188 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2017
    1. The basic vernacular arch­itecture research method, however, is hardly revolutionary: it still requires gathering data, ordering and analyzing the data, and interpreting the data. Our chapters generally follow this sequence. First there is a definitional chapter that introduces the community- based conceptual model underlying our approach to vernacular architecture and vernac­ular architecture studies. The second chapter provides a brief exegesis of the investiga­tory techniques used in the field documentation of buildings and landscapes. Chapter 3 shows how both field and archival evidence may be organized into a set of analytical frameworks that help illuminate patterns (or the absence of patterns) of behavior. In chapter 4 we give examples of how various practitioners in the discipline have inter­preted buildings and landscapes. And in chapter 5 we end by returning to the house on Richmond Avenue for a quick review of how the ideas contained in this book can be applied to a specific example of architecture. Also provided is a bibliographic survey of sources, which, along with the information contained in the footnotes, should help you move into the material on your own.

      This chapter by chapter research procedure reminds me of the scientific method, which is used to characterize natural phenomena in science. I use the scientific method as a reference to easily memorize the steps to studying buildings. Listed below, the scientific method requires 5 steps: make an observation, brainstorm a question, form a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and evaluate the information/draw a final conclusion.

      Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/The_Scientific_Method.jpg

    2. extrinsic

      In context, extrinsic data means information originating from the heart of matter and presumably irrelevant data. This word helps to emphasize the importance of the sentence. No matter much outside information is given, the most effective method to study architecture is to first hand observe and analyze the physical presence of it.

    3. “Buildings,” Gabrielle Lanier and Bernard Herman tell us at the beginning of their guide to architecture in the Mid- Atlantic region, “are the best teachers of ordinary architecture. Books, drawings, pho­tographs, and written documents are invaluable, but, inevitably, we learn the most about buildings by taking to the field— by looking, evaluating, measuring, questioning, and looking again.

      Buildings are the "best teachers of ordinary architecture" because one is able to actively go out and investigate/observe them. I agree with this statement because one may examine the small details that one cannot from pictures, books, or written documents. The most effective way to obtain the best kind of information is to have a hands on experience. This is also known as fieldwork.

    4. axiom

      Based off of Merriam-Webster, axiom is short for saying the self-evident truth that does not require any show of evidence. An example sentence is "According to the axiom, all women have equal opportunity and worth."

    5. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks, certainly. One has been mentioned already: the time it takes to do fieldwork. Another problem is the uneven rate of survival of buildings. Smaller houses tend not to endure, so the material record may be skewed in favor of the elites, just as the written record is. If we are trying to use buildings to get information about common people in everyday life, we will often be disappointed since much of the evidence from early periods of history is gone.

      The main two cons on why investigating history through buildings is ineffective are time investment and chance of survival of those buildings. It is not often that I see houses or buildings older than the 1800's in my community. A few of the buildings are either restricted due to future construction or some are completely demolished due to natural disasters.

    6. Fig. 10. Room 228, Art and Architecture Building, University o f Utah, Salt Lake City. Photo by Thomas' Carter

      The specific layout of this classroom in the University of Utah is very traditional and lacks active participation. Personally, I feel as if the students who are sitting in the first 2 rows have an advantage because they are closer to the teacher and lecture board. Looking at the back of the classroom, there are students who may not understand or comprehend information easily due to the placement of their desks. Students are only secluded to a particular group of people around them, which can lead to alienation and lack of communication throughout the entire classroom.

    7. If we teel that history ought to be an endeavoi that includes the widest range of people pos­sib le-rich and poor, black and white, ordi­nary and extraordinary', male and female— then we need to utilize the widest possible range of sources, and buildings are one such source (fig. 5 ).

      Another resource that almost everybody and anybody can utilize is MARTA, also known as the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority. In the supplementary article,"MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." Shamma thoroughly explains the plan to build six transit orientated developments near certain MARTA stations such as Edgewood/Candler Park, Chamblee, and Brookhaven/Oglethorpe University. These developments include housing, meal services, and recreation services such a park and performing arts center. MARTA gives back to those less unfortunate and those making low income in their area by committing approximately 20% of their housing complex to them. As an avid MARTA commuter, I think this is an amazing idea because it is convenient and affordable for almost everybody! It is a win win situation.

      Image: https://az616578.vo.msecnd.net/files/2015/06/27/6357102149783950631344411160_marta.gif

    8. Within this lengthy article, Carter and Cromley fully provide details and meaning to what our everyday architecture stands for, both physically and culturally. The authors imply the material world that we live in means more than what meets the eye. It mainly informs readers, who are either educated or uneducated in the field of vernacular architecture, how to understand and study various buildings in a thorough and refreshing perspective.

      For an additional reading, I chose to analyze Tasnim Shamma's "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Developed Project". This article explains how six transit-orientated developments will be constructed near MARTA stations in order to increase population density, revenue, and transit riders. These 224 unit developments accommodate for a wide range of people and include housing, recreational services, and meal services. The Edgewood/Candler Park station is the first out of the six to be finished by the end of this year. This certain part of the city populates low income families and individuals that can barely afford necessities and housing. As a way to fix this issue, MARTA issues 20 percent of the living area as affordable housing to the low income families and individuals. In addition, MARTA describes these developments convenient stating, "We want to create new ridership and these are our easiest riders" and "People will be right here to ride our services".

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." WABE 90.1 FM. WABE 90.1 FM , 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

    9. Unlike other mammals, humans cannot simply live in nature; rather, we must devise ways of finding and making shelter, clothing and feeding ourselves, and producing the tools needed for survival

      This implies the raw and distinct comparison between mammals and humans. Not only do humans have to devise various ways for survival, but they also have the ability to self reflect. The only mammal that has almost a similar genetic code as us humans is a chimpanzee. The article below contains more information behind the meaning of self reflection and how it can be used to possess a more spiritual and enlightened state of self.

      Link to article: http://wildtruth.net/the-essential-difference-between-animals-and-humans/


    10. In short, people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture. Culture is unseen and immaterial, consisting of the ideas, values, and beliefs of a particular social group or society; but it is everywhere within us, shap­ing our behavior, helping us to choose the right things to say, providing rules for social interaction, and giving us mental blueprints for making the things we need, from bread pans to buildings.

      This section implies what people do to their community/environment to accommodate for themselves in order to survive and prosper. Countries near Southern Europe such as Monaco, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland tend to maintain a longer life expectancy due to their cultural manifestations. People in these countries hold three keys to a longer life expectancy (around mid 80's) which are healthy diets, social interactions, and physical activities. Unlike Europe, America's life expectancy is late 70's which may result from being the number one most obese country in the world in addition to the American people lacking social and physical activity. The link below provides additional details pertaining to longer life expectancy in certain countries around the world.


  2. Feb 2017
    1. “We understand that, in our communities, black trans folk, gender-nonconforming folk, black queer folk, black women, black disabled folk—we have been leading movements for a long time, but we have been erased from the official narrative.”

      Garza represents those that are underrepresented. In a time where the Black Lives Matter movement is all encompassing and present, other movements can seem to be led with a lesser hand or put on the backburner. Garza brings attention to these movements.

    2. “to love and desire freedom and justice for ourselves is a necessary prerequisite for wanting the same for others.”

      This is a beautiful statement regarding the the literal equality needed for true freedom to be established and successful. Garza's involvement in the community does not cover just the Black Lives Matter movement, but also stretches to the National Domestic Workers Alliance and queer and transgender rights. It is a beautiful thing that the Black Lives Matter organziation acknlowedges that strength comes from unity and that inclues all people of all backgrounds.

    3. His killing was widely seen as a kind of political counterpoint—a reminder that the grip of history would not be easily broken.

      Black people as a whole are a proud and dignified people. While the rest of America may forget or dismiss history and certain points in time, there is always another part of America which will not and like the article said they will not "be easily broken".

