83 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2019
    1. Hubs and bridges help connect the local with the global because they are individual metrics that are defined by how they interact with the rest of the network. On its own, a single marriage between two families might seem unremarkable, but if these are royal families marrying into some until-then disconnected foreign power, or two people marrying across faiths in a deeply religious community, one simple bridge takes on new meaning. Network analysis aids in finding these unusually connective entities en masse and with great speed, leaving the historian with more time to explore the meaning behind this connection.

      another good example of why this would be impt for historians

    2. Scale free networks usually have a few very central hubs, which themselves tend to have high betweenness centralities. That is, they sit on the shortest path between many pairs of nodes. These nodes are vulnerable points in the network; without them, information takes longer to spread or travel takes quite a bit longer. A hub in a network of books connected by how similar their content is to one another would have a different meaning entirely: the most central node would likely be an encyclopaedia, because it covers such a wide range of subjects. The meaning of these terms always change based on the dataset at hand.

      useful caution as with everything in history context is crucial

    3. a hub is a node without which the path between its neighbours would be much larger, and a bridge is an edge which connects two otherwise unconnected communities.

      think social movements

    4. A small world network is one in which the shortest path between any two random nodes grows proportionally to the logarithm of the number of nodes in the network. This means that even if the network has many, many nodes, the average shortest path between them is quite small. These networks also have a high global clustering coefficient, which is the average local clustering coefficient across all nodes.

      how to use this term properly

    5. he most convincing historical argument revolves around preferential attachment, or rich-get-richer. In a friendship network, this means that those who have a lot of friends are at a higher risk of making even more friends; they have a larger circle that can, in turn, introduce them to even more people. This positive feedback loops continues until a few people dominate the landscape in terms of connectivity. This is also true of citation networks, in that articles that already are highly cited are more likely to be seen by other scholars, and cited again in turn.

      helpful examples

    6. A historian may wish to see the evolution of transitivity across a social network to find the relative importance of introductions in forming social bonds.

      what sort of historical analysis would need this kind of evidence?

    7. Unsurprisingly, in the early modern Republic of Letters, we see this as well. The probability that a person will correspond with another in the network increases if they have a history of previous contact.

      helpful example

    8. For the historian, it is unlikely that the diameter will be more useful than the average path length on most occasions.

      helpful hint

    1. the vital connective tissue

      structures of networks to focus on here

    2. There is a tendency when using graphs to become smitten with one’s own data. Even though a graph of a few hundred nodes quickly becomes unreadable, it is often satisfying for the creator because the resulting figure is elegant and complex and may be subjectively beautiful, and the notion that the creator’s data is ‘complex’ fits just fine with the creator’s own interpretation of it. Graphs have a tendency of making a data set look sophisticated and important, without having solved the problem of enlightening the viewer.[13]

      yup you can get a "gee whiz" #dataviz pretty easily, but persuading someone of a historical argument with one is much harder

    1. an additional layer in the hermeneutic process of hypothesis formation

      which means what?

    2. exactly what data are available and how they interconnect.

      refresh your memory? What is data? How does "history" getting translated into "data"?

    1. Sometimes it might be necessary to break one of these csv files into separate text files, in order to do the next stage of your analysis. For instance, imagine that you had scraped John Adams’ diaries into a single csv file, but what you really wanted to know was the way his views on governance changed over time. This might be a question for which topic modeling (see chapter four) could be well suited; many topic modeling tools require each document (here, a diary entry) to be in its own text file.

      Isn't this what we discussed last week? Give it a go!

    1. Breaking a CSV file into separate txt files

      oh hai isn't this what we discussed in the last class? GIVE IT A GO!

    1. Because the STMT is most useful for us as historians when we have documents with dates, let us consider the workflow for getting a digitized diary off a website and into the STMT. You may wish to skip this section; you can obtain the scraped data csv from our website.

      see why I wanted the Davis Diary by date?

    1. our suspicions are confirmed:

      is this a necessary step?

    2. remove stopwords, normalize text by standardizing case, and tweak your iterations, size of topic descriptors, and the threshold at which you want to cut topics off

      what does all this mean? If you don't know, don't do it.

