42 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2017
    1. The basic vernacular arch­itecture research method, however, is hardly revolutionary: it still requires gathering data, ordering and analyzing the data, and interpreting the data. Our chapters generally follow this sequence. First there is a definitional chapter that introduces the community- based conceptual model underlying our approach to vernacular architecture and vernac­ular architecture studies. The second chapter provides a brief exegesis of the investiga­tory techniques used in the field documentation of buildings and landscapes. Chapter 3 shows how both field and archival evidence may be organized into a set of analytical frameworks that help illuminate patterns (or the absence of patterns) of behavior. In chapter 4 we give examples of how various practitioners in the discipline have inter­preted buildings and landscapes. And in chapter 5 we end by returning to the house on Richmond Avenue for a quick review of how the ideas contained in this book can be applied to a specific example of architecture. Also provided is a bibliographic survey of sources, which, along with the information contained in the footnotes, should help you move into the material on your own.

      This chapter by chapter research procedure reminds me of the scientific method, which is used to characterize natural phenomena in science. I use the scientific method as a reference to easily memorize the steps to studying buildings. Listed below, the scientific method requires 5 steps: make an observation, brainstorm a question, form a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and evaluate the information/draw a final conclusion.

      Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/The_Scientific_Method.jpg

    2. “Buildings,” Gabrielle Lanier and Bernard Herman tell us at the beginning of their guide to architecture in the Mid- Atlantic region, “are the best teachers of ordinary architecture. Books, drawings, pho­tographs, and written documents are invaluable, but, inevitably, we learn the most about buildings by taking to the field— by looking, evaluating, measuring, questioning, and looking again.

      Buildings are the "best teachers of ordinary architecture" because one is able to actively go out and investigate/observe them. I agree with this statement because one may examine the small details that one cannot from pictures, books, or written documents. The most effective way to obtain the best kind of information is to have a hands on experience. This is also known as fieldwork.

    3. axiom

      Based off of Merriam-Webster, axiom is short for saying the self-evident truth that does not require any show of evidence. An example sentence is "According to the axiom, all women have equal opportunity and worth."

    4. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks, certainly. One has been mentioned already: the time it takes to do fieldwork. Another problem is the uneven rate of survival of buildings. Smaller houses tend not to endure, so the material record may be skewed in favor of the elites, just as the written record is. If we are trying to use buildings to get information about common people in everyday life, we will often be disappointed since much of the evidence from early periods of history is gone.

      The main two cons on why investigating history through buildings is ineffective are time investment and chance of survival of those buildings. It is not often that I see houses or buildings older than the 1800's in my community. A few of the buildings are either restricted due to future construction or some are completely demolished due to natural disasters.

    5. Fig. 10. Room 228, Art and Architecture Building, University o f Utah, Salt Lake City. Photo by Thomas' Carter

      The specific layout of this classroom in the University of Utah is very traditional and lacks active participation. Personally, I feel as if the students who are sitting in the first 2 rows have an advantage because they are closer to the teacher and lecture board. Looking at the back of the classroom, there are students who may not understand or comprehend information easily due to the placement of their desks. Students are only secluded to a particular group of people around them, which can lead to alienation and lack of communication throughout the entire classroom.

    6. If we teel that history ought to be an endeavoi that includes the widest range of people pos­sib le-rich and poor, black and white, ordi­nary and extraordinary', male and female— then we need to utilize the widest possible range of sources, and buildings are one such source (fig. 5 ).

      Another resource that almost everybody and anybody can utilize is MARTA, also known as the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority. In the supplementary article,"MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." Shamma thoroughly explains the plan to build six transit orientated developments near certain MARTA stations such as Edgewood/Candler Park, Chamblee, and Brookhaven/Oglethorpe University. These developments include housing, meal services, and recreation services such a park and performing arts center. MARTA gives back to those less unfortunate and those making low income in their area by committing approximately 20% of their housing complex to them. As an avid MARTA commuter, I think this is an amazing idea because it is convenient and affordable for almost everybody! It is a win win situation.

      Image: https://az616578.vo.msecnd.net/files/2015/06/27/6357102149783950631344411160_marta.gif

    7. Within this lengthy article, Carter and Cromley fully provide details and meaning to what our everyday architecture stands for, both physically and culturally. The authors imply the material world that we live in means more than what meets the eye. It mainly informs readers, who are either educated or uneducated in the field of vernacular architecture, how to understand and study various buildings in a thorough and refreshing perspective.