    4. I continue to be surprised at how little Black lives matter.

      I continue to have a curiosity for those that disagree with this. This is not to be confused with rage or pity or anger. For the sake of this excerpt; I am curious. I have heard many people- pesonally- that have made the infamous argument "ALL lives matter" and "Why do they think they're special"?. "They" do not. However, I never knew how to explain it to others without offending them in some way. I heard it eloquently said a year ago. "Lets say rainforests are endangered, people are threatening it and cutting down the trees and wild life. If a group of people recognize this and start trying to save rainforests they're not telling everybody that other forests and biomes are irrelevant or unnecessary, but rather it is an imminent problem that must be addressed before it gets worse or too late."

  3. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      In accordance to beliefs, a cultural "melting pot" is an area, region, state that exists in harmony with people of many different backgrounds and ethnicites. However, I have once read that the phrase "melting pot" is the same as saying "love has no color" or "I am blind to color" in that these phrases do not celebrate diversity, but rather sameness. If I am blind to a persons color- their identity- what are they? Yes, they have their personalities and many could argue that there isn't more to a person than what is inside. I would argue back that the outside does matter. The outside is what- almost- caused Howe and his peers to go unnoticed had it not been for their honorable service. The outside is what forms a persons inside through compliments and backlashes, through appraisals and negative side eye glances.

    2. Real Estate: None. Personal Property: 1 cow, 1 pig, 5 chairs, 1 table, 2 kettles, 3 knives and forks, 3 plates, 2 bowls, ax, hoe. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      http://www.businessinsider.com/cost-of-living-single-people-2015-8 Attached is a link for a site that illustrates via graph/table what monthly and annual costs are for living in US major cities (as a single individual). In the article, Howe's life was essentially worth 27 dollars, for a family (not including food).

    3. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by.

      I find this statement interesting. If one looks up the definition of "free" the adjective form of the definition is: not under the control or in the power of another; able to act or be done as one wishes. However, the adverb form is: without cost or payment. Granted, the state making sure or seeing to it "that these people were free" is not associated with "free" housing or "free" help to find their way and naviagte through a lens they (Cato Howe and others) may not have known or remembered. This statement shows the lack of care for these men, especially as they had served alongside respected and honrable men. Men that were most likely cared for by the state in a better manner.

    4. Parting Ways

      The supplemental reading that I chose was the TIME Person of the Year Runner Up: Black Lives Matter article. This article details the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement, explaining its ideals and its growth over the past few years and creating a written timeline of its history. The piece begins by explaining that the Black Lives Matter originally started as an incidental hashtag on a facebook post made by Alicia Garza following the acquittal of George Zimmerman, the man who shot and killed Trayvon Martin; the same hashtag was used shortly thereafter on signs at protests demanding justice for Trayvon Martin. The author illustrates that while the movement has more or less solidified by this point in time, it is still widespread in its goals and actions of activism; from protests that have shut down busy streets to causing the removal of those abusing their positions of power to campaigns against school closures, Black Lives Matter continues to make their voices heard. The author's piece shows the growth of BLM movement from a single use of a hashtag to the group that was able to not only meet with but also influence Hillary Clinton in her presidential campaign. Continued protests and activism have kept the many issues that BLM fights against out of the dark, and will continues to do so until policy, government, and ultimately, the world, change.

      Altman, A. (2015). TIME Person of the Year 2015 Runner-Up: Black Lives Matter. Retrieved February 05, 2017, from http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/

    5. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      The term "melting pot" implies that as cultures come to the United States, the give way and become one in a homogeneous culture, which is absolutely not true. The US may have some cultural indicators that are specific to this country, but the individual cultures of each citizen still exist and are prevalent in today's society. Larger cultures continue to form as people find common connections, such as the belief that black lives truly do matter.

    6. African American archaeology has become an important and vital component of historical archaeology in the United States.

      Today, black and African American history are what drive movements like Black Lives Matter to refuse to give in and to continue to push for change. The knowledge that the types of injustices that they face have existed since before the days of the Revolutionary War makes it all the more obvious that they cannot be allowed to continue

    7. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form.

      In another annotation, I explain what a shotgun house is. Because of their simple structure, shotgun houses are generally cheaper than others in modern architecture. Because of this, many homes is predominantly poor, black communities are in the shotgun style.

    8. complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      Although this quote is in direct reference to the oral history of the town, it can also be related to the reporting on police violence in America today. Most news sources are based in partisan politics, therefore skewing their views on many incidents where black people are killed. Because of this, conflicting stories crowd the news, making it difficult for the general public to discern what is ans isn't true.

    9. bicentennial committee on black history, and this group's efforts at first were directed at the cemetery.

      Although deaths are useful in researching history because of their finality, it's still ironic that a committee on black history would start there. Today, as history is being made, many protests and other organized events, some stemming from BLM, are sparked by the unjust death of a black person at the hands of the police.

    10. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by

      Although not specifically mentioned in the article, the BLM movement also champions fair and equal housing and government assistance for black families, especially in impoverished communities. Today, in Flint, Michigan, there is an ongoing water crisis due to extremely high lead levels in the water system. The city of Flint has a mainly black population, and many have suggested that the reason this crisis has gone without fix for so long is because the government does not care about a poor black town. The BLM movement has worked to bring attention to this and to work towards temporary and permanent solutions.

    11. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      Saying "the black community of America" would be vastly inaccurate, because every individual person is different, and there are millions of black men, women, and others living in the United States today. However, many members of the black community experience oppression on similar scales on a day to day basis. This is the basis of the Black Lives Matter movement, and the reason why they protest and use other activism efforts to work towards change.

    12. the black experience in America.

      Although most would like to believe that society as a whole has changed over time, the treatment of African American or black citizens has remained relatively stagnant. Although released from slavery with the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, black Americans have experienced different forms of systematic oppression even up to the present day. On can draw a frighteningly large number of parallels between slavery, the Jim Crow era laws, and the modern police brutality and school-to-prison pipeline.

    13. not a name we will find in our history books.

      Today, society is experiencing a time of political change unparalleled at any point in the past. Many groups and individuals have stated that today people now are living the creation of history. However, as much of the action and change is brought about by groups, individual names will most likely not be remembered so much as the actions of their movements.

    14. terminus post quem

      the earliest possible date for something. Origin

      Latin, literally ‘end after which.’

    15. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      I find it kind of neat how they just come uopn new evidence and artifacts , and all i can sum it up to is pure luck , because if they would have went looking any other time Im almost certain they would have never found it .

    16. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      This shows how if you wanted to be known of some sort;or just to have record kept of you and you were african american you had to become a soilder and go to war for america to care about you.

    17. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting Ways is an article that focuses on archaeological investigation of an African American community in Parting Ways. There are four African Americans that the article focuses on; Cato Howe, Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany. Unfortunately the only things recorded are their service in war up until their deaths. They were slaves but they gained their freedoms. Their lives do not really have much of a tale or a story because they were not recorded. Deetz wants to try to fit the puzzle pieces together by archaeology just to be able figure out the story of the area.

    18. Parting Ways

      Annotated Bibliography Cato Howe (1756 - 1824) - Find A Grave Memorial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017 TIME Person of the Year 2015 Runner-Up: Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017 "Archaeology Wordsmith." Archaeology Wordsmith. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2017. H. (2009, May 19). What's a shotgun house? Retrieved February 04, 2017 States' Rights & The Civil War. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

    19. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      Interesting thing about this quote is that it is true. I googled Cato Howe and there is honestly nothing listed before he was 25 years of age and put into the military."Howe enlisted in the spring of 1775 and served for the entire war in the 2nd Massachusetts (Commander, Colonel John Bailey)." Until he was in the military, none of his records are available." Its just fascinating to know that only his time into the military to the end of his life was only recorded. It is pretty weird why they'd only record that. I would think that they would want to record the live of a man who dedicated his time and efforts into the war. Cato Howe (1756 - 1824) - Find A Grave Memorial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

    20. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      This quote actually reminds me of my literature class from my senior year of high school. We talked about how in some cases many colored people's early lives were not recorded and that makes it a lot harder to track family history for many people. It is even more troubling to try to connecting their family lineage but they are stuck. For a project, I had to create a huge family tree and I can remember it being very aggravating asking my family members who were my family members pass my great-grandparents. It was so stressful and it took up a huge amount of time. I actually went the whole length of the project because it just took so long to find what I was looking for. I did not even get my 100%, I got a 96%. The treatment of African Americans as nothing but property it utterly disgusting and sad.