    1. f you are a literary scholar, you will understand what a ‘topic’ might mean perhaps rather differently than how a librarian might understand it,

      what does "topic" mean to a historian?

    2. it is possible to decompose from the entire collection of words the original distributions held in those bags and buckets.

      so how is this different than what we did with Antconc?

  2. May 2019
    1. I have relied on machine reading whenever possible before shifting to user-driven inquiries. 2.I have utilized datasets from other scholars before creating my own. 3.I have, following a methodology I first encountered in Clare Hemmings’s excellent Why Stories Matter, left all quotations from my corpora unattributed.144.I have also gone to various lengths to anonymize quotations from tweets and the Day of Digital Humanities definitions.


    1. Yet, Rosenzweig and Cohen managed to point to the digital work of only one woman: Kathryn Kish Sklar, who with Thomas Dublin developed Women and Social Movements, 1600–2000

      which still gets left out WAY too often

    1. There is room too to reexamine and rekindle older debates about the relationship between data-base and narrative, in context of lists and networks

      dh work generates more questions

    2. comes to questions of privacy or evolving identities

      digital history ethics

    3. To do so, the project takes up the listing and bibliographic historiographic strategies, as well as network graph representation strategies found in Autostrad-dle’s chart. We apply measures for inclusion and definition that let us capture his-torical contingency, uncertainty, and conflict in the archival record, and by allow-ing our code to make these measures visible to those of our readers who want to see how assertions about history are made in a digital humanities context.

      their method

    4. question of whom to list in the book and whom to leave out.

      questions of inclusion and exclusion

    5. Thus was birthed an entire genre of lesbian history writing, written by women delving into obscure archives and mouldy books to carefully compile volumes

      absences in the archives

    6. n this chapter we explore how history-making practices of radical and lesbian feminists offer a model of cultural history preservation and transmis-sion for those of us who create digital resources.

      "who create digital records" note they do NOT say "digital archive"

    7. accumulation of data and the rhetorical structuring of those data

      consider this in relation to the definition of "data" in The Historian's Macroscope

    1. the macroscope makes it easier to grasp the incredibly large. It does so through a process of compression, by selectively reducing complexity until once-obscure patterns and relationships become clear. Often, macroscopes produce textual abstractions or data visualizations in lieu of direct images.[1]

      working definition of macroscope

    1. we believe that we are now on the cusp of a third revolution in computational history.

      What do the authors mean by the “third wave” of computational engagement? How does it differ from the prior two?

  3. www.themacroscope.org www.themacroscope.org
    1. big is in the eye of the beholder

      What is Big Data and why does it matter for historians?

  4. Dec 2018
    1. Song: I didn't raise my boy to be a soldier, I brought him up to be my pride and joy. Who dares to place a musket on his shoulder, To shoot some other mother's darling boy?           Narrator: The most popular song in America in the spring of 1915 was “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier.” 700,000 copies — on 78 r.p.m. records, and as sheet music — flew out of stores. It was sung in bars and dance-halls, in concerts, schools, and in homes all across the country.

      How are gendered ideals at wartime coming into conflict in this song's lyrics?

    2. Jay Winter, Historian: The notion of military service as a kind of a test of character, a test of...of courage...is a very deep American phenomenon, to test your mettle against the harshest steel in the world was something very hard to resist for people like Alan Seeger. And I think he was characteristic of a larger group of individuals who felt that this war was one that could lead them to experience things that other human beings won’t ever know. 

      What was the notion of masculinity imbedded in volunteering to fight for France?

    3. Margaret MacMillan, Historian: There’s tremendous pressure on Wilson. What’s he going to do? People like Teddy Roosevelt are saying look, we’re cowardly. We should be in there fighting for the values we think are important and not watching Germany trample all over them. You could argue that the United States does have an interest in not seeing the continent of Europe dominated by Germany. But Wilson doesn’t like to think like this and Wilson was a deeply moral man and he believed in doing what he felt was right.

      what are the gendered aspects of cowardice?

