138 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2019
    1. “To have a second language, is to have a second soul.”

      Say it louder for the people in the back

    2. Unz’s argument won the day. Proposition 227 was voted into law with 61 percent of the vote. Now part of California’s extensive education code, the law holds that “all children in California public schools shall be taught English by being taught in English.” For the most part, that has been interpreted as: Don’t teach in Spanish. “I am in the camp that says it’s just a terrible waste,” said Patricia Gandara, an education professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. “There are all kinds of social, cognitive and tangible benefits that accrue to those with more than one language. It’s a terrible loss.”

      While there may be some complications in learning a second language, it can do nothing but expand one's mindset and increase intelligence.

    3. Teaching academic subjects in Spanish, or any foreign language, has been widely understood to be illegal in California since 1998. Proposition 227 appeared on the June ballot that year, offering voters a chance to weigh in on whether or not students should be taught primarily in English in public schools.

      I find it irrational how people will do anything to not open their minds to other cultures and ways of life

    1. Friends, this election is about more than who gets what. It is about who we are. It is about what we believe and what we stand for as Americans. There is a religious war going on in this country. It is a cultural war, as critical to the kind of nation we shall be as the Cold War itself. For this war is for the soul of America. And in that struggle for the soul of America, Clinton & Clinton are on the other side, and George Bush is on our side. And so to the Buchanan Brigades out there, we have to come home and stand beside George Bush.

      He stands for hatred towards certain groups of people and the world could use less people like him

    2. Pat Buchanan was a conservative journalist who worked in the Nixon and Reagan administrations before running for the Republican presidential nomination in 1992. Although he lost the nomination to George H.W. Bush, he was invited to speak at that year’s Republican National Convention, where he delivered a fiery address criticizing liberals and declaring a “culture war” at the heart of American life.

      Anybody who stands against the freedom of others does not deserve an opinion

    1. Many of the last century's major advances — from labor laws to civil rights to environmental protections — owe less to the politicians who haggled over the endgame of reform and more to the movements that put these social issues on the map, often via insistent and disruptive demonstrations.

      The people made a voice for themselves instead of the politicians being the voice for them

    2. Conservative presidential hopefuls have pledged to reverse these measures. But, as Rove warned, the ever-growing Latino voting bloc now puts conservatives in an impossible bind. If right-wing candidates appeal to the anti-immigrant extreme in an attempt to win primary contests, they enter general elections facing an energized bloc of immigrant-rights supporters — and their anti-immigrant statements increasingly fly in the face of mainstream opinion as well.

      This issue is ongoing and the anti-immigrant statements continue to raise questions

    3. Popular uprisings, however, have ramifications that go beyond immediate legislative results. The use of nonviolent sacrifice, disruption and escalation can alter the climate of political debate. These strategies can change an issue seen by politicians as inconvenient or untimely into a matter that can no longer be ignored.

      Certain measures have to be taken for voices to be heard or created

    4. Despite these remarkable turnout figures, the importance of these demonstrations is not always acknowledged.

      They are never acknowledged because news sources do not seem to cover these kinds of events.

    1. Official pronouncements of the advance in the status of women hide not only the reality of this dangerous decline, but the fact that nothing is being done to stop it.

      Same thing with minorities, the injustice needs to come to an end

    2. With a life span lengthened to nearly 75 years it is no longer either necessary or possible for women to devote the greatest part of their lives to child-rearing; yet childbearing and rearing which continues to be a most important part of most women’s lives — still is used to justify barring women from equal professional and economic participation and advance.

      It is known that women outlive men

    3. the conditions that now prevent women from enjoying the equality of opportunity and freedom of which is their right, as individual Americans, and as human beings.

      The same boundaries affect minorities, starting to seem like nobody can win

    4. NOW is dedicated to the proposition that women, first and foremost, are human beings, who like all other people in our society, must have the chance to develop their fullest human potential.

