656 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
  2. Aug 2021
  3. Nov 2019
    1. Yes, it seemed fair to evoke Joan’s reaction to my proposal. Still, my principal turned to Joan almost compulsively. My principal placed the burden of approving or rejecting my project about whiteness on a Black person, even though it was my principal’s job to sign off on the work.

      This is such a powerful example. Has anyone else been in a position where they automatically asked for a person of color's opinion before stating their own?

    2. thought he was being racially conscious by deferring to people of color—Black students in this case—when issues of race came up.

      This is part of that exhausting burden of shouldering mentioned earlier.

    3. he reacted with aversion to the idea that I might use Black Boy to provoke an exploration of white supremacy with my white students in 11th-grade English.

      Reading the work of black authors is not just about making black students feel included.

    4. Why did I act white?

      Black people hear this consistently from other black people. But it's rare for me to hear a white person ask himself this, and it's very interesting.

    5. that actually impedes the efforts of antiracism work with white people.

      People are more than lists of privileges and we are not done with the work once we've checked all of the boxes.

    6. White people are haunted by race, too, whether it is recognized or not.

      The self-doubt of not deserving advantages and privileges, imposter syndrome, guilt, shame...

    7. I worry that white folks, with eagerness to reconcile race, ignore or look past the internal conflict at the core of white racial identity.

      I think this eagerness to reconcile race refers to the strong urge to separate the individual from the atrocities of one's race, ie. not all white people. Even if logically it goes without saying that an individual isn't responsible for an entire group, the tendency is to take this very personally.

  4. Oct 2019
    1. One-stop student service advisors are responsible for creating and maintaining relationships with individual students that promote student satisfaction and reten-tion.

      Is this transformation just one step away from being managed by an OPM?

    1. With academic advising structures already in place, the opportunities to enhance such structures are limited only by the creativity and will of those charged with delivering advising.

      Perfect incubators for change

    2. a new social con-tract with students needs to be enacted so that students can fully experience and appreciate the path in higher education that they have chosen. Academic advising is at the core of implementing this new contract and is prepared to imme-diately respond with programs and student/adviser interac-tions. The purposes of academic advising accommodate all students so that they can make reasoned decisions as they set and enact the goals of their lives.

      Why and how is AA in particular in the position to face new challenges in HE?

    1. Advising systems often function through the use of data and intelligent agents, and once set up, these systems require little personal intervention to send messages and follow up with students.

      Like EAB Navigate

    2. Although providing this expertise in-house can be challenging, various global companies offer assistance in numerous subjects and across a range of available times.

      is the only way to provide round-the-clock support to hire a global 3rd party OPM?

    3. a very simple tenet to follow is that whatever student services are offered for on-campus students should be offered in an equitable fashion for online students.

      Is this realistic and/or feasible? What about services like tutoring, experiential learning/internships, career services, affinity groups, etc?

    4. we were trying to keep up with the demands of our students

      Demands as in challenges, or the demands = requests/preferences of students?

    1. You might want to subscribe to a board like this, so you never miss a question!)

      This will help with some of the immediacy issues that we sometimes feel with online courses. The downside is that notifications will come in at any time and you might feel pressure to reply right away

    2. How do you expect them to communicate with you? How will you communicate with your students? What is your commitment to them in terms of a timely response?

      This seems really obvious on the surface, but I was surprised in my very first online course how disoriented I was in terms of reaching out and asking questions

    1. Peer Reviews Using Canvas

      Can we assign a super quick peer review to participants so they can see what it looks like on the student's end?

    1. UDI can be applied to all aspects of instruction,

      Not just the learning materials, but all activities and interactions

    2. integrate practice so that other students benefit as well.

      Not designing for deficit, but instead for wholeness

    3. rather than designing for the average student, you design instruction for potential students who have broad ranges with respect to ability, disability, age, reading level, learning style, native language, race, and ethnicity.

      Design for all students

    1. It's important to think about Universal Design not only for students with disabilities, but also in regards to the various ways that students prefer to learn.

      I typically turn captions on for all video as a personal preference

    1. We recommend you split up your course content by week. This lets students see exactly what they should be paying attention to in your course

      In students' minds, courses are already divided by Weeks. The organizational structure should match what they expect.

    1. If your peers perceive  you as a "cheater" they will surely be hesitant to trust you professionally.

      I think this is a GREAT strategy and practice.

    2. Cheating demoralizes the entire class

      Even as a fellow student, I just don't care what other students do. I really don't. And it doesn't demoralize me if a fellow student cheats on their exam.....am I weird?