    4. Narrator: At a hospital near the Somme battlefield, the American nurse Mary Borden often met the procession of ambulances and their cargo of grievously wounded soldiers. Voice: Mary Borden: There are no men here, so why should I be a woman? There are chests with holes as big as your fist, and pulpy thighs, shapeless; and stumps where legs once were fastened. There are eyes — eyes of sick dogs, sick cats, blind eyes, eyes of delirium; and mouths that cannot articulate; and parts of faces — the nose gone, or the jaw. There are these things, but no men; so how could I be a woman here and not die of it? Sometimes, suddenly, all in an instant, a man looks up at me from the shambles, a man's eyes signal or a voice calls “Sister! Sister!” Sometimes suddenly a smile flickers on a pillow, white, blinding, burning, and I die of it. I feel myself dying again. It is impossible to be a woman here. One must be dead.

      What do you think Borden means by "why should I be a woman?" How does her attitude differ from the propaganda images of nurses.

    5. Anxious to cultivate the influence of the peace movement, Wilson sent Jane Addams five dozen long stem roses, and asked for her endorsement.  Michael Kazin, Historian: Addams is a life-long Republican. And so it’s a big step for her to support Wilson. But she believes that Wilson is certainly a peacemaker. He wants to be a peacemaker she believes. She wants to give him a chance to be a peacemaker, where she has no trust whatsoever in the current leadership of the Republican Party. Narrator: As the campaign picked up speed in the fall of 1916, Wilson often appeared with his most fervent supporter by his side: his new wife, Edith Bolling Galt. They had met the previous spring, only two months before the crisis over the sinking of the Lusitania. A. Scott Berg, Writer: He was driving the streets with his doctor and closest friend at that time, who waved hello to this woman on the street. And Wilson suddenly turned and said, who is that beautiful woman? Narrator: Edith Galt was a vivacious, well-to-do Washington widow. Wilson would spend the next six months trying to win her affection.    A. Scott Berg, Writer: It took up a lot of his time, maybe it took up too much of his time. . . .  He was bewitched. There were days he was writing three or four love letters to her. Narrator: "You have invited me to make myself the master of your life and heart,” the President wrote, “the rest is now as certain as that God made us.” “This is my pledge, Dearest One,” she replied. “No matter whether the wine be bitter or sweet we will share it together and find happiness in the comradeship.” A. Scott Berg, Writer: Edith Galt had this incredibly tonic effect on the president. He came to life again. And it allowed him really to focus on his work with so much more ease. And he had somebody to share all this with. She knew part of the job of being Woodrow Wilson’s wife was to be a great promoter, was to be out there rooting for him and, and supporting him.

      what do you make of the interjection of "romance" into this documentary on war?

    6. Dan Carlin, Podcast Producer: These camps were almost like Boy Scout camps in a sense. I mean you got your friends and your football team. And this idea that we’re going to go and prepare ourselves for war is both naïve when you think about the difference between what these camps must have been like compared to what troops facing gas on the Western Front were dealing with. And yet at the same time, there was something very American about the whole idea too. Michael Kazin, Historian: The main supporters of preparedness believed the United States had to be prepared to fight against Germany. Also they believed that a strong nation had to have a strong military. And young Americans had to have a military mindset. So training, knowing how to use a gun, knowing how to conduct oneself in combat, these were important skills for any advanced, powerful nation to have.

      How did dominant forms of white masculinity feed into preparedness? How did this exclude any male who was not white?

