will lead to positive life outcomes

      The idea of having a relatable text helping to increase literacy is so important, and has the ability to serve as a motivator, which would obviously be incredibly helpful in helping students who are in need of the help.

    5. These adolescents must also deal with negative stereotypes in and out of school

      I remember learning about stereotype threat in a previous class I have taken, and now that I think about it, we only ever discussed stereotype threats in adults. The fact that this would be overlooked with the influence they have on children is disheartening. Never should a child feel that he or she will be/can only be less than one other because of a race, community, or socioeconomic status that they were born in to.

    1. phonological

      Understanding that the spoken language is made up of units of sound such as sentences, words, and syllables

    2. book/print awareness

      concepts of print!

    3. It is your responsibility to catch your students up to state and district standards, so you must be knowledgeable in all elementary standards to recognize what gaps need to be filled in

      I;ve never even thought about how even though we may be teaching a specific grade level there will be students who are still working to reach the expectations of the grades below. This is truly a great point

    4. having a strong foundation in literacy standards across grade levels will also make you a much stronger teacher in your own grade level

      Having the knowledge of grade levels other than your own is helpful when creating lessons and units for your year. If you know the expectations fort the grade below the grade level you are teaching, you are aware of the skills that students should have when they come to you. Knowing the expectations for the grade above your grade level is helpful because you know just how prepared and important it is for your students need to be for the year that lies ahead of them.

    1. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

      This idea of third grade students being able to explain how illustrations helps the author make his or her points apparent to readers is knowledge. The students should be able to make inferences and create understanding with reasonable explanation and support for their ideas.

    2. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

      Fifth grade students should have the ability to accurately cite and draw on the text they have read.This is a necessary skill that they will need to develop for their further education

    3. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

      A good example of a text that students can make connections between would be Alice in Wonderland in comparison to the Disney movie. There are many elements of the money that come directly from the story itself.

    4. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.9.Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories

      These two standards show the difference in skill and knowledge that a student should have from the end of kindergarten to the end of first grade. In kindergarten the student should be able to compare and contrast elements of familiar stories with prompting, but by the end of first grade students should be able to do this with all stories by only illustrations, and without any prompting. This is a good example of how the expectations work on the same skill, but become a more difficult task as the students progress through each grade.

    5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

      This is a skill that first grade students should have. They should be able to tell the difference between fiction and non fiction, and what separates them from one another.

    6. understanding of

      In order to fulfill this, second graders must demonstrate knowledge of characters, setting, and/or plot to be able to show their understanding of it.

    7. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).

      Kindergarten students need to be able to recognize the different types of texts that are available. This is a knowledge for kindergartners because it is all about sorting through different material that may be given, and is a simple identifying task.