10 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2017
    1. Neonicotinoid pesticides

      Pronounced "neo-NICK-uh-tin-oid." A large family of pesticides that is currently the most widely used type of pesticide in the world, for both commercial and home use. The "nicotin" refers to the biochemical similarities between these pesticides and nicotine, which itself evolved in plants as an herbivore repellent. Both chemicals work by affecting the nervous system and, in toxic doses, cause paralysis and death.

  2. Nov 2017
    1. imidacloprid

      Currently the most widely used pesticide in the world. It is used to control pests in agricultural crops and forests. It is also sold for home use, such as for gardening, killing household pests, and treating fleas in pets.

    2. ecosystem services

      Resources and benefits that humans receive from properly functioning environments (e.g., clean water, pollination, flood protection, waste decomposition, and recreational enjoyment).

    3. bioactive range

      The concentration of a chemical at which effects on the body can be observed.

    4. limits of quantification (LOQ)

      Different terms are used to standardize the question, "How much of chemical X does this sample contain?" The smallest concentration at which a chemical can be feasibly measured is known as the limit of detection, or LOD. The limit of quantification (LOQ) is the LOD plus any adjustment for known measurement bias or imprecision. LOQ can be thought of as the lowest LOD that can be made confidently.

      Because of different instruments and protocols, LOQs vary across studies, which may make comparison difficult. (See definition for "quantification thresholds" above.)

    5. up-regulation of nicotinic a4b2 AChRs receptors

      Neonicotinoids (and nicotine) work by [insert info about Ach]

    6. Maximum residue levels (MRLs)

      A term used in food safety by the European Commission, a legal body of the European Union: "The traces pesticides leave in treated products are called 'residues.' A maximum residue level (MRL) is the highest level of a pesticide residue that is legally tolerated in or on food or feed when pesticides are applied correctly."

    7. quantification thresholds

      Sensitivity in detecting a chemical of interest. Varying quantification thresholds make comparisons across studies difficult, because there is no standardized baseline measurement. For example, if Lab A uses an instrument that is much more sensitive than Lab B's, then Lab A may report measurements that were too low for Lab B to detect. As a result, Lab B will appear to report higher results than Lab A. (See definition for "limit of quantification (LOQ)" below.)

    8. the most widely used class

      There are two major reasons for the popularity of neonicotinoids. First, neonicotinoids bind more specifically to insect (vs. vertebrate) neuron receptors, which makes them relatively safer than other types of pesticides for birds and mammals. Second, neonicotinoids are water-soluble, which allows the chemicals to be applied to soil and taken up by growing plants instead of sprayed onto them. This prevents chemicals from being blown away by wind and, in theory, means beneficial insects won't be affected because they are not feeding directly on the plant..

    9. systemic pesticides

      Water-soluble pesticides that are able to penetrate all tissues of a plant. When these pesticides are applied to the soil, they can be absorbed and moved around via the plant's vascular system, using the same delivery system (sap) that transports and delivers nutrients.