    7. Narrator: The danger of their new occupation helped cultivate an air of reckless bravado among the pilots of the Escadrille. “If I should be killed in this war,” one of Chapman’s fellow pilots wrote home, “I will at least die as a man should.” Michael Neiberg, Historian: They throw outlandish parties. They have two lion cubs, Whiskey and Soda, as their mascots. Celebrities from all over Europe want to have dinner with them, want to see them. So they have this devil-may-care attitude. They don’t really need the French army’s discipline. The French army needs them more than they need the French army. They fly in their bathrobes. They do more or less whatever they want. Narrator: The Lafayette Escadrille made headlines in the United States and an American film crew arrived in France to chronicle the exploits of Victor Chapman and his fellow aviators. Voice: Victor Chapman: Dear Father, [We] roared and buzzed . . . past the camera man, up into the air. Then one at a time we rushed by him. I must say that he had nerve. . . You will see it all, I expect, sometime this summer; for it is to be given to some American cinema company in Paris Andrew Carroll, Writer: They’re very popular and regardless of what Americans felt about the war itself, these guys were in a way heroes. They were kind of like the early astronauts. Narrator: For all their fame, and often reckless bravery, the pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille understood that the odds against their survival were daunting. On June 23rd, Victor Chapman dove into a dogfight, trying to rescue some of his comrades. He shot down three German planes, before being overwhelmed, his plane riddled with bullets. He became the first American flier to give his life for France. A French friend of the Chapman’s wrote to Victor’s father shortly after his death. “I have just left the Church . . . after attending the service in honor of your son… The self sacrifice of this one who comes to us, and places himself at our side, for no other reason than to make right triumph over wrong, is worthy of . . . honor. America has sent us this sublime youth, and our gratitude for him is such that it flows back upon his country.” Richard Rubin, Writer: They were handsome, well-bred young men who went off to do what they thought was right, even though the United States didn’t want to get involved in the fight at that point. And they were flying airplanes which captured the imagination of the entire world. To this day, the image that we think of often when we think of World War I is an aviator with his goggles and his leather cap and his long silk scarf. They were a very tiny minority of any fighting force. But they were, in essence, the face that all the armies wanted to show the enemy and the world.

      How did war shape masculinity?

    8. Wharton Voice: Edith Wharton: Since leaving Paris yesterday we have passed through streets and streets of such murdered houses, through town after town spread out in its last writhings . . . deliberately erased from the earth. At worst they are like stone-yards, at best like Pompeii. But Ypres has been bombarded to death, and the outer walls of its houses are still standing, so that it presents the distant semblance of a living city, while near by it seems to be a disemboweled corpse. Every window-pane is smashed, nearly every building unroofed, and some house-fronts are sliced clean off, with the different stories exposed, as if for the stage-setting of a farce . . . and with a little church so stripped and wounded and dishonoured that it lies there by the roadside like a human victim. Narrator: In the spring of 1915, one of America’s most famous novelists embarked on a tour of the Western front. Edith Wharton had come on her own initiative to deliver medical supplies, take photographs and write letters and articles for publication back home about what she called the “dreadful realities of war.” For seven months, Wharton followed the track of the German invasion, describing the “huge tiger scratches that the [German] Beast flung over the land.” She stopped to visit French troops, who wrote “Vive L’Amérique!” in chalk on her car, and got close enough to the front lines to peer out at a dead German soldier sprawled across No Man’s Land. “I had the sense of an all-pervading, invisible power of evil,” she remembered, “a saturation of the whole landscape with some hidden vitriol of hate.” Michael Neiberg, Historian: Edith Wharton is symbolic of a lot of Americans who are living in France, already had a deep passion and interest in France, a deep love of France. They’re able to make clear exactly what’s happening. And the important thing about this is it’s coming from an American voice. Narrator: At the outset of the war, Wharton had organized a series of American hostels to shelter the wave of dislocated families pouring into Paris. In little more than a year, her relief organization had provided clothing and jobs for more than 9,000 refugees and served nearly a quarter of a million meals. She also begged Americans at home to help finance her efforts. “For heaven's sake . . .” she wrote to a friend, “proclaim everywhere, and as publicly as possible . . .what it will mean to all that we Americans cherish if England and France go under.” In June, Wharton arrived in Dunkirk immediately after the town had been shelled by the Germans. The “freshness of the havoc seemed to accentuate its cruelty,” she wrote. The hospitals in Dunkirk were struggling to absorb the casualties from artillery, but they were also confronting the effects of a shocking new weapon that had just been introduced. A month before Wharton had arrived, not far from Dunkirk, French and Canadian troops had looked across No Man’s Land and seen a greenish haze drifting towards them. Soon the unsuspecting men were writhing in agony, choking to death as chlorine gas burned their throat and lungs. In a panic, the survivors abandoned their positions. More than a thousand soldiers were killed, most of them slowly drowning as their lungs filled with fluid.

      What role did gender play in reporting on the war?