    21. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      If these jars were made in the west indies, how did they get into an African American civilization. It really boggles my mind of how they were able to obtain these jars. I know for certain if I was a slave I would have no way in the world to obtain these jars. The African Americans could not control shipments so the question is were they gifted the jars? It is really bothering me as to how they have them.

    22. shotgun house

      I googled shotgun house because I literally thought it was a house where you keep guns. I took it a bit too literally but I guess it was more metaphorical than anything else."This style of house is very simple: A typical shotgun house is long and narrow and often don't have windows on the sides (though they almost always do along the front or back) because of the houses' extremely close proximity to one another." H. (2009, May 19). What's a shotgun house? Retrieved February 04, 2017

    23. African Americans who were free of those constraints which might have been imposed on them under the institution of slavery.

      Did any of these men experience racism during their time at Parting Ways? It was around the time of slavery and I wonder if they had any troubling moments because even though they served their time in the war, I am sure some people gave them a hard time since they were African American.

    24. The more northerly one consisted of two sugar jars, a stoneware jug, miscellaneous pressed glass objects,

      The fact that they were instilled in slavery during their lives, they till kept African traditions. I find that very interesting. Many times when I think about slavery I think that there could be times where your will is broken and you just follow the culture that is being enforced onto you. I'm pretty sure I would have kept some of item that symbolizes my heritage because I can be somewhat of a rebel at times where I fight in something I believe in. It can be to the point that I get really hard headed. I find it interesting that they kept a piece of their natural culture with them. It is like I am looking at some of my qualities in myself in four other deceased people.

    25. https://historicaldigression.com/2016/06/22/early-african-american-settlement-at-parting-ways-plymouth/ I found a great article discussing the main men in this article (plus a few more) that sheds more light on their lives (i.e. their living standards).

    26. Summary: "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz is an article about 4 black men and the records kept of them, or the lack thereof following the Revolutionary War. I believe this article is about more than just these men but more of how they served their country yet still had little to no personal records to show for it. This article unveils the perspective that America held towards not only African Americans, but all minorities and speaks of how little their service was cared about through lack of acknowledgment.


      Why are the four men still referred to as negro slaves? Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany risked their lives during the war. Not only did the men fight for U.S. independence but for their own independence. Each man fought for the right to be a free man. Once the war ended, all of them became freed. But on their gravestone, none of their achievements are recognized. None of their military service mattered, they were only used for slave labor.

    28. Parting Ways

      In “Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think” by Dean Baker states the decline in homeownership is a positive thing. The need to own a house is not considered a priority for citizens anymore. Recently, citizens started to save their money instead of investing in a home purchase. But this is not true for all race. African Americans have the lowest rate of homeownership. The weak economy impacts African Americans the most. In “Parting Ways’, the four men had no source of income when leaving the military, but they did gain their freedom. Cato Howe is giving a small settlement where the men start their own community. None of the men receive their military pensions, so the men start to leave off the land. Cato’s estate listed him as a farmer. This evidence tells us the settlement of “Parting Ways’ is self-sufficient. Similar to African American communities, people in their neighborhood looks out for one another. If someone in the neighborhood needs help, another neighbor will offer to help. This is similar to the settlement of “Parting Ways.” Throughout history, the community aspect of neighborhoods is still a big part for African American communities. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think

    29. The ninety-four acres of land on which these four men lived were provisionally granted to Cato Howe in 1792, although there is no record of an outright grant of title to him.

      They didn't really own the land, it was granted to them by the town. I wonder if this was directly linked to a racial issue or if it only was the fact that they didn't own anything. They cleared and worked the land but the town granted them the land. After they passed away the town tried selling the land and failed, they also continue to own the land to this day.

    30. But Cato was different from most of his contemporaries both in the military and at home in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Cato Howe was black.

      This text stands out because it not put emphasis on the sentence "Cato Howe is Black." it draws focus to an issue on race and racial identity. This will then be further expanded upon through the use of racial cultures intertwining with the dominant Anglo-American culture and African culture mixing.

    31. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      This text pulls a lot of significance from the fact that people of darker skin tones were not even worth leaving a written account of until the played a role in America's independence from Great Britain.

    32. "Such person" was Cato Howe, and joined by three others -- Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany -- they established a tiny community on the property.

      This community is the core of the entire article and its substance. It makes me wonder what would have happened if these 4 men didn't come together or they didn't choose to settle land or own property. If they never owned the property, they never would be able to show such a blend of two different cultures coming together from their home structure to their pottery remains we would only then have their military service to work from a cultural standpoint of what their society was.

    33. Real Estate: None. Personal Property: 1 cow, 1 pig, 5 chairs, 1 table, 2 kettles, 3 knives and forks, 3 plates, 2 bowls, ax, hoe. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      I actually looked up how much 27 dollars was worth in 2017. It's a little over 530 dollars, That is probably the poorest I can imagine some people to be living with, only that value worth of assets to continue your life off of.

    34. At the time of its occupation by at least four black families, it was called New Guinea, a fairly common term used over much of Anglo-America for separate black settlements.

      Why were the settlements called New Guinea? I went to image search on Google and typed in the New Guinea to see the inhabitants. The first picture to pop up portrayed the people as tribal. The three men in the picture have tribal paint on their faces and a more rugged look to them. Europeans often thought these people were savages by their appearance and actions. I think the Europeans were making a comparison between the New Guinea tribes and the new settlers. In their eyes, African Americans were still savages to them.

    35. Both sections of the footing showed extensive evidence of fire. Melted window glass, heavy charcoal and ash deposits, and large numbers of nails all attest to the house's having burned in place.

      This article relates directly to the CNN Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake article as it shows, that natural disasters be it either fire or earthquake destroy human culture and heritage over time. It erases some of the answers we would have had, had they remained there, it also portrays their significance as a chain between the modern day and a look into the past.

    36. although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake CNN article conveys the story of a 6.2 magnitude earthquake that hit Italian towns and communities destroying many historical and cultural sites. It then continues to address the sadness and feeling of loss the communities experienced following the earthquake from the clean up to funds being raised for aid relief and restoration. Then they finally ask the people to come together for a day of solidarity for their community to mourn for their losses and to rebuild.

      This article addresses similar subjects of natural disasters destroying man made historical and cultural structures and buildings as well as addresses the importance and significance these building portrayed to the people and community. These building signify past generations and eras of time that leave a natural connection and chain to the past that newer generations will be able physically experience and relate to.

      James F Deetz exposes the racial, cultural, and economic differences experienced by freed African American slaves following the revolutionary war. He engages us in gathering every bit of detail and document he can gather about Cato Howe, Plato Turner, Prince Goodwin, Quamany and their families. he explains how they all had to survive on 96 acres on infertile land and had to survive off government pensions and aid. It was on this land where they spent the remainder of their days within the tiny community. Although their lives was modest the only documents we can obtain about them was their military and death records and a few references the city of Plymouth makes when addressing their land.

      Through the process of excavations and research we are able to determine so much more using the well preserved remains were dug up from the property. We learn of James Burr the Grandson of Plato Turner and last inhabitant of the land. Further investigations show how this small community interjected aspects of African culture and combined them with the more dominant Anglo-American culture of the time. These discoveries don't only give us a better understanding of their lives and community but also their cultural adaptations to a different society.

      “Parting Ways Cemetery.” Parting Ways Cemetery. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

      "Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2017.

    37. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

      This could be an exact example of a blending or convergence of cultures as human societies used similar techniques to survive and thrive. They both relied on crude but reliable means to further their civilizations.