      For an additional reading, I chose to analyze Tasnim Shamma's "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Developed Project". This article explains how six transit-orientated developments will be constructed near MARTA stations in order to increase population density, revenue, and transit riders. These 224 unit developments accommodate for a wide range of people and include housing, recreational services, and meal services. The Edgewood/Candler Park station is the first out of the six to be finished by the end of this year. This certain part of the city populates low income families and individuals that can barely afford necessities and housing. As a way to fix this issue, MARTA issues 20 percent of the living area as affordable housing to the low income families and individuals. In addition, MARTA describes these developments convenient stating, "We want to create new ridership and these are our easiest riders" and "People will be right here to ride our services".

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." WABE 90.1 FM. WABE 90.1 FM , 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

    8. Unlike other mammals, humans cannot simply live in nature; rather, we must devise ways of finding and making shelter, clothing and feeding ourselves, and producing the tools needed for survival

      This implies the raw and distinct comparison between mammals and humans. Not only do humans have to devise various ways for survival, but they also have the ability to self reflect. The only mammal that has almost a similar genetic code as us humans is a chimpanzee. The article below contains more information behind the meaning of self reflection and how it can be used to possess a more spiritual and enlightened state of self.

      Link to article: http://wildtruth.net/the-essential-difference-between-animals-and-humans/


    9. In short, people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture. Culture is unseen and immaterial, consisting of the ideas, values, and beliefs of a particular social group or society; but it is everywhere within us, shap­ing our behavior, helping us to choose the right things to say, providing rules for social interaction, and giving us mental blueprints for making the things we need, from bread pans to buildings.

      This section implies what people do to their community/environment to accommodate for themselves in order to survive and prosper. Countries near Southern Europe such as Monaco, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland tend to maintain a longer life expectancy due to their cultural manifestations. People in these countries hold three keys to a longer life expectancy (around mid 80's) which are healthy diets, social interactions, and physical activities. Unlike Europe, America's life expectancy is late 70's which may result from being the number one most obese country in the world in addition to the American people lacking social and physical activity. The link below provides additional details pertaining to longer life expectancy in certain countries around the world.


  2. Feb 2017
    1. “We understand that, in our communities, black trans folk, gender-nonconforming folk, black queer folk, black women, black disabled folk—we have been leading movements for a long time, but we have been erased from the official narrative.”

      Garza represents those that are underrepresented. In a time where the Black Lives Matter movement is all encompassing and present, other movements can seem to be led with a lesser hand or put on the backburner. Garza brings attention to these movements.

    2. “to love and desire freedom and justice for ourselves is a necessary prerequisite for wanting the same for others.”

      This is a beautiful statement regarding the the literal equality needed for true freedom to be established and successful. Garza's involvement in the community does not cover just the Black Lives Matter movement, but also stretches to the National Domestic Workers Alliance and queer and transgender rights. It is a beautiful thing that the Black Lives Matter organziation acknlowedges that strength comes from unity and that inclues all people of all backgrounds.

    3. His killing was widely seen as a kind of political counterpoint—a reminder that the grip of history would not be easily broken.

      Black people as a whole are a proud and dignified people. While the rest of America may forget or dismiss history and certain points in time, there is always another part of America which will not and like the article said they will not "be easily broken".

    4. I continue to be surprised at how little Black lives matter.

      I continue to have a curiosity for those that disagree with this. This is not to be confused with rage or pity or anger. For the sake of this excerpt; I am curious. I have heard many people- pesonally- that have made the infamous argument "ALL lives matter" and "Why do they think they're special"?. "They" do not. However, I never knew how to explain it to others without offending them in some way. I heard it eloquently said a year ago. "Lets say rainforests are endangered, people are threatening it and cutting down the trees and wild life. If a group of people recognize this and start trying to save rainforests they're not telling everybody that other forests and biomes are irrelevant or unnecessary, but rather it is an imminent problem that must be addressed before it gets worse or too late."

  3. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      In accordance to beliefs, a cultural "melting pot" is an area, region, state that exists in harmony with people of many different backgrounds and ethnicites. However, I have once read that the phrase "melting pot" is the same as saying "love has no color" or "I am blind to color" in that these phrases do not celebrate diversity, but rather sameness. If I am blind to a persons color- their identity- what are they? Yes, they have their personalities and many could argue that there isn't more to a person than what is inside. I would argue back that the outside does matter. The outside is what- almost- caused Howe and his peers to go unnoticed had it not been for their honorable service. The outside is what forms a persons inside through compliments and backlashes, through appraisals and negative side eye glances.