    9. Horrified by what the war had become, in April of 1915, a group of delegates from the Woman’s Peace Party set off for the International Congress of Women, in The Hague. The WPP numbered more than 40,000 women nationwide, and their goal was the creation of an internationally sanctioned framework for an end to the war. The president was Jane Addams. Helen Zoe Veit, Historian: Jane Addams was in some ways the preeminent progressive. She founded a settlement house in Chicago called Hull House that was a place where immigrants and poor people could go to get help, to get education. She toured the country as a lecturer, in the name of peace. She was one of the most visible women in America at this time. Narrator: “We do not think that by raising our hands we can make the armies cease slaughter.” Addams admitted, “[But] we do think it is fitting that women should meet and take counsel to see what may be done.” One of the peace movement’s harshest critics, former president, Theodore Roosevelt, lashed out at Addams and her fellow pacifists.  “It is base and evil to clamor for peace in the abstract,” he thundered, “when silence is kept about concrete and hideous wrongs done to humanity at this very moment.”  The women were undeterred. Roosevelt was a “barbarian”, they responded, “out of his element” and “half a century out of date. More than a thousand women, from 12 different nations, attended the conference, including representatives from Germany and Austria-Hungary. Kimberly Jensen, Historian: Addams and women from many nations gathered to say war must end, and we must not engage in this conflict. The world has come too far to allow a barbarous war like this to happen and to really destroy what we have built. She saw alliances among women across national boundaries to be a very important pathway to peace. Michael Kazin, Historian: The reason why Jane Addams and other pacifist feminists go to The Hague is to put pressure on Wilson to get involved in really backing up with actions what he’s been saying all along which is that it is the role of the United States to help mediate the war. And so in a sense this is a citizen’s peace initiative which is trying to nudge Wilson to do the right thing.   Narrator: On her return to America, Jane Addams met with Wilson six times. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: He hears from her about what she’s seen in Europe. And I think it clearly influences him by making him think that his instinct that America should have a leadership role in settling the peace is a correct one.

      How did women's pacificsm lead to involvement in politics?

    10. Narrator: Tin Pan Alley’s love affair with anti-war songs reflected the growing force and popularity of the American peace movement. In August of 1914, thousands of women, both black and white, had gathered together and marched down Fifth Avenue in silence. The Evening World reported that: “Every woman in the slow-moving line wore some badge of mourning, either a . . .  band around her sleeve or a bit of crepe fluttering at her breast,” “as a token of the black death which is hovering over the European battlefields.” Michael Kazin, Historian: The march is very silent, very somber. It’s sort of like a funeral march because they are mourning the young men who are dying in increasing numbers, after less than a month of war. The women’s march in 1914 really is the outgrowth of a very large women’s movement in America. And this is really a sign that women are going to be in the forefront of opposition to the war. Jay Winter, Historian: Pacifism on the part of men was harder because it suggested cowardice. So women could say things and act politically in a way that men couldn’t. Nancy K. Bristow, Historian: We could be the arbiter of wars. We could be those that would stop the killing. We could be those that would help find the peace.

      What were the gendered dynamics of war at play here?

    11. But the news from Belgium turned more disturbing with each passing day. Racing to keep to their invasion timetable, the Germans ruthlessly put down any resistance. Civilians were mowed down with machine guns; 14,000 buildings were deliberately destroyed. Fifteen days into the invasion, German soldiers arrived at the Belgian city of Louvain, a center of culture for centuries. Then, they burned it to the ground. Voice: Richard Harding Davis: At Louvain it was war upon the defenceless, war upon churches, colleges, shops of milliners and lace-makers: war brought to the bedside and the fireside; against women harvesting in the fields, against children in wooden shoes playing in the streets. At Louvain that night the Germans were like men after an orgy.

      What role did gender play in US propaganda about the invasion of Belgium?

    12. Women who refused to set aside their campaign for suffrage

      what is the connection between suffrage and war?