    3. when the assignments or exams are written like "open-book" tests, where critical thinking and applying knowledge to new scenarios is the main goal.

      I really don't see a problem with open-book tests. I suppose it depends on the subject matter...

    4. Lecture gets a bad rap

      The lecture has gotten a bad rap for some time now after the advent of online but the pendulum is beginning to swing the other way

    5. It's a lot tougher to read them with an online class

      I think this is one of the biggest reasons that faculty are apprehensive about teaching online. So much of classroom teaching is on-the-spot, spontaneous, reacting, etc.

    6. I have always had my students do group work because they need to know how to work in groups once they get into their careers.

      Allowing students to replicate real-world tasks is important

    1. the pedagogies and theories we'll learn about this week are applicable to all students!

      Have the instructors in this course taken other courses on pedagogy? I don't think we should ask lol

    2. to reflect on the changing roles of students and instructors as we move from the face-to-face environment to an online environment

      Maybe some instructors and teachers don't realize that their behavior must change moving from one environment to another

    1. Good development practice starts with honoring the work you’ve done in your course

      I love this!

    2. Your aspirations for students taking your course

      What should they take with them?

  5. Sep 2019
    1. start small. Pick one thing. When you have that down, choose another. Continue step by step,

      Just your students would

    2. Perhaps in part because online courses take so much preparation before the first day of class — ideally, all content (assessments, activities, prompts) is created in advance and in place for a turnkey experience

      I wonder how many instructors prepare week-by-week for the in-person class and attempt to do so for their online classes

    3. Even when the physical classroom is not particularly attractive, you do a lot to improve the atmosphere in the room to make it more pleasant and therefore more conducive to learning.

      Think about what would make your online classroom space more inviting, attractive, pleasant, etc.

    4. Do you look forward to communicating with your online students in the same way you look forward to interacting with students in a physical classroom?

      Is it enjoyable and/or fun or do you dread logging in and working in that space?

    5. Examples are even more crucial in online teaching.

      The more times you teach a subject online, the more examples you have to pain points and challenges that always come up for students

    6. Provide a rubric.

      This is something that students can refer to at any time during their completion and submission of the assignment

    7. clear, methodical, and intuitive

      And repetitive from one module to the next

    8. When students are taking class at home, you can’t observe when you’ve lost their attention or when your instructions aren’t clear

      And you can't immediately stop and check in with them and their understanding

    9. You can’t observe when you’ve lost their attention or when your instructions aren’t clear.

      The burden is on students more than ever to inform the instructor of their issues and struggles.

    10. Either way, experiment with providing guidance and instruction via the technology tools you have at hand.

      Demonstrate how to use the tools that are available for communication

    11. Many learning-management systems include a built-in feature to record audio and video

      Not all instructor videos have to be recorded in a sterile environment

    12. We employ humor. We vary our delivery to best effect. We pause. We raise our voices. We gesticulate for emphasis.

      Teachers may be afraid of losing that part of their identities

    13. Post a quick video to clarify misconceptions about a class topic or assignment

      This is a responsive element that adds to the liveliness and responsiveness of the course, and shows that it's not just a pre-set and pre-written set of elements.

    14. Almost none of us set out to be great online teachers when we decided to go to graduate school.

      Will this still be true 30 years from now?

    15. Most of us don’t know how to teach online or how to get better at it

      Do most of us really know how to teach in person? If so, how did we learn?

    1. Set up your Course Navigation in Canvas - this is an important step to prioritize course items for students, and hide any unused items that could cause confusion. 

      This is way more important than most people think! A bad navigation and structure can severely negatively impact the student's learning experience.

    1. Online learning requires self-discipline. You must be fairly self-directed!

      Contrary to myth, learning online is not less work

    2. It truly can take a little while to get used to “doing school” online!

      Remember this is true for your students as well!

    3. this course is not a space to debate online vs. face-to-face education.

      One is not better than the other overall, and you can do different things in each format. The point is that each mode can be effective in different ways to achieve the same objective which is learning

    4. online teaching can (and should) look substantially different due to the teacher, students, content, activities, and objectives of the course!

      There is still plenty of room for individuality in online teaching!

    5. exemplify the best practices in digital teaching

      Important to be evidence-based and driven by research of best practices

    6. The course provides you with a true student experience

      It's important to really understand how your students will experience your online course, and to put yourselves in their shoes

    7. online elements for a course on a topic of your choosing

      The skills can apply to any course you will teach

    8. with an emphasis on great digital pedagogy

      I don't know that people would necessarily know that there is different pedagogy for in-person and online

    1. This course is designed to give you an authentic experience as an online student and is not self-paced

      I think experiencing a CU Denver/Canvas course as a fully online student is such an important thing for faculty to do. They will literally feel what it's like for their students, and hopefully this will lead them to more empathetic design.