      Equality for all is the key to strengthening the nation

  2. Apr 2019
    1. I suffer from the stigma attached to being diagnosed with this disease

      The misinformation being distributed negatively impacts carriers of the disease

    2. But since that time, because of a lot of the misinformation and often hysterical coverage in the media, I know a number of people who refuse to identify themselves to their community, even to their family, as having the syndrome, because there is such tremendous stigma and isolation attached to it

      Having the disease made it difficult for members of the gay community to want to further associate themselves with it

    3. I believe that gay organizations across the country should be given more information concerning guidelines that can be disseminated to the gay community in terms of—in terms of ways that gay men can protect themselves from the disease, rather than causing the paranoia and hysteria that the information that has been disseminated so far caused.

      This information he is calling for should have been distributed from the jump

    4. The main problem is there is no new information. It is a rehash over and over and over again of the same information.

      You can't solve a problem or begin to make progress if you are stuck with the same information that wasn't enough to begin with

    1. Our people are losing that faith, not only in government itself but in the ability as citizens to serve as the ultimate rulers and shapers of our democracy.

      One could tie the same concept to the present day

    2. It is the idea which founded our nation and has guided our development as a people. Confidence in the future has supported everything else — public institutions and private enterprise, our own families, and the very Constitution of the United States. Confidence has defined our course and has served as a link between generations. We’ve always believed in something called progress. We’ve always had a faith that the days of our children would be better than our own.

      Peoples' hope and optimism along with perseverance have brought about positive change throughout US history

    3. The erosion of our confidence in the future is threatening to destroy the social and the political fabric of America.

      As confidence in the future wears out, social and political advancement becomes more difficult to achieve

    4. But after listening to the American people I have been reminded again that all the legislation in the world can’t fix what’s wrong with America.

      The fight for a united nation is never ending

    1. And we establisheda model clinic, all services. Mental health—oh yeah, we needed mental health, after being homeless on our own reservation for about a hundred years, we were way up there. Dental services, but the first thing that we pushed for was OB, gynecology, protection for our unborn, protection for our newborns, protection for our children. And a school that goes from early childhood education, through to the twelfthgrade.

      they did all of this without the help of the government since they decided to ignore their call for help

    2. And at the same time we began preparing line item requests for federal appropriations for our clinic and school because the Bureauof Indian Affairs and Indian Health were denying us services and didn’twant to be bothered

      the government neglected and showed no interest to Indian matters

    3. Boldtdecision

      allocated 50 percent of the annual catch to treaty tribes, which enraged other fishermen

    4. our right to educational and health services is a treaty right

      Not considered a natural right for Native Americans

    1. That’s why they were going to award me a Purple Heart because of my — when I got hit. And I couldn’t accept it. I told them I would not accept because I felt that my wound was nothing compared to what I had seen. I didn’t feel worthy of it. So I declined that — I declined that — that Purple Heart. I just felt very unworthy, even today. I always felt that I made the right decision and the right — to this very day.

      This selfless action makes me respect this man because despite nearly getting killed, he put his pride to the side and focused on the bigger picture, which led him to believe that he was not worthy of the award, even though I think he is

    2. I was losing a lot of my friends and I asked God to take me, not to take them.

      I can't imagine seeing my friends die right before my eyes and I still pray for each one of them I also can't imagine the pain their families must have felt

    3. And they were, you know, without their limbs and their eyes and at that moment, you know, I — at that moment I — I wanted to lose — it was — I had to make a quick decision. Either I would — (spoke Spanish) — I was about to lose my mind or take it all, you know. And so it was a moment of seconds I decided to take all the pain, what I was seeing inside of me. It’s there in front of me. So I just told myself, I’ll just take everything that I’m seeing. So that’s how I was able to keep my sanity. And I — (spoke Spanish) — I was real young and that was the first trauma that I — that I faced.

      This hits deep man. All this at the young age of 19. Makes you appreciate life for what it is and makes you show love to these people

    4. When I first arrived, I arrived in Da Nang. And I’ll never forgot because I was only 18 years young. I was — you know, I was freshly out of high school.