  5. Nov 2018
    1. Furthermore, several participants from my study referred to feminist conferences where feminist conference pedagogy (Saul 1992) was employed to create a collegial and inspirational space, where activism and academia intermingled

  6. Oct 2018
    1. ical established in the United States for the purpose of fearless and unbiased inquiry on all subjects." It had already been published two years under the name of The New Harmony Gazette, in Indi- ana, by Robert Dale Owen, for which Mrs. Wright had written many leading editorials, and in which she published serially " A Few Days in Athens." Sarah Josepha Hale established a ladies' magazine in Boston in 1827, which she afterward removed to Philadel

      and here

    1. In 1976, the NCAA grew tired of trying to keep up with title IX. Because of this, they decided to file a lawsuit challenging the legality of Title IX. Their basis of this lawsuit was that no collegiate athletic program was directly funded by the national government. This lawsuit was dismissed, and Title IX became more credible because for the first time, the number of undergraduate women at degree granting colleges and universities was greater than the number of men in these colleges and universities.

      King, Peter, et al. “TITLE IX TIMELINE.” Vault, Sports Illustrated, 7 May 2012, www.si.com/vault/2012/05/07/106189983/title-ix-timeline.

    2. This conference, sponsored by the discriminatory National Organization for Women (NOW), actively excluded lesbian rights. Rita Mae Brown, who once worked with NOW, promptly resigned and helped the Lavender Menace to accomplish their mission. That included not only educating and encouraging others about same-sex relations, but to oppose the discrimination lesbians often felt in the feminist movement.

      Napikoski, Linda. “Lavender Menace: the Phrase, the Group, the Controversy.” ThoughtCo., www.thoughtco.com/lavender-menace-feminism-definition-3528970. Accessed 29 Oct. 2018.

    3. Women's athletics grew a significant amount due to title XI. Women's participation in high school varsity grew from just 7 percent of all athletes being females to 41 percent. For intercollegiate athletics, women’s involvement grew from 16,000 in 1966 to over 150,000 by 2001.

      Source: Barbara Winslow. "The Impact of Title XI". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-now/impact-title-ix.

    4. "Radical Women, not content to accept a traditional role in protesting the killing of the men in their lives, sought to transform the event into a call for women power. Shulamith Firestone called for women’s unity, not simply as people who opposed the war but as women."

      Source: Barbara L. Tischler, "Antiwar Activism and Emerging Feminism in the Late 1960s: The Times They Were A' Changing." Solidarity.org. Accessed October 29, 2018. https://solidarity-us.org/atc/85/p1681/.

    5. The Young Lords Party was a Puerto Rican activist group was predominately all male leadership. The Young Lords Party emphasized on spreading Machismo. Women that were in the Young Lords Party were treated like objects, the men would ignore the women speaking to them unless they had to.

      Gilligan, Heather. "Women took on the male leadership of the radical 1960s Puerto Rican movement and (mostly) won". Timeline. (timeline.com/the-radical-puerto-rican-movement-of-the-1960s-was-way-woke-on-the-women-question-95f31217a86f0)

    6. This occupation was met with political tension, intense media coverage, and support from the general public. At its largest, the group consisted of over 400 people who occupied the island with a large majority consisting of Native American college students In 1971, the federal government removed the last group of protestors from Alcatraz, officially ending the protest.

      Hanna, Jason and Lapin, Nicole. "1969 Alcatraz Takeover 'Changed the Whole Course of History.'" CNN, 20 Nov. 2009. cnn.com/2009/CRIME/11/20/alcatraz.indian.occupation/

    7. Angela Davis became an icon for women’s liberation activists across the US. The post “Sister, you are welcome in this house” was displayed in residences and businesses as a show of support for Davis and Davis was indeed subsequently exonerated of the charges against her.

      Source: “Angela Davis Autobiography 1974” in Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature, ed. Mary Ellen Snodgrass (Infobase Learning, 2015), online.

  7. Apr 2017
    1. ewed on, and our blouses were made of dark blue material on which were sewed or pasted many white stars systematic- ally spaced. Despite the labor of this attempt to portray the flag, marchers cheerfully provided their costumes; and the section attracted much attention and drew admiration from the crowds watching the demonstration.