    2. planned alignments

      Why is it so important that outcome-assignment alignment be established even before the course begins? And what if the faculty is used to coming up with assignments individually each week?

    3. reflect the most important, observable impacts

      If you can't align content with one of these objectives, can it or should it be cut from the course? Is there room for "fluff"?

    4. Our course design model is a collaborative process between the instructor and an instructional designer

      Of the 3 options for designing your online course, this is the one where you have the most extensive and robust support, working in collaboration as opposed to alone.

    5. you'll want to make sure you can answer "yes" to each of the questions on this page

      This is a really great checklist tool to activate prior knowledge, verify pre-requisites, and start setting expectations of the OSM course.

    1. course map

      OSM should ideally happen after the 5-meeting CCM process

    2. with the blend of perspective, passion, and expertise that is unique to you

      This is so important and I think one of the concerns that I would have as a faculty member.

    1. Noneoftheopen-endedquestionresponsesindicatedamisperceptionintheroleofinstructionaldesigners.Norespondentsreferencedtechnologysupport,assistance,orcontentdevelopmentastheroleofaninstructionaldesigner.Instead,responsesfocusedontheprocessofdesign,thecollaborationwithaninstructionaldesigner,thebenefitsexperiencedfromworkingwithadesigner,ortheintenttocontinueworkingwithaninstructionaldesigner

      Working with an ID and using the CMM model ensure that there are no loose ends of the course dangling around unattached to anything.

    2. “throughmappingIlearnedthatmycoursesrequiredtoomuchwork.IwasabletoeliminatesomeassignmentswhichIthinkmadetheremainingonesmoremeaningful.”

      This is a huge revelation, as instructors may have a tendency to throw everything in the course and hope that the most essential parts stick....why not just present primarily the essentials?

    3. Ninety-twopercentofrespondentsindicatedthattheyintendedtocollaboratewithaninstructionaldesigneragainonacourseinthefuture

      Job security! jk jk

    4. Assuch,anactionresearchdesignfocusedonprogrameffectivenesswasthebestwaytoassesstheeffectivenessofthemodelfromtheperspectiveoffacultywhohadparticipatedininstructionaldesignusingtheCMM

      The focus was on effectiveness of the process

    5. theexperienceofbeinganonlinestudentwhilealsoequippingthemwithteachinganddevelopmentskillstocreatetheircourses.


    6. Duringthedevelopmentphase,facultywillideallyparticipateinaprofessionaldevelopmentcourse


    7. Thisistovisualizethecoursefromtheperspectiveandexperienceofstudents,

      They are taking the course for a reason, even before they know what they will be doing in the course. They know what they want to learn or what they are supposed to learn. They are waiting to find out how that will happen...

    8. Thedreamphaseencouragesthinkingbeyondthescopeofthecurrentenvironment,insteadimaginingandcastingavisionforthebestfuturebuiltonthefoundationoftheelementssharedinthediscoveryphase.

      What is your ideal operation of this class and ideal outcome?

    9. Thediscoveryphasefacilitatesanexplorationofthethingspeoplevaluemostintheircurrentenvironmentsandrelationships.

      What do you love about teaching this class?

    10. ThesedesignersseeSMEsastheteachers,contentexperts,mentors,andpractitionersthatmusthavetheirvisiblepresenceandactiveinfluenceinfusedintothecoursestheyteachtohelpstudentsimprovetheirlivesandlearning

      How do faculty see themselves in this frame when teaching in person?

    11. relationships

      How will this component reflect hiring and training of IDs under this model in terms of required skills?

    12. Expertiseinonlinelearningdesignismorevitalthanever

      More jobs and increasing job stability

    13. secondaryjobresponsibilities

      Tech consultation, LMS support

    14. limitedresourcesforstaffingcaninhibitthekindofgrowthneededforinstitutionalleaderstoeffectivelyempowerthem

      A result of this might be that instructional technologists are hired to do both jobs

    15. enthusiasmforcontinuedcollaborationwithinstructionaldesigners

      Will this contribute to a culture shift or change?

    16. Keythemesincludedanincreasedvalueandrespectfortheexpertiseoftheinstructionaldesigner,

      Do faculty know that IDs have an expertise and do they know what that expertise is?