    2. Real Estate: None. Personal Property: 1 cow, 1 pig, 5 chairs, 1 table, 2 kettles, 3 knives and forks, 3 plates, 2 bowls, ax, hoe. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      http://www.businessinsider.com/cost-of-living-single-people-2015-8 Attached is a link for a site that illustrates via graph/table what monthly and annual costs are for living in US major cities (as a single individual). In the article, Howe's life was essentially worth 27 dollars, for a family (not including food).

    3. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by.

      I find this statement interesting. If one looks up the definition of "free" the adjective form of the definition is: not under the control or in the power of another; able to act or be done as one wishes. However, the adverb form is: without cost or payment. Granted, the state making sure or seeing to it "that these people were free" is not associated with "free" housing or "free" help to find their way and naviagte through a lens they (Cato Howe and others) may not have known or remembered. This statement shows the lack of care for these men, especially as they had served alongside respected and honrable men. Men that were most likely cared for by the state in a better manner.

    4. https://historicaldigression.com/2016/06/22/early-african-american-settlement-at-parting-ways-plymouth/ I found a great article discussing the main men in this article (plus a few more) that sheds more light on their lives (i.e. their living standards).

    5. Summary: "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz is an article about 4 black men and the records kept of them, or the lack thereof following the Revolutionary War. I believe this article is about more than just these men but more of how they served their country yet still had little to no personal records to show for it. This article unveils the perspective that America held towards not only African Americans, but all minorities and speaks of how little their service was cared about through lack of acknowledgment.


      Why are the four men still referred to as negro slaves? Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany risked their lives during the war. Not only did the men fight for U.S. independence but for their own independence. Each man fought for the right to be a free man. Once the war ended, all of them became freed. But on their gravestone, none of their achievements are recognized. None of their military service mattered, they were only used for slave labor.

    7. Parting Ways

      In “Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think” by Dean Baker states the decline in homeownership is a positive thing. The need to own a house is not considered a priority for citizens anymore. Recently, citizens started to save their money instead of investing in a home purchase. But this is not true for all race. African Americans have the lowest rate of homeownership. The weak economy impacts African Americans the most. In “Parting Ways’, the four men had no source of income when leaving the military, but they did gain their freedom. Cato Howe is giving a small settlement where the men start their own community. None of the men receive their military pensions, so the men start to leave off the land. Cato’s estate listed him as a farmer. This evidence tells us the settlement of “Parting Ways’ is self-sufficient. Similar to African American communities, people in their neighborhood looks out for one another. If someone in the neighborhood needs help, another neighbor will offer to help. This is similar to the settlement of “Parting Ways.” Throughout history, the community aspect of neighborhoods is still a big part for African American communities. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think

    8. At the time of its occupation by at least four black families, it was called New Guinea, a fairly common term used over much of Anglo-America for separate black settlements.

      Why were the settlements called New Guinea? I went to image search on Google and typed in the New Guinea to see the inhabitants. The first picture to pop up portrayed the people as tribal. The three men in the picture have tribal paint on their faces and a more rugged look to them. Europeans often thought these people were savages by their appearance and actions. I think the Europeans were making a comparison between the New Guinea tribes and the new settlers. In their eyes, African Americans were still savages to them.

    9. Parting Ways

      Parting Way is an article written by James Deetz about the settlement of Parting Way. Parting Way is a little settlement given to a former slave named Cato Howe. He settled the land with three other former slaves named Plato, Prince, and Quamany. During the Revolutionary War, all four men served as soldiers during the war. At the end of the war, the slaves were granted their freedom and became free men. The four men have little written history about them. Researchers were able to learn more about the men through discovered military records. To discover the rest of the information, researchers conducted excavations at the settlement. Artifacts discovered at the excavations helped them understand the lifestyles of these four men. For example, the root cellar discovered tells them the men were farmers. Pieces of pottery told them the men came from an African or West Indies background. James Deetz demonstrates the importance of archaeology in the world. Archaeologist discover the history of a location by studying the architecture, artifacts, and written records. Parting Ways. (1996). Retrieved February 03, 2017, from http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/parting.html

    10. Our knowledge of Cato Howe and his fellow blacks of Plymouth comes from two sources: Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details. A complementary body of information has been gained by excavating the site of the tiny community in which Cato Howe lived until his death, in 1824.

      The excavations at Parting Ways showed the reader the importance of oral history and artifacts. Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany had little written history about them. Cato’s estate record gave them a little more insight into their lives. Excavators searched the settlement to found artifacts to help them better understand their lives. Researchers discovered fragmented pieces of pottery at the scene. The found artifact helped the researchers understand the background of the four men. They learned the men came from Africa or the West Indies. Also, researchers discovered that Burr’s house burned down creating the depressions in the ground. They came to the conclusion by looking at the charcoal and ash deposits. Plus, two informants came forward with information about his house. The first person confirmed their suspicion that indeed Burr’s house burned down in 1908. But the second person remembered the house being moved to Plymouth. Conflicting views happen when oral history is repeated. People tend to remember events differently. Oral history gives researches a variety of information and straight from the source information. Through the oral records, they confirmed their theory that Burr’s house burned down.