    38. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form. Not only does the Burr house plan conform to the ground plans of shotgun houses, the dimensions are remarkably similar. Beyond this, there are differences.

      This shotgun house is a clear reminder of the African culture they were able to preserve and allow us to see their significance in a Anglo American dominated society

    39. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This Question addresses the entire paper and how the importance the material aspects and written documents allow us to peer back into the past and see the social and cultural aspects of a previous age. This relays on us to identify these links between past and present and what significance they portrayed.

    40. Parting Ways

      Parting Way is an article written by James Deetz about the settlement of Parting Way. Parting Way is a little settlement given to a former slave named Cato Howe. He settled the land with three other former slaves named Plato, Prince, and Quamany. During the Revolutionary War, all four men served as soldiers during the war. At the end of the war, the slaves were granted their freedom and became free men. The four men have little written history about them. Researchers were able to learn more about the men through discovered military records. To discover the rest of the information, researchers conducted excavations at the settlement. Artifacts discovered at the excavations helped them understand the lifestyles of these four men. For example, the root cellar discovered tells them the men were farmers. Pieces of pottery told them the men came from an African or West Indies background. James Deetz demonstrates the importance of archaeology in the world. Archaeologist discover the history of a location by studying the architecture, artifacts, and written records. Parting Ways. (1996). Retrieved February 03, 2017, from http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/parting.html

    41. Our knowledge of Cato Howe and his fellow blacks of Plymouth comes from two sources: Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details. A complementary body of information has been gained by excavating the site of the tiny community in which Cato Howe lived until his death, in 1824.

      The excavations at Parting Ways showed the reader the importance of oral history and artifacts. Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany had little written history about them. Cato’s estate record gave them a little more insight into their lives. Excavators searched the settlement to found artifacts to help them better understand their lives. Researchers discovered fragmented pieces of pottery at the scene. The found artifact helped the researchers understand the background of the four men. They learned the men came from Africa or the West Indies. Also, researchers discovered that Burr’s house burned down creating the depressions in the ground. They came to the conclusion by looking at the charcoal and ash deposits. Plus, two informants came forward with information about his house. The first person confirmed their suspicion that indeed Burr’s house burned down in 1908. But the second person remembered the house being moved to Plymouth. Conflicting views happen when oral history is repeated. People tend to remember events differently. Oral history gives researches a variety of information and straight from the source information. Through the oral records, they confirmed their theory that Burr’s house burned down.

    42. Chests $2.12 1/2

      In Cato’s estate inventory, the use of American and British money is used. Colonial America experienced a money shortage, because England permitted the colonies to exporting raw materials to England. This situation created a money shortage in Colonial America. The colonial government printed their own money and allowed colonists to use different foreign currencies along with it. Colonists often used the British currency of pounds, shillings, and pence for transactions. Colonial America shortage of money and lack of banks, explains the mixture of currency used in Cato’s inventory. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1646

    43. Parting Ways

      The definition of parting ways is when two people separate from each other. Cato Howe is an example. He separated himself from his former life to his new life. Cato shredded his former slave identity for a new identity. He gained a new identity through his hard work and military. He earned the right to be a free man. After Cato’s emancipation, his hard work did not end. He did not receive immediate military benefits after his service. He worked hard to accumulate wealth and establish a name for himself. Cato’s life ended for the better. He earned an estate valuing twenty-seven dollars. The decision to separate himself earned him a new successful life.

    44. Parting Ways

      Summary: Like a puzzle, Deetz's "Parting Ways" conveys how the author attempts to synthesize fragments of archaeological and oral history to form a coherent portrayal of the identities of four former slaves. Through archaeological research, Deetz sifts through evidence to unveil general information about these men. Although the evidence he compiles is enough to give us basic knowledge about the men, it is extremely difficult to thresh out more personal information due to the lack of documentation because of their socioeconomic statuses.

    45. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      This confirms my earlier question of whether or not they are descendants from the Caribbean. This confirmation may offer new branches of history about these men that have yet been discovered.

    46. This second cellar was filled with refuse and stone

      The second cellar find contained refuse and stone. Refuse is another term for garbage or waste. I think the waste in the cellar used to be stored food. It’s a common practice after harvesting season to place vegetables in there. Cellars keep food at a lower temperature and the humidity inside low. It prevents the food from freezing in the winter. During the summer months, it keeps food cool preventing it from spoilage.

    47. Cato was a common slave name

      I researched the meaning of the name Cato. When translated from Latin to English, the meaning of Cato came up as intelligent. In 1830, the South viewed slavery as a necessary evil. Cotton became an important cash crop for the South, so thus slavery became necessary. Slave owners defended their actions too by saying slaves were happy and content with their condition. Did slavery owners select this name for their slaves to strengthen their view on slavery? http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/lesson_30_notes.htm

    48. After all, ownership of slaves and the more elegant kinds of dishes are both characteristic of the more elite members of a community.

      I would not be surprised if the gift of ceramics was given to them by the wealthier community of Plymouth. After all the north has always been more progressive than that of the south. Maybe the ceramics were a gift due to there participation in the revolutionary war. I know about southern hospitality and all that and how people from the north get a bad rep about being rude but while i was up in New York, i encountered more nice people than jerks. Its safe to say the north kept some of these polite values.

    49. James F. Deetz

      James Deetz was a famous archaeologist and professor of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is known for building the field of historic archaeology. His career began at the Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at UC Berkeley. In 1979 Deetz became the director of the museum. The museum became the foundation for Deetz’s innovative explorations of early American life. Deetz became famous for his original interpretations of Pilgrim life in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Through his imaginative reconstructions of Puritan life, he contrasted the image of Puritan life. He studied their social life based on their tableware and other small things. He revolutionized the image of Puritans from dark, sober, and religious settlers to lusty Elizabethans who wore bright clothing and got into trouble.

    50. Such parts were of little value to Anglo-Americans, although they could be cooked to yield nourishment.

      This is still done today all throughout the Caribbean. Being of jamaican heritage, I have never had cow foot simply because it is not my cup of tea but my grandmother says it is good for my bones or healthy in some way. This makes me wonder if any of Cato or the others ancestors were from the Caribbean as the triangular trade did run through there for a good while.

    51. But the two share not lexicon but grammar, which in both instances is West African.

      How?! I find that hard to believe due to the fact that both of those countries were colonized by different countries with completely different languages. I have heard both of these languages while i was up in New York. They do not sound similar or look similar when written down.

    52. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      The fact that they stumbled into this piece of history is cool. The person could have kept quiet and leave these researchers in the dark about who was on the property at the time. They could have passed away a day too soon. If it was not for this informant, a good chunk of this article is gone with the wind. One can never be too lucky.

    53. Plato Turner was James Burr's grandfather.

      How come he was still a slave? His grandfather gained freedom so his lineage after him should gain those same rights from birth. He was not born a slave after all. How did he become a slave again?

    54. He apparently returned to the Thomas household, since he stayed on as a servant to the judge's widow

      It is possible that he was one of the few slaves that were treated relatively alright in comparison to what we know was the norm back in the day. I can understand if that was his reason for deserting. However, serving in the military is a daunting task and maybe it proved to be too much and risking his life for freedom was not worth the trade off of what he had going for him as a slave.

    55. The information summarized above is all we know.

      I find it interesting that the city did the excavation for this small site. I guess they were left asking more questions about how Cato,Quamany, Prince, and Plato lived there lives. Curiosity is always a good motivator to digging up history. Maybe there is more left to be found at the site.

    56. Real Estate: None.

      Buying real estate was never easy being a minority. I would think that today everybody has the same success at buying a house. However according to the NY Times, minorities are still hit the hardest during a weak economy. Can equal opportunity housing ever be reached? What else can we possibly change?