    1. social presence has three components: affective expression, open communication and group cohesion
      • Affective
      • Open
      • Cohesive
    2. Because of their overarching perspective, tutors were more able to provide contextual explanations for unsatisfactory online interactions, and more confident in identifying productive social learning encounters.

      To help them design effective learning in the future perhaps

    3. Social interaction online can be a major source of support for students as they manage their multiple and transitioning identities.

      Social interaction provides the support that online learners need to perhaps perform and alleviate anxiety about online communication

    4. while easy access to backstage can be a valued part of the online experience, helping students manage their identities, students saw real learning benefits accrue from revealing the self:if it’s a face and a person and you know that face and you know a little bit more about them ... I think it’ll be less likely to let them down in the team work ... it’ll be less likely to leave them hanging ... not answered. (

      Developing closer relationships increased trust and perhaps ensured stronger performance in groupwork

    5. Lisa similarly concealed ‘sensitive issues’ to protect her organisation. Lisa also believed it to be more professional to hide her negative feelings from others, leading to ‘a love-hate rela-tionship with the learning teams’:

      Online groupwork can allow learners to hide their real feelings about group members and focus on the work itself instead of "making friends"

    6. Jane, for example, preferred online learning contexts to face-to-face learning, because she had time and space to present a more considered learning face:sometimes it’s kind of hard to just think in depth and be reflective at the moment ... ... I feel like I can convey a more intelligent response in writing than ... than face-to-face-interaction

      Feeling more confident about her performance and her appearance to others when she was able to practice and rehearse

    7. the only time we really interacted was when we were like put in our groups ... ... it wasn’t that structured ... so you could write ... more comfortably ... than when we were interacting in the discussion forum ... in the big group

      Having various means of social interaction that ranged from formal to informal also affected the comfort level and enjoyment

    8. The absence of face-to-face communication was felt by students such as Meg who described feelings of loneliness and dissatisfaction with the level of engagement from others. Meg considered that videocon-ferencing should therefore be a requirement for small groupwork ‘even if we don’t have it as an entire group’ despite different time zones

      I also feel that videoconferencing should be a requirement!

    9. we have a synchronous relation, because we can ask questions and we can have answers on time, and ... it’s a real conversation ...

      When the interaction is synchronous in real time, the effect on the learner is positive because of the immediacy of response and reaction, getting information right away without the delay of asynchronous discussion activities

    10. In Goffman’s terms, behaviour that appears less controllable, and therefore less easily subject to artifice or manipulation – expressions given off – can appear especially trustworthy sources of information.

      Where there is no "rehearsal" so to speak

    11. Participants’ reflections on the success of online social interactions can, therefore, help identify the characteristics of online social presence and will be discussed next

      When learners are asked to pay attention to their online interactions and to reflect on them, social presence is created through metacognition

    12. These students had therefore, a clear image of themselves as learners, a learning ‘face’ in Goffman’s (1972) terms, in which they invested feelings and wanted to perform.

      Having a clear image of themselves as learners can help prepare them for the online learning environment and perhaps alleviate some of the anxiety around online learning

    13. online practices that pro-mote embodied communication, where non-verbal information can more effectively be given off – ’tacit knowledge’ in Oztok’s (2013) terms – might achieve the kind of social pres-ence that creates mutual trust among participants and supports social learning


    14. role of the tutor (and other students) may be critical, therefore, in promoting ‘protective practices’ or ‘tact’ (Goffman, 1959; p. 25) to smooth over problematic behaviours that serve as disruptions to a shared understanding of group identity and purpose online.

      Students should absolutely be involved in this process

    15. ne groupwork, the lack of information available prevents students from easily agreeing on a ‘definition of the situation’ (Goffman, 1959; p. 24) to guide how to proceed with the task. The

      I see no reason at this point in the evolution of online learning for there to be a "lack of information".

    16. As a corollary to the challenges of performing identity online, the online learning environment provides constant access to a backstage area – no-one can see you when you do not post. Virtual face-work, rehearsed backstage, is therefore, part and parcel of learning online.

      This is in my opinion one of the great affordances of online learning.

    17. The risk involved in performing identity in writing requires students to engage in excessive virtual face-work, for example, carefully drafting submissions offline to maintain face.

      Does this excessive editing lead to better quality responses than those that might be spontaneous, improvised, and off-the-cuff?

    18. often without the capacity to edit their posts once submitted

      I would like to know what system doesn't allow editing. And I would argue that in an in-person setting, the ability to edit is not necessarily taken advantage of as much as online because once something is spoken, it's nearly impossible to "take back" because of the memory of it. Whereas, entire passages can be deleted from the online space with no one knowing about it.