      Makes me put myself in his shoes because I was doing other things fresh out of hs but he was killing dudes for his country Respect

    1. Point 4 amplifies the benefits of a free nation

    2. Point 3 discusses distributing the plan everywhere in every way

    3. Point 2 calls for unity, economic prosperity, educational opportunities, institutions that serve the community, stronger self-defense, emphasis on cultural values, and achieving political liberation

    4. Point 1 refers to how people must claim and be invested into their nation in order to bring about positive change and unification

    1. Those words are a promise to every citizen that he shall share in the dignity of man. This dignity cannot be found in a man’s possessions; it cannot be found in his power, or in his position. It really rests on his right to be treated as a man equal in opportunity to all others. It says that he shall share in freedom, he shall choose his leaders, educate his children, and provide for his family according to his ability and his merits as a human being.

      With this point being made, it is clear that equality for all will keep us together as a nation

    2. And should we defeat every enemy, should we double our wealth and conquer the stars, and still be unequal to this issue, then we will have failed as a people and as a nation.

      United we stand, divided we fall

    3. At times history and fate meet at a single time in a single place to shape a turning point in man’s unending search for freedom.

      History tends to repeat itself, so we might have something to look forward to

    1. Ultimately, it grew too much for Hazel. She cut off ties with Elizabeth

      When things go south, some people tend to fold on the ones that would stay solid throughout every struggle. Hazel was one of those people

    2. Secretly, Hazel always hoped some reporter would track her down and write about how she’d changed.

      She did all that for clout, people really did not know how to act back then

    3. Still, Hazel never stopped thinking about the picture and making amends for it. She severed what had been her ironclad ties to an intolerant church. She taught mothering skills to unmarried black women, and took underprivileged black teenagers on field trips. She frequented the black history section at the local Barnes & Noble, buying books by Cornel West and Shelby Steele and the companion volume to Eyes on the Prize. She’d argue with her mother on racial topics, defending relatives who’d intermarried.

      Solid proof that people can change if they are determined to do so, this should serve as inspiration for the ignorant.

    4. If anyone in the picture, which reverberated throughout the world that day and in history books ever since, should feel aggrieved, it’s of course Elizabeth Eckford.

      She experienced racism at its peak, with people following her in hatred and resentment

    1. In this friendly, freedo11i-lovin[!;· land of ozirs-Beer belongs.,. erqoy it!

      I guess beer was popular enough without the ads that they didn't need to try on this one

    2. l'O< a Caci, )'OCI CllA OVftl Sh'O lhl> •petk!h>i drlalc 10 bahlts-•od whboul •llY qualma. Lou or,_,,.,. do 1 .... tluoll lu1t .....S Ille ln.,...U...i. on lho 7-Up boll lo o.od you'U °" wily. We'nt ptOUd to ll>t tlwm (« ,._ 1 .. po<Uoa. ..... ttic...th ~~ doa"l "'I""" lhlo.., ..Cl d.nnb.

      One of the ingredients in 7up at that time was lithium

    3. Television will carry new thoughts, new hopes, new products into millions of homes. It will stir men's minds and hearts in a matter of moments. We will watch the truly wonderful tomorrow take shape before our eyes.

      Crazy how television is now filled with unreliable news sources and most media no longer focuses on worldly issues that truly matter

    4. A portable radio is a present with a future ... a gift of happiness.

      Who would have known that online streaming (and even bootlegging) would have killed the radio

    1. The effects of the atomic bomb were described as if ducking and covering would ultimately be pointless

    2. Most of the video is the narrator describing how bad an atomic bomb would mess you up

    3. I'm impressed with how the video creators found a way to stretch out "duck and cover" instructions for 9 minutes and 15 seconds

    1. enclave

      a portion of territory within or surrounded by a larger territory whose inhabitants are culturally or ethnically distinct

    2. 'vices

      Again, due to the quotations one can assume some extraordinary illegal activities were not enforced

    3. 'relocation centers'

      I'm assuming living conditions were poor in these areas due to the quotations

    4. inviolable

      never to be broken, infringed, or dishonored

    1. As a consequence, dialects were different among the code talkers and were detrimental to effective communication between units.