    57. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting ways is a piece of literature that speaks about how four African american men setup their community following gained freedom from serving in the revolutionary war. There is very little written history about the four individuals due to their lack of social status at the time. In order to make up for this lack of written history, Deetz combines what little oral history he had with archaeology to form a respectable understanding of how these men lived there lives after gaining their independence. Deetz then compares his findings to today's architecture to show how these men had an impact on african american history. (Deetz, 1996, p. 187)

    1. This book is intended as a beginner’s guide to vernacular architecture studies. The idea for it came from the classroom. As teachers, we wanted an introductory text for students that would both open their eyes to the world of ordi­nary buildings and outline a basic method for studying them. It had to be affordable, so it had to be short. And if not simple, the coverage had to be straightforward enough so that students and others encountering this material for the first time could easily use it. Luckily we had a model. When we were talking about what our research guide might look like, Jam es Deetz’s pocket-sized Invitation to Archaeology immediately came to mind. The book cost $1.45 in the late 1960s and presented readers with a con­cise but detailed description of how to go about putting archaeology into practice. We honor both book and author in recycling its title and basic approach here. There was nothing we could do about the price.

      I believe that it is certainly an amazing idea to have this subject thought not just researches and scientist but everyday people as well. I believe it is very important to know your history not just through people or actions that took plays but through architecture as well.

    2. *I.l:lI N V I TAT ION TOVernacular Architecture

      'Invitation to Vernacular Architecture' uses a variety of ideas and concepts to explain the full complexity of what exactly is is that this type of architect studies. Carter and Cromley introduce ideas, making them essential, of the study into more than just the physical building, but the stories, culture, time periods, and location as all things that can effect what a building is and why we see it today

      Carter, T., & Cromely, E. C. (2005). Invitation to vernacular architecture: a guide to the study of ordinary buildings and landscapes. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee.

    3. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Puts an emphasis on the importance of building in general, rather on the idea of what the buildings meaning may hold. While the meaning of vernacular architecture is to analyze the buildings in different ways to get the most detailed description possible, its important to remember that at one time, buildings were the only way people knew how to leave their mark.

    4. And of course if we are looking for “traces of people doing things,” then it is easy to see that one of the main things people did in the past was to build and/or use buildings, and with such objects we do not have to rely on what people said about them.

      One way the people that study these buildings are able to draw conclusions is simply through using the progression of the buildings themselves. This quote makes it clear that, in some situations, contact with people from the past or even curiosity about the thoughts that engaged their architectural ideas are unneeded because through the building they can see all they need to know

  4. Jan 2017
    1. [ethnographic research implies, then, immediate ccmtac t with the behavic >r being studied.11

      Ethnographic research is being defined as as a type of research that can't be tainted or influenced from any outside source, since it is being directly observed

    2. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea. Vernacular architecture research is not going to replac e other kinds of humanistic inquiry. In the right situations, however, it can con­tribute greatly in addressing many kinds of questions concerning human behavior.

      The author explains that the idea of vernacular architecture is not to replace other kinds of studies or even really to compete with them. The purpose of this study is to, like it is said in the quote, contribute greatly in addressing questions on human behavior. By stating this, I feel like the author gave depth to the idea of his study in making it out to be something only intended to help rather than used to compete.

    3. If you are interested in studying build­ings, particularly those of the more ordinary variety that have not been studied before, the place to begin is with the buildings themselves.

      Often time people think the best way to learn about something is to dive into research about that subject. This can be done through online data, reading books, talking to specialists, etc. This article explains that for vernacular architecture, the best way to know what you need to know is to go to the building itself and see what you can see. Investigate there.

    4. Still, no matter how much extrinsic data there is, the evidence obtained by studying the physical object lies at the heart of the research

      draws in from points in my last annotation, explaining the importance of the research more so than just the extrinsic data. The research, as stated before, can be explained partially as the experiences the building has undergone or the stories that make it mean something to someone.

    5. It should he stressed, however, that the field of material culture studies remains artifact-driven, and the investigation and interpretation of buildings and land­scapes play leading roles in the research process.

      Artifact - driven studies become very objective, giving meaning to the building itself, but lacking the ideas of importance on the history of the building and it's meaning to the culture it was initially originated on. This quotes doesn't fail to mention that interpretation of the building is still essential, but more so in the research process.

    6. Building separate, detached houses that are spaced far apart in the countryside or separated by just a few feet in urban neighborhoods (fig. 1) would be another way this spirit of indi­viduation is advanced through architecture.

      Uses the definition of culture as "consisting of ideas, values, and beliefs stemming from a particular social group", this statement takes culture and personalizes it to a certain individuals trait: valuing private space. By personalizing this concept and making it easier to understand, the author then applies that idea of culture and personal space to architecture, demonstrating how every decision made through architecture is influenced by our own customs, beliefs, and visions.

    7. The study of vernacular architecture is part of a larger scholarly undertaking known as material culture studies." Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.”'

      Material culture is based off of purely physical and objective aspects of a certain built environment, but these physical aspects are reflective of the culture that influenced or even physically constructed the environment observed. The culture has a lasting affect on not only the way the building was constructed, but the meaning put behind it for that certain group

    8. “historic architecture is one aspect of the past that we can still see, touch, experience . . . and part of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”1" I

      These building are able to communicate through more than the stories or journals told about the events taken place inside, but also in the way they were built and still stand in relation to what we know about other buildings from that time. Can be tied in with "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" by noting that natural disaster and all of the emotions that lie within that disaster can be tied to the progression of housing in a certain area and how it affected the people there

    9. As you move further back in time, however, and the testi­monies or actions of users are missing, a well-trained eye for what was built, used, remodeled, or even torn down may be all you have. R

      In "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" it states that Native Americans, African Americans, and ethnic enclaves have centuries of old ties to land, making them the hardest to advocate displacement. This exemplifies this concept of Vernacular Architecture, showing that certain groups of people make ties to a certain area through culture and experience and in that, it becomes who they are and hard to let go or progress from.

    1. This is the first annotation for this reading.

    2. although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      James F Deetz exposes the racial and economic differences experienced by freed African American slaves following the revolutionary war. He engages us in gathering every bit of detail and document he can gather about Cato Howe and 3 other men and their families ,post-war, how they all had to survive on 96 acres on infertile land and had to survive off government pensions. It was on this land where he spent the remainder of his days with the tiny community he formed. He lived out a modest life only having a total of 27 dollars to his name, never having more than the minimum things he required to continue living. Although his life was modest the only documents we can obtain about him was his military and death records and a few references the city of Plymouth makes when addressing the land other than that, it was as if he never existed. Through the process of archaeology we are able to determine so much more using the well preserved remains were dug up from his property to not only get a better understanding of his life and community but also the modest living standards he lived off till the end of his days.

    3. "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz provided knowledge in regards to the lack of resources available on the history of slaves and minority groups. In class, we discussed in small groups how the absence of documentation and detail(s) not only shed light on the attitude towards minorities, but it additionally paralleled it. "Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details.", is what Deetz can supply through research and history of Cato Howe and "his fellow blacks of Plymouth". Slaves were commonly given alternate names under their owners care and as "Cato" was a "common slave name", it rendered research fairly useless as no one person could determine if it was the Cato Howe they were looking for. This text has a very to the point, no-frills, dry style to it, yet it keeps me (and my small group) reading. The compelling part of this story for me is that these men (Cato, Quamany, Prince, and Plato), regardless of color, did so much for their country and lived their lives modestly. Yet, because of the color of their skin, they were unable to receive pensions the first time and even for Prince, unable to receive freedom.

  5. Sep 2016
  6. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. Bunker Hill

      The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first official battle of the Revolutionary War and took place in Massachusetts. Despite a narrow British victory, the battle encouraged the rebels that they had a chance to win the war. “The Battle of Bunker Hill: Now We Are at War.” Accessed September 6, 2016. https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/42bunker/42bunker.htm.

    2. 61.82 1/2

      I wanted to see some economics numbers from the time to compare Howe's wealth with the average American, but I could not find any substantial economic statistics on the period. However, I was able to find some inflation calculations and found that Howe's wealth would be around $1474.43, but that's still useless with comparative statistics. Here's the graph that shows US inflation from 1792-2016: “$61.82 in 1792 - Inflation Calculator.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.in2013dollars.com/1792-dollars-in-2016?amount=61.82.