    19. ‘deniable communicatio

      subtlety, nuance, innuendo, hinting

    20. dividuals perform ‘face-work’ in order to neutralise incidents that could threaten face, for example, displaying poise to avoid showing embarrassment.

      I feel like this would be so much easier to perform in an online space because of the lack of immediacy.

    21. to present oneself as one would wish would cause insecurity and anxiety. I

      Which causes more insecurity and anxiety - in-person or online? For me personally it is definitely the former, without a doubt.

    22. Goffman (1959) suggests interpersonal communication involves an ‘infinite cycle of concealment, discovery, false revelation, and rediscovery’ (p. 20), where individuals are routinely suspicious of each other’s behaviours and rely on their observations of unguarded moments to judge the truth of the situation.

      I would argue that the online space allows the learner to not have to care about these things. In other words, that there is inherent trust as opposed to an automatic distrust in person.

    23. Reduced communication also affects online students’ capacity to manage others’ impres-sions of them, and students therefore lose capacity to perform their identities online, which may be decidedly different from their sophisticated use of communication offline.

      The amount of communication is to a certain extent the choice of the online learner in terms of how much or how little they choose to participate in online discussion, for example.

      This always makes me think of how introversion and extroversion operate in the in-person classroom and whether online discussion is easier and more comfortable for some students.

    24. t individuals may surreptitiously monitor others’ behaviours, looking for ‘tells’ that contradict their expressed position, showing how they really feel – for example, a smirk that belies an explicit response

      Examples of this are the use of humor and sarcasm which is harder to "read" online

    25. In an online – predominately textual – environment, opportunities for expressions given off are much reduced.

      We only have the words on the screen and how they are used.

    26. While expressions given refer to inten-tional communication, expressions given off refer to largely non-verbal cues, which – because they are more difficult to manipulate – are considered by others a more reliable indicator of one’s state of mind, whether or not this is really true.

      Why do others trust expressions given off more than expressions given, which are intentional? This sounds like bias

    27. when someone encounters another, they ‘seek to acquire information’ about that person or use what knowledge they already have. This infor-mation helps people to shape expectations of others and to understand what will be expected of them. In an online learning environment, very little information about others is available, particularly the subtle communication cues that promote mutual trust. As a result, learners can neither know how to act themselves, nor what expectations they can have of each other.

      As a woman of color, I see this as an inherent benefit of online learning.

    28. the self is a product of the entire social scene in which it is performed – both the audience and the actor have a stake in the credibility of the performance. Identity is a result of social interaction, therefore. Online, however, the altered mode of communication presents challenges for both the performer and the audi-ence.

      What is missing:

      • immediacy
      • visualization
      • non-verbal cues
    29. Goffman theorised the production of self in dramaturgical terms of an actor performing for an audience

      Performance of identity

    30. particularly the ‘canonical’ asynchronous discussion forum thread (Oztok, 2013, p. 25).

      How does an in-person classroom discussion differ to allow learners to construct their identities?

    31. he online learning environment can inhibit learners’ capacity to construct their identities for others (Brooks & Pitts, 2016; Robinson, 2013), particularly the ‘canonical’ asynchronous discussion forum thread (Oztok, 2013, p. 25).

      How do learners "construct their identities for others" in the classroom? Or do they rely on their physical presence and appearance to do that for them?

    32. The effectiveness by which online learners are able to communicate their identity has been shown to impact meaningful discussions and dialogic interactions, which in turn support a deep approach to learning (

      What are the ways the online learners intentionally and unintentionally communicate their identities - what ways are operationalized and what ways are incidential?

    33. Without this, it is difficult for online learning designers to understand why to incorporate opportunities for communication that promotes social pres-ence, and therefore, when, where and in what form those opportunities should come

      A case for instructors to work with IDs on course design because we have the knowledge of how to do this

    34. the operationalization of the concept

      Social presence must be a part of how the course operates and its operation must be transparent and explicit so that it is known and understood by learners

    35. Robinson (2013) recommended that students working in groups ‘adopt a range of verbal immediacy behaviors so that their peers can get to know and trust them’ (p. 306).

      This requires a great deal of metacognition

    36. The emotional aspects of online learning are at the heart of Robinson’s (2013) research, which explored social presence and collaborative groupwork, concluding that groupwork can produce emotional states such as frustration, feeling constraints, difficulty, or lack of control due to the absence of a sense of immediacy.