      As a result national security could have potentially been jeopardized if the proper adjustments and modifications had not been made in time

    2. It stressed the complexity of the Navajo language and the fact that it remained mostly "'unwritten' because an alphabet or other symbols of purely native origin" did not exist, with the exception of adaptations by American scholars, anthropologists, and Franciscan Fathers, who compiled a Navajo dictionary.

      This made codes difficult for the enemy to decipher and gave America the upper hand in war

    3. code talkers

      Pioneered by the Cherokee and Choctaw during WWI

    4. On the battlefield, maintaining military secrecy went far beyond poster campaigns because it was essential for victory, and breaking enemy codes was necessary to gain the advantage and shorten the war

      Outsmarting the enemy as subtle as possible is vital to the national security of the American people

    1. There is a mysterious cycle in human events. To some generations much is given. Of other generations much is expected. This generation of Americans has a rendezvous with destiny.

      Roosevelt's ideas can be applied to present times because he is right - history is doomed to repeat itself and people need to know how to act accordingly

    2. Necessitous men are not free men

      This is true because people can need something and still be unable to obtain whatever they need

    3. In their blindness they forget what the Flag and the Constitution stand for.

      This very blindness was referenced in American Yawp Chapter 21, "Emma Goldman on Patriotism" (Week 6) Roosevelt makes it clear that he is aware of this situation and further appeals to his credibility.

    4. Governments can err, Presidents do make mistakes, but the immortal Dante tells us that divine justice weighs the sins of the cold-blooded and the sins of the warm-hearted in different scales.

      Everything will fall into its own place in its own way so judging the mistakes of others is basically pointless

    1. A self-made man who seemed to have little sympathy for those who couldn’t pull off the same trick. For men who hadn’t made their fortunes by 40, for families who’d lost everything. Who had nothing.

      This defeats the purpose of leading a country - I guess his policies and goals were for people who could keep up with his success, not for those who needed the leadership more

    2. Hemade sure the hungry were fed, hemade sure thehomeless were housed. Then seemed constitutionally incapable of doing the same at home

      This is an example of hypocrisy and how his actions differ from what his image is made to be

    3. Sleeping in shacks of tin and plywood, and cardboardthey called “Hoovervilles.” Sleeping under newspapers they called “Hoover blankets.” Cooking rodents and roadkill they called “Hoover hogs,” over fires in barrels like you’ve seen in the movies and cartoons, but were real, and were everywhere

      Crazy how fast people can change their attitudes towards somebody, things went from love to hatred in 2 seconds

    4. And if someone had done so much good, so well,and if that person had come with an all-American story, an orphan, a self-proclaimed “self-made man,” a savior of the starving, and thedrowning, who wouldn’t want that person to be president?

      He stated this using a rhetorical question in order to smoothly transition into his next point

    1. "I will train you at home" you don't really see many advertisements saying that these days

    2. It phases me how people looked at these innovations and thought to themselves that this was the future of how society would be

    3. It was strongly believed at this time that Bayer Aspirin pills were the cure to everything and back then people even sold fake pills for a quick profit

    1. The kind of patriotism we represent is the kind of patriotism which loves America with open eyes.

      Those open eyes overlook any or all problems because of how much love one could possess for his/her country

    1. Our race, this organization, has established itself in Nigeria, West Africa, and it endeavors to do all possible to develop that Negro country to become a great industrial and commercial commonwealth.

      Creating a society separate from the one that showed so much hate would be the biggest step towards living a better lifestyle

    2. If you believe that the Negro has a soul, if you believe that the Negro is a man, if you believe the Negro was endowed with the senses commonly given to other men by the Creator, then you must acknowledge that what other men have done, Negroes can do.