    3. Both sections of the footing showed extensive evidence of fire.

      I have noticed that in several of the history books that I've read, fires often cause historians trouble become so many documents have burned either on accident, like Thomas Jefferson's childhood journals, or purposely, George and Martha Washington's letters.

    4. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form.

      I would never have thought of shotgun houses being African in origin because I have seen it so much in the South. I did some quick reading on them, and, apparently, it is theorized that shotgun houses came with Haitian immigrants, which is why their popularization started in Louisiana and Creole communities and grew in use both due to smaller urban residential lots and real estate taxes that charged based on frontage, not square footage.

      Campanella, Richard. “Shotgun Geography: The History behind the Famous New Orleans Elongated House.” NOLA.com, February 12, 2014. http://www.nola.com/homegarden/index.ssf/2014/02/shotgun_geography_new_orleans.html.

    5. However marginal they may have seemed to the dominant European community,

      I find this statement contradictory because I felt that some of Deetz's earlier writing in this article showed that the community had some care for them, as evidenced by them receiving land at all and having high-quality pottery, possibly gifts from wealthy men.

    6. John Vlach tells us that there is a clear pattern in the types of objects used by African Americans to decorate graves.

      Some very quick reading on this topic taught me that it was a common spiritual belief in Africa that even the afterlife people had the same needs, so the broken objects may be items that the family members thought the dead would need or want. My hypothesis from that would be that the bottles would be smashed to deliver water to the grave. “44-1-10.pdf.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/NP/44-1-10.pdf.

      It is another common pattern that I have read in history where people are buried with items that they might need or want, like how the Egyptian Pharaohs were buried with their belongings and even servants, or how in the ancient Indus Valley society, wives would throw themselves onto their husband's funeral pyres, or in Roman civilization, the dead were buried with a coin in their mouth to pay for the passage into the afterlife.

    7. A widespread African system of belief holds not only that the spirits of the dead are white beings, but they reside beneath the water.

      I remember that when I lived in Uganda, native Ugandans would often say water to mean life, and none of us understand why. I think that these ideas are likely connected.

    8. Since the artifactual and architectural remains of these communities are a better index of the life of African Americans in their own terms, they hold great promise of supplementing American black history in a different and important way.

      This concept reminds me of the "Introduction to Vernacular Architecture" article where it talked about how structures that were ordinary and unremarkable at the time but now have huge potential to offer valuable insight into how people lived and the zeitgeist of their time.

    9. In our world today, other lessons gained from thinking about artifacts might be applicable.

      When I took AP Lang, my teacher instilled in me the idea that "Everything's an argument" (Houser 2014), so I have developed the habit of searching for the argument immediately whenever I read nearly anything critically. While reading this article, I could not find any argument to this piece until this paragraph. It felt purposeless to me at first, but looking at it retroactively, I now see a sharply crafted argument about the importance of archaeology and artifacts history and cultural anthropology through this example.

    10. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      One thing that bothered me about Deetz's writing was that it seemed to occasionally try to suggest a subtle commentary about African-American history, but any attempted analysis lacked a crafted sense of reason to me. After all, the crime of America and African-American history is well documented, and, of course, there is always some new perspective or idea to suggest, Deetz never adds anything to the commentary other stating that it was as bad. For me, the embedded commentary did not add to the article and distracted from what, I felt, was the central argument about the importance of archaeological analysis because I was, instead, thinking about the racial implications.

    11. In the New York Times article "Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think," economist Dean Baker explains the negative reasons behind the decline in homeownership that are not the obvious reasons that come to mind initially. Baker presumes that most people will interpret the homeownership drop is bad because most people feel that owning a home is inherently good, but Baker states that the drop actually has some potentially positive omens as owning a home is not universally a positive choice for every person. Ideally, Baker says, a drop in owning homes should mean that people are investing money into areas beyond real estate that are more sensible given a person's current condition and that are cheaper and safer to return a profit. However, non-home investments have gone down faster than homeownership, a problem that Baker attributes to the fact that most adults and families lack the education and knowledge to make an informed decision for them and their families. Further, this homeownership drop has disproportionately affected African-Americans, implying that African-Americans also disproportionately lack the ability to make informed financial decisions.

      Where I saw this connect to the story of Parting Ways was that when the African-American men who would live there surely lacked the teachings needed to live effectively because they had been raised as slaves and not given educations, and other than their time as slaves, soldering was the only other form of work that they had been exposed to; even though the land of Parting Ways was destitute, the residents only had farming as way of life to take up. Without any formal education, any ability, or even chance, to read, write, understand finances, run businesses, etc. the four men had no choice but to take up the lives of farmers even if their land lacked the necessary resources. For the African-American citizens today without investments or wise money spending, most of them, likely, grew up in and were educated in poor areas with low qualities of educations due to a lack of funding from low tax revenue. The opportunity exists for these African-Americans and their families to improve their lives and conditions of living, but they cannot take these opportunities because nobody ever gave them the ability to do so. The problem is not as conspicuous as the problems of the 1790's; it is easy to look back and see the crime of allowing children to be born into the world as property and then thrown out into without any reasonable education to give them the abilities to live the full potentials of their lives, both as a result of the lack of training and of the legal, institutional, cultural, and overall barriers placed in the way of African-Americans. Today, children are not born into slavery, but children are born into situations where their parents never received the proper tools to do better and succeed and create a better life, and, as a result, neither do their children. The struggles and consequences of the past are not as acute and definite, as they were at Parting Ways and the entire freedmen community, yet they exist, and it would be another crime to forget that.

       “Homeownership at 50-Year Low — So What?” The New York Times. Accessed September 7, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think.
    12. But the evidence for a two-period construction is quite clear and sufficient.

      I also find it unbelievable that archaeologists are able to determine precise dates for renovations and buildings. The archaeologists noted that James Burr's house was constructed in two different phases with each phase about thirty years apart from the other. The first phase of construction was likely by Burr's grandfather. The second phase was completed by Burr himself when he added a cellar. Centuries later, archaeologists somehow dated the renovations that occurred on the buildings. This ability nutures the admiration I have for individuals in that profession.

    13. The town authorized the sale of the property in that year, referring to it as land "recently held by Cato Howe, deceased" and "formerly occupied by Prince, man of color."

      Why did the land owned by four men go enlisted as Howe's acreage? Was Howe deemed as more important than his counterparts who also lived in the New Guinea community? Additionally, the town's authorization included the information that the land was formerly occupied by a "man of color" which demonstrates the nation's emphasize on race as a social construct and hierarchy. In realty, European settlers probably did not desire to live in a settlement that was previously owned by an African American. Therefore, under the house's description, the potential buyers were informed if the land was once owned by a "man of color."

    14. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      Personally, I have never utilized oral history into any of my research. Therefore, I find it immensely interesting that a key piece of evidence in the archaeological research of Burr's home was that of oral history regarding the cellar. What are the advantages and disadvantages of oral sources?

    15. https://www.youtube.com/a40c636a-ab25-4342-9687-7a375e1e1565 I found a great, short video that quickly introduces what Parting Ways is. Its a fantastic source for background information going in to reading the article.

    16. 61.82 1/2

      By the time of Howe's death, he had acquired more valuables that equated to $61.82 and 1/2. Though, still very few in actual value, the growth of his net value illustrates that during his later life, Howe was able to grow and sustain his belongings. Maybe the African American community that he lived on helped to further his revenue...

    17. Prince Goodwin is the only one of the four whose life before the war is indicated in any way. He was a slave, owned first by Dr. William Thomas and then by his son, judge Joshua Thomas.

      It is unfortunate that the only known records kept of Prince Goodwin before his service in the army was that he served as a slave by Dr. William Thomas and his son, Joshua Thomas. No birth certificates - just his slave contract. The single documentation of his servitude defined Goodwin, until archaeology was implemented in this study and discovered his life story.

