6 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. According to the "kindling" hypothesis, when people who are genetically predisposed toward bipolar disorder experience stressful events, the stress threshold at which mood changes occur becomes progressively lower, until the episodes eventually start (and recur) spontaneously. There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to its overactivation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.[

      "Kindling" Hypothesis: With each stressful event experienced by a person with a bipolar predisposition; their stress threshold progressively deteriorates until episodes start to occur; and with each episode exaccerbating the stress response they become prolonged, spontaneous, and of greater intensity.

    2. Hypomania/Mania Differentiation:

      duration:

      • hypomanic episodes >4 days vs. mania >1 week

      intensity: no display of psychotic symptoms i.e.

      • delusions
      • hallucinations

      and does not cause SIGNIFICANT impact on the individiuals ability to socialise

    3. Environmental risk factors include a history of childhood abuse and long-term stress

      High genetic influence suggests that ones parent will almost always have the disorder

      • unstable caregiver = traumatic stress and abuse in childhood

      A child left in the care of a BPAD parent is at extremely high risk of experiencing the conditions that trigger the disorder

    4. poor eye contact with others

      this item is poorly referenced; however

      • behaviour likely display of shame/guilt
    5. During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy or irritable,

      Mania:

      • abnormally energetic
      • excited
      • irritable
      • impulse behaviour with a disregard for consequences
      • reduced need for sleep
    1. An inline tag is a special note taken while you read that's automatically converted into a tag

      Take this idea and apply it across various contexts, there's no reason for it to only be applicable within one specific application