      Another call for equality, his plan to establish a government in Africa would improve the living conditions of African-Americans

    3. We of the Universal Negro Improvement Association are raising the cry of “Africa for the Africans,” those at home and those abroad.

      Speaking on justice for the black community and for them to unite to make change happen as a unit

  3. Mar 2019
    1. ItisourcliiefdutytoprotecttheIndian'shealthandtosavehimfromprematuredeath.Beforeweeducatehim,l)eforeweconservehisproperty,weshouldsavehislife.Ifheistobeperpetuated,wemustcareforthechildren.WemuststopthetendencyoftheIndiantodiminishinnumber,andrestoreaconditionthatwillinsurehisincrease.EveryIndianhospitalbednotnecessarilyoccupiedwiththosesufferingfromdiseaseorinjuryshouldbeavailableforthemotherinchildbirth.Itisoffirstimportancethatwebegin"byreestablishingthehealthandconstitutionofIndianchildren.Educationandprotectionofpropertyarehighlyimportant,buteverythingissecondarytothebasicconditionwhichmakesfortheperpetuationoftherace.

      "before we conserve his property" this is why they want Indian babies raised properly.

    2. Sucharecordmayhelpyoutoprovesomedaythat-itisanAmericancitizen.

      The jus soli (birthright citizenship) principle can be applied here to counter any claims of the individual not being American

    3. YouareverymuchinterestedinthewelfareofIndianbabies,andIam,too.

      Sounds like he's trying too hard

    4. Itisbecausesoman}'IndianmothersfollowAvrongideasincaringfortheirchildrenthatsomanyofthemdie

      This makes me question his credibility due to lack of evidence for a bold claim

    5. MtFriends:DoyouknowthatoneIndianbabyoutofeverythreediesbeforeitis3yearsoldbecauseitdoesnothavetherightkindofcare?ThereportswhichIreceivefromsuperintendents,doctors,fieldmatrons,andothersshowthistobetrue.

      I like how the commissioner mentions these stats and claims that he has the evidence but doesn't actually display it in this text

    1. Our civilization having been itself rescued from barbarism by the patriots, martyrs and benefactors of mankind, the question now is: Shall it be imperilled? Is not Chinese immigration a harm?

      "barbarism" most likely meant anything that any non-white person did

    2. failed to protect the white population of the country

      Just goes to show how the government back then (up until who knows) would go out of its way to "protect" every white individual and their mamas from everything including the law. Any other race that posed a threat to white america underwent these kinds of policies, laws, and acts that more often than not ended up oppressing them and making their lives unbearable

    3. California and looked upon it as a race, labor and political question, which sooner or later, unless solved, would menace American institutions

      The fear is real when it comes to the Chinese potentially taking over the work force

    4. suffered acutely from labor troubles and business derangement

      Another way of saying that the Chinese took everybody's jobs

    5. Certainly not on the Pacific Coast, where the lapse of time has made still more evident the non-assimilative character of the Chinese and their undesirability as citizens

      From the jump you can tell that Phelan detests the Chinese, starting with how the Chinese do not try to conform to white American culture

    1. govornmont bas wlthdrarm lts obJcctlons horoln and, ?ocotrtr-od that cltlzenshlp be gnantedlrt ls my oplnlon unde:r tho facts as thoy are now dls-osod. the motlon should be gnantod

      Since Andrade is mostly white, the government will no longer strip him of his citizenship/rights

    2. trt ls bcll0vod tbat x x x testl-concruslvely shows that thc potitl.oncn was ln emor whonstated.e at the time of hls preJ.funln&F5r cxernrnation onLZt 1955r that hc was flfty pcn ocnt rndlan bLood,o

      Again, the Indian blood in Andrade, which is now found to be less than 2%, is what determines the status of his U.S. citizenship

    3. wheno one ls half rndian a:od halfpanlsh blood ho ls not entLtred. to nabura].lzatlon und.en thevislons of Soctlon 559, T1tle 8, of the U. So Code