    11. Chests $2.12 1/2

      In Cato’s estate inventory, the use of American and British money is used. Colonial America experienced a money shortage, because England permitted the colonies to exporting raw materials to England. This situation created a money shortage in Colonial America. The colonial government printed their own money and allowed colonists to use different foreign currencies along with it. Colonists often used the British currency of pounds, shillings, and pence for transactions. Colonial America shortage of money and lack of banks, explains the mixture of currency used in Cato’s inventory. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1646

    12. Parting Ways

      The definition of parting ways is when two people separate from each other. Cato Howe is an example. He separated himself from his former life to his new life. Cato shredded his former slave identity for a new identity. He gained a new identity through his hard work and military. He earned the right to be a free man. After Cato’s emancipation, his hard work did not end. He did not receive immediate military benefits after his service. He worked hard to accumulate wealth and establish a name for himself. Cato’s life ended for the better. He earned an estate valuing twenty-seven dollars. The decision to separate himself earned him a new successful life.

    13. This second cellar was filled with refuse and stone

      The second cellar find contained refuse and stone. Refuse is another term for garbage or waste. I think the waste in the cellar used to be stored food. It’s a common practice after harvesting season to place vegetables in there. Cellars keep food at a lower temperature and the humidity inside low. It prevents the food from freezing in the winter. During the summer months, it keeps food cool preventing it from spoilage.

    14. Cato was a common slave name

      I researched the meaning of the name Cato. When translated from Latin to English, the meaning of Cato came up as intelligent. In 1830, the South viewed slavery as a necessary evil. Cotton became an important cash crop for the South, so thus slavery became necessary. Slave owners defended their actions too by saying slaves were happy and content with their condition. Did slavery owners select this name for their slaves to strengthen their view on slavery? http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/lesson_30_notes.htm

    15. James F. Deetz

      James Deetz was a famous archaeologist and professor of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is known for building the field of historic archaeology. His career began at the Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at UC Berkeley. In 1979 Deetz became the director of the museum. The museum became the foundation for Deetz’s innovative explorations of early American life. Deetz became famous for his original interpretations of Pilgrim life in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Through his imaginative reconstructions of Puritan life, he contrasted the image of Puritan life. He studied their social life based on their tableware and other small things. He revolutionized the image of Puritans from dark, sober, and religious settlers to lusty Elizabethans who wore bright clothing and got into trouble.

    1. This book is intended as a beginner’s guide to vernacular architecture studies. The idea for it came from the classroom. As teachers, we wanted an introductory text for students that would both open their eyes to the world of ordi­nary buildings and outline a basic method for studying them. It had to be affordable, so it had to be short. And if not simple, the coverage had to be straightforward enough so that students and others encountering this material for the first time could easily use it. Luckily we had a model. When we were talking about what our research guide might look like, Jam es Deetz’s pocket-sized Invitation to Archaeology immediately came to mind. The book cost $1.45 in the late 1960s and presented readers with a con­cise but detailed description of how to go about putting archaeology into practice. We honor both book and author in recycling its title and basic approach here. There was nothing we could do about the price.

      I believe that it is certainly an amazing idea to have this subject thought not just researches and scientist but everyday people as well. I believe it is very important to know your history not just through people or actions that took plays but through architecture as well.

    2. *I.l:lI N V I TAT ION TOVernacular Architecture

      'Invitation to Vernacular Architecture' uses a variety of ideas and concepts to explain the full complexity of what exactly is is that this type of architect studies. Carter and Cromley introduce ideas, making them essential, of the study into more than just the physical building, but the stories, culture, time periods, and location as all things that can effect what a building is and why we see it today

      Carter, T., & Cromely, E. C. (2005). Invitation to vernacular architecture: a guide to the study of ordinary buildings and landscapes. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee.

    3. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Puts an emphasis on the importance of building in general, rather on the idea of what the buildings meaning may hold. While the meaning of vernacular architecture is to analyze the buildings in different ways to get the most detailed description possible, its important to remember that at one time, buildings were the only way people knew how to leave their mark.

    4. And of course if we are looking for “traces of people doing things,” then it is easy to see that one of the main things people did in the past was to build and/or use buildings, and with such objects we do not have to rely on what people said about them.