      These emotions are present in F2F groupwork as well, so does the online environment better or worse when dealing with these feelings?

    37. udents need to feel comfortable to expose half-formed or incorrect ideas without fear of undermining their identity in the group.

      In a F2F environment, this can be more challenging because of lack of "rehearsal" time

    38. Laurillard (2012) argued that an effec-tive way of encouraging metacognition is for students to articulate their ideas and share them with their peers, for example by grading each other’s work or revealing that others have different conceptualisations

      Establishing expectations for each other's work and outlining what they hope to achieve in groups

    39. he role of social presence in establishing group cohesion online was central, since the capacity to create a shared sense of social identity with their peers was of utmost importance for online students

      Some students say that a sense of community or lack thereof is important to them in their courses

    40. the ability of participants to identify with the group or course of study, communicate purpose-fully in a trusting environment, and develop personal and affective relationships progressively by way of projecting their individual personalities.

      In F2F learning environments, the ability to do these things seems to be a given and happen "naturally", while it is assumed that this is much harder to achieve in online learning environments where participants are not sharing physical space

    41. attention to the way software constructs learner identities in educational contexts is increasingly important. The social web has long been perceived as an arena where users can become ‘self-made people’

      From social media to online discussion forums, blogs, podcasts, etc., anyone can go online and present themselves to the world however they choose.

    42. self and face-work

      Well-known research on identity management

    43. t seeks to provide further guidance for tutors and online learning designers to create learning envi-ronments that support students to achieve individual and social metacognition online.

      The goal of this study is to help online learning instructors and designers when creating learning environments - does this assume that they will be collaborating on the process? The ideal learning environment is one where learners achieve individual and social metacognition

    44. a lack of clarity over what creates social presence and how it contributes to learning may explain why online classes can still be ‘impersonal and lack the simple but meaningful verbal and nonverbal cues and the overall social presence and immediate response-time’

      Students don't know how to co-create social presence or how doing so can improve learning

    45. cial Presence h

      "The ability of learners to project their personal characteristics into the community of inquiry, thereby presenting themselves as real people" (Garrison, 2001)

    46. This kind of learning has implications for the learners’ sense of identity, in its capacity for transformation of learners’ relationship to self, and to their relationships with others and the world around them

      Quite impressive for online learning

    47. he potential to enable learners to achieve a degree of metacognition and even social metacognition or co-regulation of learning (

      Metacognition helps deepen learning. Social metacognition refers to the act performed in groups

    48. the importance of trustworthy social interaction to support students’ performance of identity and identity shifts in fostering deeper social learning

      The emphasis on developing trust in interactions - is this more important online than in F2F courses?

    49. the relationship between social presence and support for the social production of identity online

      Interested to explore what the "production" of identity is.

    50. This paper argues that identity may be key to understanding why social presence has been considered so important to successful learning experiences

      What defines a successful learning experience?

    51. groupwork,identity and social learning online

      Identity in groups as a question of performance and management of "self"

  6. Nov 2018
    1. online discussions

      Could online annotation bring some civility back to online discussion?

    2. students still overwhelming prefer print materials

      My high school English teachers strongly emphasized taking notes in the margins of our books and it became a habit that I miss with online publications, so H has brought that ability back.

    3. collaboration skills

      I would also add that annotation in the margins is another way of speaking/communicating in groups that can be less threatening or intimidating for some students.

  7. Sep 2018
    1. Learning related to knowledge (i.e., from simple recognition and memory to complex problem solving and evaluation)

      Memory and recall = least complex process

    2. Learning related to actions and motor skills (i.e., from simple actions to complex choreography)

      For the most part does a learner have to adopt a belief or attitude in order to perform a task "correctly"? I'm thinking not really

    3. Learning related to attitudes, feelings, & emotions

      Probably the hardest outcome to achieve, especially if the topic doesn't elicit much emotional response

    1. Is each general instructional objective stated as a learning product (rather than in terms of the learning process

      TLO vs. ELO

    2. Gronlundobjectives begin with the foundational, illustrative, action verb

      What will the learner be able to "DO"

    3. Simplifying Objectivesby Focusing on the Performance / Outcome

      A roadmap


    1. Are learners prepared to take on this new work?

      In a group setting, is it ok for different members to be at different stages of these capacities?

    2. They take on jobs that the instructor might otherwise do –choosing an area to work on or an approach to solving a problem; determining roles of team members; judging sources and methods; evaluating quality and appropriateness of solutions; giving feedback and consulting with other learners.