      Since the Indian and Spanish genes make up most of Andrade's DNA, the U.S. Code makes it legal to prevent Andrade or any non-white individual from becoming a U.S. citizen in any way

    4. x x x men are not whlto lf the stnaln of colonod bloodthom 1s a half or a quarten, orl not lmpnobably; cven lessgovonnlng test always x x x bolng that o3 setrrmorr undor.-tand.ln

      The apparent past standard of U.S. citizenship all comes down to whether one possesses more than a quarter of white DNA within oneself

    5. naturallzatlon

      for those who didn't know/forgot "the process by which U.S. citizenship is granted to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)"

    1. We know now that there is no way out; that the “system” that was the evil offspring of public neglect and private greed has come to stay, a storm-centre forever of our civilization. Nothing is left but to make the best of a bad bargain.

      He is claiming that society pushes certain residents to live middle class or poor lives and they can do nothing except for move or accommodate themselves.

    2. In New York … the boundary line of the Other Half lies through the tenements. …

      He is claiming the rich do not know how to middle class to poor people live in New York alone, therefore bringing the "one half of the world" quote to a smaller, local scale for reference.

    3. tenements

      "A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort, but particularly a run-down apartment building or slum building" for those who don't know

    4. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below were so great, and the consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter

      Aka wars and international emergencies

    1. During about the third year of this trouble I went, in devout faith and some faint stir of hope, to a noted specialist in nervous diseases

      She refers to him as "John" in the story for those who didn't read The Yellow Wallpaper

    2. best known in the country

      She uses this to describe the specialist because his methods were ultimately ineffective

    3. alienists

      "former term for psychiatrist" for those who didn't know

    4. It was not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked

      The specialist understood that his methods were incorrect so he altered them. As a result, Gilman prevented many other patients of his from nearly going insane from his methods

    5. a still-good physique responded so promptly that he concluded there was nothing much the matter with me, and sent me home with solemn advice to “live as domestic a life as far as possible,” to “have but two hours’ intellectual life a day,” and “never to touch pen, brush, or pencil again” as long as I lived

      Nothing was wrong with Gilman to begin with and his recommendations are highly unprofessional

    1. The paint and paper look as if a boys' school had used it. It is stripped off­the paper -in great patches all around the head of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in a great place on the other side of the room low down. I never saw a worse paper in my life

      This is the worst quality of the house and it stands out so much that it is the inspiration for the title of this work

    2. Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood so long untenanted?

      These questions fuel her doubt of the summer house she and John are staying in because these factors make the house look suspicious

    3. lurid

      lurid - "very vivid in color, especially so as to create an unpleasantly harsh or unnatural effect" For those of you who didn't know

    4. There is a delicious garden

      Apparently delicious can describe more than just food, I've never read or heard the word in this context

    5. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures.

      All of John's decisions are based on scientific facts not spiritual beliefs

    6. If a physician of high standing, and one's own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression -a slight hysterical tendency -what is one to do

      What I got from this is that she's sick and her husband is saying nah and telling everybody else around her that she's good and doesn't know what she's talking about. But she believes she's sick, so she's thinking "what am I supposed to do now"

    1. She will need an education when she is grown, for then there will be fewer real Dakotas, and many more palefaces

      Education is key, and the most useful resource in navigating through a cruel world.

    2. wigwam

      I don't know what this is so I looked it up "A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a semi-permanent domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes"

    3. I hate the paleface that makes my mother cry!

      Watching her mother cry because of oppression instilled a strong feeling of hatred towards settlers and explains the resentment

    4. If the paleface does not take away from us the river we drink

      Native American mothers had to worry about the safety of their children under the oppression of settlers

    1. The result is that to the frontier the American intellect owes its striking characteristics

      This is about how settlers came into an unknown land and managed to prosper despite what they felt was against them, and thus became the foundation of American society

    2. the meeting point between savagery and civilization

      "Savagery" refers to the people that fought back when their homes and tribes were invaded

    1. If an Indian breaks the law, punish him by the law. If a white man breaks the law, punish him also.

      This concept is widely recognized on social media regarding social injustice posts because the justice system is messed up

    2. I have asked some of the Great White Chiefs where they get their authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place, while he sees white men going where they please. They cannot tell me.