    18. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      Howe's total value when asking to receive government pension was $27. This is crazy to even fathom because $27 nowadays will never be enough to survive on. Of course, inflation and the value of a dollar was immensely different in the 1800's, but the slim value of his belongings demonstrate how Howe owned a small amount of items.

    19. At the same time, the committee sought and obtained a vote at Plymouth town meeting to set the land aside for memorial purposes, including the area of the Parting Ways settlement.

      My previous question was answered. The land has been reserved for historical landmark purposes. In fact, after doing research, there is a Parting Ways cemetery that exists in Massachusetts which acts as a historical landmark for the Parting Ways community.

    20. Yoruba two-room side-entrance building

      A very very modernized version of that concept

    21. their African heritage surfaced one more time

      How many generations removed were the Parting Ways residents from being in Africa?

    22. Cato Howe was black.

      This quote about Howe's race was in a paragraph all by itself - the sole sentence in the entire paragraph, thus emphasizing the significance of Howe's race. Additionally, in this brief biography, the author mentions he served in the army. Because of the perception of servicemen during this time period, readers might assume Howe to be of European decent, though the author promptly stops this assumption by stating the shocking fact of Howe's race.

    23. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by

      After Howe's service, the opportunities for him to succeed and make a decent living were slim even though he was free. The government did very little to help accommodate for Howe. Nowadays, the government is willing and able to help those who have served in our military which contrasts to the 1800's. Was it because of Howe's race that he did not receive aid or was it because the government solely did little to help?

    24. tiny cemetery

    25. In 1818 he applied to the government for a pension, based on reduced circumstances.

      Is government pension back in the 1800's similar to government aid like medicaid, medicare, food stamps, etc. nowadays? I had no idea that the 1800's instituted welfare programs like modern day.

    26. Cato Howe is not a name we will find in our history books.

      Though, most students do not learn about Howe in history curriculum, it does not mean Howe does not have any historical impact in America. The introduction of Howe makes it appear that the readers have no information regarding him, though once we continue reading, it is incredible how much you can determine about an individual based off archives and archaeological data. Solely based off fact, readers can learn the majority of Howe's lifetime, even though at the beginning of this passage, he is unfamiliar territory.

    27. Even less is known about the three men who were his neighbors in the little community of New Guinea.

      In the article "America must equalize access home-ownership and its wealth opportunities" by Charlene Crowell, Crowell discusses the lack of opportunities for individuals and families who struggle financially to receive equal and accessible housing that permeates financial growth. The government practices discriminatory policies that enables minority races to build any sort of wealth and access financial aid (i.e. loans) to aid in mortgage payments. There exists a connection between this article and Parting Ways in regards to minority communities. In particular, Crowell states "new research by the Center for Responsible Lending, highlights how post-housing crisis lending trends perpetuate racial wealth gaps and housing segregation" (Crowell). Essentially, this modern dilemma depicts the housing status back in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Communities thrived in the 1700's when the individuals that owned land were wealthy and Caucasian. Contrastingly, in Parting Ways, the four African American men were segregated in Plymouth and lived in intense poverty, just like the Latinos and Blacks in present day America. Furthermore, "these practices erect yet another barrier to wealth creation for these communities" (Crowell). Ultimately, because of this racial bias, African American communities, like those of Parting Ways, were unable to thrive financially and remained separate from the white colonized settlements.

      Website Credit:

      Crusader. “America Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities.” Gary/Chicago Crusader. N.p., 15 Aug. 2016. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    28. shotgun house

    29. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

    30. terminus post quem

      " Latin for "limit after which," is used to indicate the date after which an artifact must have been deposited." “TPQ.pdf.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/comic/activity/pdf/TPQ.pdf.

    31. A more striking aspect of this pottery is its very high quality. Types such as handpainted creamware are not often encountered on New England sites representing people of average means. We might guess that not only was the pottery given to the people of Parting Ways by the townspeople of Plymouth, but it was given by the wealthier ones

      Why would the wealthy people of Plymouth give the black men very nice pottery? Were racial tensions not as prevalent in Parting Ways and Plymouth? I have this fallacy where I believe that all whites hated African Americans during this era, though that may not be the case. Of course, racial tensions were high and Africans were treated as subordinate, but that hateful mindset does not apply to all Caucasians.

    32. photograph

    33. When the site was first visited, the area later shown to have been the main center of occupation was grassy, with an occasional locust tree, in contrast to the scrub pine and oak that covered the remaining original ninety-four acres. There was only one visible feature, a large cellar hole heavily overgrown with brush. Initial excavations were directed at this feature and a slight depression in the ground a short distance away.

    34. map

      Here's a modern map that I found that tries to replicate how the men divided the land. “Maps of New Guinea Settlement from 1823-Present | Parting Ways.” Accessed September 7, 2016. http://partingways.org/cms/learn/parting_ways/documents.

    35. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      To me, Deetz's tone feels like he's blaming this fact on Howe's race, but that feels unfair to me. Record-keeping was not a common practice in the 1700's.

    36. But Cato was a common slave name

      I'm also curious about why Cato was a common name. When I hear the name Cato, I think of the line of Roman politicians who hated Caesar. Carthage, and luxury.

    37. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports. They are also said to have been used at times for storing and shipping tamarind, a West African cultivated fruit that was grown in the West Indies.

      Somehow, jars from the West Indies made their way to Parting Ways. This difference in location is incredible. Who gave the men these jar? How did they transport to America? Did the men use it for the same purpose as those who used these jars in the West Indies (for tamarind)?

    38. New Guinea

      Why was New Guinea a common name?

    39. If archaeology is a vital contributor to our understanding of all of America's common folk, and what their life meant to them, it is doubly so in the case of our understanding of the black experience in America.

      That is an interesting point that I had never really considered, but it suddenly makes recounting individual black history more interesting given the difficulties that it presents.

    40. Cato Howe was black.

      Immediately, I'm curious about why the write chose to put such emphasis on the fact that Howe was black. The intro paragraph offers no reason for such importance.

    41. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This is exactly the question I have been pondering throughout the piece. Because of their African decent, did the men want to bring parts of their culture over to the community of New Guinea or did they want to expel their heritage from the ethnocentric European settlers?

    42. James F. Deetz

      According to the New York times, Deetz was a Harvard-educated anthropologist who specialized in colonial America. “James Deetz, 70, Chronicler of America's Colonial Past.” The New York Times, November 28, 2000, sec. National. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/28/national/28DEET.html.

    43. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

      What are the differences between West African and Anglo-American architecture? Stylistically, how did they compare to one another?

    44. Yet, even though the photograph of the Burr house shows a small chimney projecting from the roof, there was neither evidence nor space for a hearth and chimney of the sort seen in American houses of the period.

      Burr's home had a chimney while American houses of the same period did not utilize chimneys.. If Burr's chimney was indeed a properly functioning chimney, then his building's architecture was beyond the time of other American homes. For a financially struggling African American, owning a chimney was a more modern feature that other European homes did not attain.

    45. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form. Not only does the Burr house plan conform to the ground plans of shotgun houses, the dimensions are remarkably similar.

      The article displays a visual illustrating a traditional shotgun design, similar to Burr's house. In reference to shotgun houses, I took a human geography course where I had to locate traditional shotgun houses within my hometown. Because of the assignment, I became quite knowledgeable on that particular structure. Never did I think that shotgun structures would be utilized again in another course, but I am thankful that it arose in this subject!

    46. The little houses at Parting Ways were probably no less, yet because of the poverty of their builders and the scarcity of material, perhaps the statement was not as blatantly made.

      The houses at Parting Ways may not be intentionally shotgun houses due to their scarce materials and impoverish lifestyle. With limited resources and capital, the men built houses that fit within their budget which so happened to be buildings that resembled those of a shotgun structure. Contrastingly, because of Burr's African background, he could have utilized the African American architectural form when constructing his home. Was there an intention for shotgun houses due to ethnic influences or was it pure coincidence under the scare circumstances?