      Uncle Sam Brigade

    2. poster brigade

    3. A "Poster Brigade" was formed of some of the older and socially prominent members of the Equal Franchise Society whose names had publicity value. I am sure Miss Mary A. Burnham was a member of the brigade and, if my memory serves me right, Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd and Mrs. Frank Miles Day made up the rest of the "team." With a large bucket of paste and plenty of brushes, we gathered at the "Burt" Wall to begin work. The news- papers had of course been invited to send reporters and photographers, and while I did not say that the dignified ladies were going to cover a large part of the city instead of the one spot, it was not my fault if the reporters jumped to that conclusion and thought they were seeing just the beginning of a hard day's work for women unaccustomed to such strenuous labor. The women had the spirit to do an unusual job and would, I have little doubt, have prolonged their activities if it had been necessary.

      A "Poster Brigade" was formed of some of the older and socially prominent members of the Equal Franchise Society whose names had publicity value. I am sure Miss Mary A. Burnham was a member of the brigade and, if my memory serves me right, Mrs. Horatio Gates Lloyd and Mrs. Frank Miles Day made up the rest of the "team." With a large bucket of paste and plenty of brushes, we gathered at the "Burt" Wall to begin work. The news- papers had of course been invited to send reporters and photographers, and while I did not say that the dignified ladies were going to cover a large part of the city instead of the one spot, it was not my fault if the reporters jumped to that conclusion and thought they were seeing just the beginning of a hard day's work for women unaccustomed to such strenuous labor. The women had the spirit to do an unusual job and would, I have little doubt, have prolonged their activities if it had been necessary.

    4. suffrage parade in Philadel- phia May 2, 1914,

      suffrage parade in Philadel- phia May 2, 1914,

    5. February 26, 1914, the Eastern District of Pennsyl- vania moved its Headquarters from the Hale Building at Juniper and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, to the second floor of 1723 Chestnut Street.

      February 26, 1914, the Eastern District of Pennsyl- vania moved its Headquarters from the Hale Building at Juniper and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, to the second floor of 1723 Chestnut Street.

    6. June 29, 1915, friends and admirers of Dr. Shaw pre- sented her with an automobile with the intriguing name, Eastern Victory. The car was painted a gay yellow, the color that Suffragists had adopted for all of their campaigns. I

      June 29, 1915, friends and admirers of Dr. Shaw pre- sented her with an automobile with the intriguing name, Eastern Victory. The car was painted a gay yellow, the color that Suffragists had adopted for all of their campaigns. I

    7. a Roller Chair Suffrage Parade was held in Atlantic City,

      Roller Chair Suffrage Parade in AC!

    8. the "Voiceless Speech"

      The Voiceless Speech

    9. Woman Suffrage Calendars

      Woman Suffrage Calendars

    10. Woman Suffrage Playing Cards

      suffrage playing cards

    11. Mrs. Lawrence Lewis

      Mrs. Lawrence Lewis

    12. eastern district

    13. Also, when New York State had its big suffrage parade, May 4, 1912, Pennsylvania sent a delegation to take part in it. Two special railroad coaches were required to carry the group from the Keystone State.

      Collison took part in this per NY Times article

    14. Pennsylvania Suffrage News is held by HSP

    15. chalking

    16. open air

    17. PA NAWSA headquarters opened in 1910

    18. 1910 few suffrage workers

    19. Free Library of Philadelphia

  8. Feb 2017
    1. Marat


    2. our days after Marat was killed,


    3. Marat had played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in the painting The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David, which shows Marat's dead body after Corday stabbed him in his medicinal bath.

      about Marat

    1. married her son, Thomas Adolphus


    2. in her son Tom's words


    3. Two sons also became writers: her eldest surviving son, Thomas Adolphus Trollope, wrote mostly histories: The Girlhood of Catherine de Medici, History of Florence, What I Remember, Life of Pius IX, and some novels. Her fourth son Anthony Trollope became the better known and received novelist, establishing a strong reputation, especially for his serial novels such as those set in the fictional county of Barsetshire, and his political series known as the Palliser novels.

      about her sons

    4. Her first and third sons, Thomas Adolphus and Anthony, also became writers; Anthony Trollope became respected for his social novels

      about her sons

    5. about 12% of this entry is words about her sons