      This is a "I do it because I can" kind of situation

    3. If the white man wants to live in peace with the Indian he can live in peace

      People can coexist with Native Americans, they just let prejudice obstruct such relationships from happening

    4. they all say they are my friends, and that I shall have justice, but while all their mouths talk right I do not understand why nothing is done for my people. I have heard talk and talk but nothing is done. Good words do not last long unless they amount to something.

      Chief Joseph is giving out free game to anybody reading this - the concept of people making promises they can't or never intended on keeping is an issue that is still going strong to this day

    5. I cannot understand why so many chiefs are allowed to talk so many different ways, and promise so many different things

      Lies and deception are a certain but scummy way to persuade others

    1. this was a breach of integrity and his early progressive Republican values, a disillusion of hope that permeated within the once hopeful Republican Party.

      It is clear to see that Nast is well aware of the oppression that these politicians have caused towards ethnic minorities, and he makes his hopelessness apparent by encompassing the cartoon with public declarations of prejudice

    2. After winning a hard-fought battle for abolition and civil rights, which included suffrage, Nast is angry by failed Reconstruction policies of the Republican Party

      Nast does not believe that the Reconstruction policies did any justice to African Americans for what they were put through, and believes that they were too easy to compromise with people who could care less about the African American community

    3. Those who were once oppressed (Irish) are now the oppressors

      Hatred, racism, and prejudice are learned habits. Once the stereotypes and opinions of others are spread to others, those concepts can remain eminent even if one does not discriminate

    4. Among the many stereotypes that prevailed about Chinese people, Americans considered Chinese men docile and easily manipulated, thus it was believed

      This again proves that racism is a learned habit - since a lot of American people were racist against the Chinese, the rest began to bandwagon and hate them too

    1. Many Republicans were keen to grant voting rights for freedmen in order to build a new powerful voting bloc. Some Republicans, like U.S. congressman Thaddeus Stevens, believed in racial equality, but the majority were motivated primarily by the interest of their political party.

      These sentences reveal that racism is a learned habit, as many Republicans just went with the flow for whatever their party as a whole was aiming for.

    2. In the 1868 presidential election, former Union General Ulysses S. Grant ran on a platform that proclaimed, “Let Us Have Peace,” in which he promised to protect the new status quo.

      Grant just wanted everybody to coexist and it is a mindset that many politicians promise but do not enforce

    3. While public schools were virtually nonexistent in the antebellum period, by the end of Reconstruction, every southern state had established a public school system.1

      This is important because formerly enslaved people knew that education was the key to having a voice and the key to freedom. This allows for their future generations to have an education and to live better lives.

    4. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln propelled Vice President Andrew Johnson into the executive office in April 1865. Johnson, a states’-rights, strict-constructionist, and unapologetic racist from Tennessee, offered southern states a quick restoration into the Union.

      This adds insult to injury because Lincoln was a symbol of hope to former enslaved people and to those still enslaved in certain areas due to the emancipation proclamation.

    1. Every native male citizen of the United States, every male personwho shall have acquired the rights of citizenship under or by virtue of the treaty of Queretaro, and every male naturalized citizen thereof, who shall have become suchninety days prior to any election, of the age of twenty-one years

      Anybody except for minors, women, and the Chinese could vote in the US around this point in time because of prejudice

    2. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted which may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the Legislature; nor shall any citizen, or class of citizens, be granted privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shall not be granted to all citizens.

      This can be rebuked by wealthy people with connections and who can buy their way out of any situation.

    3. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power

      A lot of politicians prioritize military spending over funding non-military civilian goods (guns-and-butter model).

    4. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments, on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right

      This concept is largely eminent in today's society because slander and libel are everywhere in the media, especially in untrustworthy media sources.