      Like this group project

    3. constructivism sees learning as a process of constructing or making something

      making meaning


    1. Learnerestablishes criteria for standard performance

      I believe education is moving more and more toward students self-selecting, self-evaluating, etc.

    2. Provide objectives before instruction begins

      I am a huge proponent of outlining expectations. As a teacher, I found myself butting heads a lot with fellow educators who liked to surprise students with "gotcha" activities that seemed to just set students up for failure. I found that approach cynical and counterintuitive.

    3. Havestudentspose questions to be answered by other students

      This is a great way to break the ice and increase comfort level

    4. Posethought-provoking questions to the students

      Why are you here for this learning experience, what are you afraid or, what are you excited about

    1. visuals ortext that is not essential to the instruction-al explanation be avoided

      If it's "extra", it's not necessary

    2. researchers have found that bettertransfer learning is realized when graphicsare explained by audio alone rather than byaudio and text.

      I would have assumed that providing the same info in two different formats - audio and text - would result in reinforcing a concept instead of killing it

    3. some informa-tion in e-Learning, such as directions to anexercise, needs to be available to thelearner over a longer period of time. Anywords that are needed as reference shouldbe presented in text.

      If the information will be referred to by the learner over and over again, it should be readily and easily fetchable in text form.

    4. Audio should be used in situationswhere overload is likely.

      This is why I often like to record my discussion answers instead of typing a lot of text into the discussion area.

    5. we recognize that it’s not the medium that causes learning.Rather it is the design of the lesson itselfand the best use of instructional methodsthat make the difference.

      Design and use that motivate the learner

    6. These repeated failures lead us toabandon a technology-centered approachto learning in favor of a learner-centeredapproach.

      Doesn't the "effectiveness" of a learning environment depend in large part on the learner? Many of my college courses were probably very effective for my classmates, but since I wasn't very interested, engaged, or motivated, they were less so for me specifically.

    7. fewer opinionsand more data.

      Isn't that always the case :)


  8. distance-educator.com distance-educator.com
    1. Thesesoftwareapplicationsareprecursorstofullydevelopedlearningmanagementsystemsofthefuture,whichwouldbemoreresponsiveandadaptabletoeachlearner’sneedsandlearninginter-estsdynamicall

      What is the analogue to this kind of adaptive technology in an in-person classroom setting?

    2. ansactionaldistanceismeasuredbytheindependencethateachlearnerrequiresintheteachingandlearningprocess,

      Different learners exhibit different levels of independence in the learning process

    3. Ifthetendencytouseinformationtechnologyforteachingandlearningcontinuesincomingyears,distanceeducationwillbecomethedominantformofeducationintheforeseeablefuture

      How do we feel about this?

    4. AttitudestowardTVandtowardsubjectmatter

      Depending on the mode of delivery, a learner's attitude about that mode might affect how he or she performs

    5. Kumata(1960)listedlearnertraitsas“prime”factorsinlearningfrominstructionaltelevision

      Do distance learners have to be different

    6. Self-initiatedanddirectedlearninghadademocratizinginfluenceineducation,whichdidnotfollowthemethodsandpro-ceduresofestablishededucationalinstitutionsthatwereavailabletotheprivilegedclasses

      I see online learning as also having democratizing potential

    7. Thecommercialorproprietaryschoolsthatengagedindeceptivepracticesdamagedthereputationofdistanceeducationtothepointthatthefederalgovernmentwithdrewitsfinancialsupportforstudentsinsuchschoolsandestablishedrulesthatlimitedthepracticeinthe1950s

      Something must have happened - deregulation, maybe? - for commercial/propriety/for profit schools to re-emerge in the 90s and 2000s, only for government to step in yet again and sanction/shut down these businesses recently

  9. Aug 2018
    1. often the introduction of technology adds more time and complexity to a task

      Academic advisors have noted that the electronic degree audit takes more time than evaluating transcripts by hand. Admissions operations data specialists complained that reviewing an electronic admissions application takes more time than a paper one. I disagreed, when I considered that my eyes never had to leave the screen or my hand leave the mouse when reviewing an online application as opposed to manually flipping through pages

    2. “it’s just doing what you could do with paper – why bother?”

      Well, to save trees for one thing...

    3. Each made the task a little easier, a little more accessible but retained enough familiarity with the previous format that those involved understood what was required

      Easier perhaps because a barrier was removed, more accessible because physical distance could be bridged

    1. As an innovation spreads from early adopters to majority audiences, face-to-face communication therefore becomes more essential to the decision to adopt.

      Again, if I hadn't seen Alexa in action at the friend's house, there's no way I would think to adopt one myself.