      One way the people that study these buildings are able to draw conclusions is simply through using the progression of the buildings themselves. This quote makes it clear that, in some situations, contact with people from the past or even curiosity about the thoughts that engaged their architectural ideas are unneeded because through the building they can see all they need to know

  4. Jan 2017
    1. [ethnographic research implies, then, immediate ccmtac t with the behavic >r being studied.11

      Ethnographic research is being defined as as a type of research that can't be tainted or influenced from any outside source, since it is being directly observed

    2. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea. Vernacular architecture research is not going to replac e other kinds of humanistic inquiry. In the right situations, however, it can con­tribute greatly in addressing many kinds of questions concerning human behavior.

      The author explains that the idea of vernacular architecture is not to replace other kinds of studies or even really to compete with them. The purpose of this study is to, like it is said in the quote, contribute greatly in addressing questions on human behavior. By stating this, I feel like the author gave depth to the idea of his study in making it out to be something only intended to help rather than used to compete.

    3. If you are interested in studying build­ings, particularly those of the more ordinary variety that have not been studied before, the place to begin is with the buildings themselves.

      Often time people think the best way to learn about something is to dive into research about that subject. This can be done through online data, reading books, talking to specialists, etc. This article explains that for vernacular architecture, the best way to know what you need to know is to go to the building itself and see what you can see. Investigate there.

    4. Still, no matter how much extrinsic data there is, the evidence obtained by studying the physical object lies at the heart of the research

      draws in from points in my last annotation, explaining the importance of the research more so than just the extrinsic data. The research, as stated before, can be explained partially as the experiences the building has undergone or the stories that make it mean something to someone.

    5. It should he stressed, however, that the field of material culture studies remains artifact-driven, and the investigation and interpretation of buildings and land­scapes play leading roles in the research process.

      Artifact - driven studies become very objective, giving meaning to the building itself, but lacking the ideas of importance on the history of the building and it's meaning to the culture it was initially originated on. This quotes doesn't fail to mention that interpretation of the building is still essential, but more so in the research process.

    6. Building separate, detached houses that are spaced far apart in the countryside or separated by just a few feet in urban neighborhoods (fig. 1) would be another way this spirit of indi­viduation is advanced through architecture.

      Uses the definition of culture as "consisting of ideas, values, and beliefs stemming from a particular social group", this statement takes culture and personalizes it to a certain individuals trait: valuing private space. By personalizing this concept and making it easier to understand, the author then applies that idea of culture and personal space to architecture, demonstrating how every decision made through architecture is influenced by our own customs, beliefs, and visions.

    7. The study of vernacular architecture is part of a larger scholarly undertaking known as material culture studies." Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.”'

      Material culture is based off of purely physical and objective aspects of a certain built environment, but these physical aspects are reflective of the culture that influenced or even physically constructed the environment observed. The culture has a lasting affect on not only the way the building was constructed, but the meaning put behind it for that certain group

    8. “historic architecture is one aspect of the past that we can still see, touch, experience . . . and part of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”1" I

      These building are able to communicate through more than the stories or journals told about the events taken place inside, but also in the way they were built and still stand in relation to what we know about other buildings from that time. Can be tied in with "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" by noting that natural disaster and all of the emotions that lie within that disaster can be tied to the progression of housing in a certain area and how it affected the people there

    9. As you move further back in time, however, and the testi­monies or actions of users are missing, a well-trained eye for what was built, used, remodeled, or even torn down may be all you have. R

      In "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" it states that Native Americans, African Americans, and ethnic enclaves have centuries of old ties to land, making them the hardest to advocate displacement. This exemplifies this concept of Vernacular Architecture, showing that certain groups of people make ties to a certain area through culture and experience and in that, it becomes who they are and hard to let go or progress from.

    1. "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz provided knowledge in regards to the lack of resources available on the history of slaves and minority groups. In class, we discussed in small groups how the absence of documentation and detail(s) not only shed light on the attitude towards minorities, but it additionally paralleled it. "Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details.", is what Deetz can supply through research and history of Cato Howe and "his fellow blacks of Plymouth". Slaves were commonly given alternate names under their owners care and as "Cato" was a "common slave name", it rendered research fairly useless as no one person could determine if it was the Cato Howe they were looking for. This text has a very to the point, no-frills, dry style to it, yet it keeps me (and my small group) reading. The compelling part of this story for me is that these men (Cato, Quamany, Prince, and Plato), regardless of color, did so much for their country and lived their lives modestly. Yet, because of the color of their skin, they were unable to receive pensions the first time and even for Prince, unable to receive freedom.