    5. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right to alter or reform the same whenever the public good may require it.

      The people's voice has been weakened by the state and people have less of a say in state policies

  4. Feb 2019
    1. As to my freedom, which you say I can have, there is nothing to be gained on that score, as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost-Marshal-General of the Department of Nashville.

      Jourdan is telling his former master that his promise of freedom means nothing since Jourdan is already a free man. Therefore, it is not enough to get him and Mandy to come back.

    2. Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you were disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you.

      Mandy and Jourdan want to see if their former master is really about what he's talking about so they're testing his word by seeing if he'll send all the money he owes them. The uneasiness in Jourdan and Mandy's trust towards their former master is strong after living as slaves for a long time.

    3. I would rather stay here and starve—and die, if it come to that—than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters.

      Jourdan is stating what any good father would do for his children. He wants to provide a better life for his children and would rather die than have them go through what he and Mandy went through.

    4. Say howdy to George Carter, and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me.

      Jourdan is bringing up how his former master shot at him twice again as a reminder that the trust between them can only be solidified if he can show evidence by sending the full wages and stating if there are schools for colored children in the area, since Jourdan wants to give his children an education.

    5. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital, but one of the neighbors told me that Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.

      Slaves really had to watch their backs 24/7 because of people like Henry. The fact that Anderson wanted to come back phases me because he has love for all the people in the home he was kept in despite being enslaved.

    1. The Civil War ended with the slaves freed, but left them without resources and hated in the land they knew.

      This is why the Freedmen's Bureau was so important to African American Southerners, it also protected them in an environment where they were unwanted and loathed.

    2. It also faced opposition from segments of the Southern white population and their political representatives at the local, state, and federal level.

      The Confederacy remained pro-slavery throughout all this because they still believed that racial inequality weakened the government, as Stephens emphasized in his speech about the Confederate Constitution

    3. In February 1866, Congress passed a second Freedmen’s Bureau Act, which extended the temporary agency’s life for two years and gave the United States Army the responsibility of protecting the civil rights of black Americans in the former Confederate states. 

      I'm surprised how before the second Freedmen's Bureau Act, the army could get away with not defending the civil rights of African Americans. Nonetheless, President Andrew Johnson vetoed it which is also surprising because he was a Democrat

    4. Cartoonist A. R. Waud honors its three years of service by portraying it as the necessary line of defense protecting black Southerners from their hostile white neighbors.

      This is the purpose of the cartoon, and it accurately depicts how helpful and important the Freedmen's Bureau was for African American Southerners.

    5. In March 3, 1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, commonly known as the Freedmen’s Bureau.

      The Freedmen's Bureau was basically the first welfare agency, and it helped newly emancipated African Americans as they restarted their lives.

    1. It is not for us to inquire into the wisdom of His ordinances or to question them. For His own purposes He has made one race to differ from another, as He has made “one star to differ from another in glory.”

      He's using religion to support enslavement of a "subordinate" race. I believe he's dragging religion into this because he thinks it would make racial inequality sound more appealing to anyone who says it isn't.

    2. In the conflict thus far, success has been on our side

      Up until the Civil War, success had been on their side. Stephens stated this in full confidence, and looked only at the benefits that slavery brought about, which allowed him to view racial inequality as a "principle."

    3. They were attempting to make things equal which the Creator had made unequal.

      Stephens is saying God (or whichever deity that y'all worship no disrespect) did not intend to make all races equal. He brings this up to defend his point about how slavery keeps the government going, and as a rebuttal towards one of the Union members in the House of Representatives who stands against slavery.

    4. It was a sandy foundation, and the idea of a Government built upon it-when the “storm came and the wind blew, it fell.”

      The "sandy foundation" mentioned is the concept of how all races are equal. Stephens stands against this notion as a devoted member of the Confederacy. Stephens' comparison of a racial equality-based government to a storm and winds knocking something over emphasizes his stance on how racial equality weakens the government.