    2. Early adopters are the exception to this rule. They are on the lookout for advantages and tend to see the risks as low because they are financially more secure, more personally confident, and better informed about the particular product or behaviour. Often they will grasp at innovations on the basis of no more than a well worded news article. The rest of the population, however, see higher risks in change, and therefore require assurance from trusted peers that an innovation is do-able and provides genuine benefits

      I feel this way about people I know who own smart home controls.

    3. Many computer games are now built with the intention that they will be modified by enthusiastic users. Says consumer behaviour expert, Francine Gardin. “They’re actually participating in the design of the game. These consumers are really passionate about the game – it’s almost like a cult. They have an incredible sense of loyalty and ownership of that brand. Instead of complaining, they fix the product.”2

      They know they will be heavy, early users, so they have an interest in the product being up and running ASAP, so they participate in making that happen.

    4. Meanwhile laggards hold out to the bitter end

      This was me with cell phones.

    5. it sees change as being primarily about the evolution or “reinvention” of products and behaviours so they become better fits for the needs of individuals and groups

      An example would be making devices smaller.

  10. Sep 2017
    1. Sometimes web developers fear that it is more expensive and time-consuming to create accessible web sites than it is to create inaccessible ones.

      If accessibility increases web traffic, how could such an endeavor possibly be a bad investment?

    2. Many people with cognitive disabilities can also benefit greatly from the structure and flexibility of web content

      What does this mean? is this because of multimedia as opposed to just text?

    3. This method works, but it makes blind people dependent upon others.

      Accessibility also includes independence and autonomy

    1. They also require constant feedback to know that they are doing well.

      Overachievers are different than confident learners because they need external feedback to know that they are doing well, whereas confident learners know that they are high-performing and knowledgeable.

    2. They require an opportunity for interactions

      Confident learners don't want to learn alone or spend a lot of time reflecting by themselves, with no opportunity to share their thoughts.

    3. The main challenge with these learners is that they may become frustrated easily if the program moves too slowly, lacks clearly defined objectives, or does not encourage participation

      Confident learners need to show what they know. If there are few or inadequate opportunities to do so, they may become frustrated.

    4. Although confident learners typically make the same amount of mistakes as other learners, they believe they are capable of anything, which leads to higher participation

      Confident learners keep trying, unfazed, despite setbacks.

    1. If learners feel safe, happy, and fullfilled, they will actually enjoy learning

      By safety, we probably mean something that won't disrupt the learner's beliefs or comfort zone.

    2. Factors that influence this decision include self-image, memory, meaning, and perceived value, which is particularly important with learners, who tend to have short attention spans.

      Does the learner see him or herself in the material or the lesson?

      What if the learner approaches the course with some sort of bias or opinion already formed - does this influence his reflective stance?

    3. The behavioral level, the part that contains the brain processes that control everyday behavior is the mid-level of emotional design and relates to functionality and performance. This cognitive process kicks in after learners surpass the first-impressions stage and move on to see how easy it will be to accomplish a task.

      A learner might ask:

      • Can I figure this out?
      • Do I have time for this?
      • Is it worth my time?
    4. to form a connection with a course

      Is it always possible to form a connection with a course?

  11. Aug 2017
    1. enables people to make rapid judgements

      These judgments might be:

      • I want to do this course
      • I don't want to do this course
    1. instructional strategies will beshaped by parameters of the technologylike bandwidth and hardware, and by envi-ronmental factors such as budget, time,and organizational culture

      In person instructional strategies are also shaped by similar factors:

      • passion, commitment and creativity of the teacher
      • resources that can be brought into the classroom
      • length of access to the physical space etc.
    2. the classroomexperience is packaged in the instructorand in fact varies from class to class, youcan easily see and hear all elements of e-Learning

      The classroom instructor is inherently selfish, harboring knowledge and doling it out piecemeal to a select few. Lol jk jk

      But what we're saying here is that the pedagogy is inside of the teacher, as opposed to being on display.

    3. Decis-ions about e-Learningcourseware mustbegin with an under-standing of how themind works duringlearning and of whatresearch tells us aboutthe factors that leadto learning.

      What leads to a change in behavior on the part of the learner?


  12. Jul 2017
    1. When they complete their schooling and start a job, they are told to solve problems in groups, through meetings, using every resource they can think of

      School "work" is not preparing students for work after school

    2. Allow the use of the internet and collaboration during an examination.

      Sifting through massive amounts of information to find relevance, significance and authenticity is certainly a useful task.