    47. While it may be that they formed a close community simply for mutual reassurance, it is equally likely that the placement of the houses reflects a more corporate spirit than four Anglo-Americans might show in similar circumstances.

      Instinctively, people with common characteristics, ideas, and beliefs tend to accumulate together to form a sense of a community. I believe this idea resonates with the four men in Parting Ways more so than the idea that the placement of houses reflected their shared "spirit." It seems more probable that their local government decided the placement of their houses and their mutual cultural identities made their community and households similar.

    48. It may be the poverty in which the inhabitants lived that is shown by the large number of cow's feet, which make up the majority of the animal bone found. Such parts were of little value to Anglo-Americans, although they could be cooked to yield nourishment.

      The feet bones that remained from cows tell us about the nourishment and cuisine of Anglo-Americans. At this time, cow feet were of little value to most inhabitants, but they still could act as a source of food, especially to those who are desperate for survival. Maybe, the four men had a particularly preference in cuisine that utilized cow feet as opposed to Anglo-American cuisine... or maybe the four men were so impoverished that they could only utilize the undervalued meat because of their limited income.

    49. Parting Ways is a very special site, in that it was occupied by at least three families of African Americans who were free of those constraints which might have been imposed on them under the institution of slavery.

      This is one of the first times that this article discusses the abnormality of these four men's freedom. I find it quite interesting that these four men were not under the institution of slavery because slavery was unfortunately so common for African Americans during this time period. I do understand that because of their service in the national army, they were able to get out of their contract of slavery, but this was not the norm for most Africans in America. However, it is impressive that after numerous years, four men who gained their freedom were able to form a community together based on the foundation of their ethnicity.

    50. HERE LIE THE GRAVES OF FOUR NEGRO SLAVES QUAMANY    PRINCE PLATO           CATO THESE MEN FOUGHT IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND WERE FREED AT ITS CLOSE. The cemetery is located in the original 94 acre plot of land which was deeded to them by the government when they were given their freedom.

      On most gravestones, the text is dedicated to shedding light on deceased individuals' lives to the fullest extent. Though on the four men's gravestone, it does attempt to remember the men positively. Inevitably, it exhibits their inferiority through the presence of "four negro slaves" which illustrates the corrupt racial hierarchy that America instituted. The positive attributes about their service and their freedom, in my opinion, are outweighed by the powerful phrase "negro slaves." Hypothetically, if race were not included in the memorial, then individuals during that time period would have viewed the African American soldiers as more admirable and heroic.

    51. Almost seven thousand artifacts were found atop the paving, and for the most part were concentrated in two discrete areas. The vast majority of these artifacts were fragments of pottery, but there were pieces of shattered glassware as well.

      What was the importance of pottery during this time period? Was it an elevated piece of art that the upper class yearned to own or was it used practically in households by all classes to store various items? Personally, I believe the African Americans utilized the pottery for everyday tasks (i.e storage), though that does not mean the pottery was not important to their culture. The pottery could hold significant value to family lineage and/or cultural customs. Both practicality and aesthetic could be representative by the pottery's use.

    52. As a servant to a congressman, he lived in Washington and traveled to England.

      Being a slave to an upper-class member of society, James Burr got opportunities that his ancestors did not get. Most notably, records about him. He also was most likely treated better than slaves of a lower class member of society. This is demonstrated in this portrait of slaves from a wealthy family below. The slaves are well-dressed and seem to be treated fairly well (at least from the picture's perspective). This of course, was not the reality for all slaves, but is a snapshot of slave life for the rich.

      Source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/516506650991376779/

    53. The article I read to relate to this one was the CNN article detailing how historical objects were lost in the recent Italian earthquake (http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/25/europe/italy-earthquake-historic-sites-damaged/ ). The article states that multiple historic sites in Italy were damaged structurally by the earthquake. Many historic churches suffered structural cracks and some even partially collapsed and sites dating back to the medieval times were damaged, much to the disappointment and saddening of Italy's Minister of Culture, Dario Franceschini and historians everywhere. Because of this destruction to Italy's historical objects, on August 28 all proceeds from state museums went to a fund to help start rebuilding the damage. Hopefully soon, these ancient sites will be repaired.

      This article relates to "Parting Ways" because both deal, obviously, with historical objects. Also, in both articles, a historical object gets destroyed. In "Parting Ways," the house burns down, and in the CNN article ancient structures are damaged because of the earthquake. In both articles, archaeologists have to use the past in order to draw conclusions in the present. For Italy, the rebuilt churches will not be the same as the original, but they will come close. This is because we have so many ancient buildings to learn from. We know how people back then built structures. We know the techniques and the styles from studying buildings and art. By studying the buildings so intently, we know how to recreate them. So, by studying past culture and tradition, we know more about the present than we would otherwise. In "Parting Ways," this is similar. Because the houses are gone we cannot study the actual thing. However, with the help of photographs, oral histories, and excavations, we learn clues about how past people lived. We can learn about their culture and their traditions, and ways that they took their own culture and morphed it in some ways to make it more modern and useful. In both these articles, people studying the past are using what they learned to impact the present. Archaeologists who look to and learn from the past can use their knowledge of past tradition and culture and techniques to further understand and shape the present, whether it be to see how freed slaves lived, or to rebuild medieval churches.


      Orjoux, Alanne. "Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake." CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Aug. 2016. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

    54. Such breakage could be seen to be done to prevent theft, but Vlach cites extensive evidence that such is not the case, since the community will not disturb grave offerings, even coins, as a result of customs which had their origin in the African past.

      Maybe I depict humans as selfish and evil, but why did the community not disturb the grave offerings? I would assume that certain individuals would steal the objects and use them for their own benefit. Perhaps, the valuables did not get stolen because the community recognized the significance of those gravestone offerings to the deceased and respected them... or perhaps the community saw no value in the items and therefore did not result to theft.

    55. It tells us that such patterns are applicable only to the remains of a single cultural tradition, and once outside that tradition, other rules apply.

      The variations in architectural structure of the African men in Parting Ways could potentially occur because of their difference in location in relation to other Anglo-American communities. Similar to the idea of varying dialects between the same culture, the men's style might have a slight variance because they do not live in close proximity to the majority of Anglo-American culture.

    56. associated with African American ritual practices and their West African roots.

      The huge importance of culture again being seen here. This connects to annotations I had above about culture influencing society.

    57. Such conditions did not prevail in the Plantation South, where the yoke of slavery was not removed until the time of the Civil War.

      This is an example of social environment impacting culture. Below is a timeline from an AP World History website showing how slavery changed over the of the civil war years. This timeline supports what Deetz is writing here.

    58. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      Americans today assume that our nation has been founded and will forever stand as a cultural "melting pot." Contrast to popular belief, this has never been the case. Differing cultures face immense diversity and are not easily accepted to "swim in the so-called melting pot" like those of European decent. I enjoy how the author concludes with an idea that is contrasting to the belief that Americans have been institutionalized since youth. In relation to Parting Ways, I find it incredible that the four men's African heritage remained as the sole backbone of their homes, even after enduring the hardship that slavery and racial tensions in society inflicted upon them. The four men did not perceive America as a melting pot because the colonists did not desire to swim in the same pot as inferiors.

    59. . . . the grave, save for its rawness, resembled any other marked off without order about the barren plot by shards of pottery and broken bottles and old brick and other objects insignificant to sight but actually of a profound meaning and fatal to touch, which no white man could have read

      Faulkner makes it appear that the decorations on African American gravestones serve no meaning to white individuals, but symbolize immense significance to other African Americans. Ultimately, whites will never understand. This stands out to me because Caucasians have always been deemed as superior and represented in society, but this African gravestone undoubtedly does not include them and praises the African American instead. With a society that is always praising white culture, it is almost unheard of to own valuables that do not involve Caucasians. Additionally, Faulkner is a white man writing about black culture in this excerpt so I wonder if his conclusion about African gravestones is accurate or is it biased?

    60. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting Ways by James Deetz is a scholarly article that highlights an African American community and discovers decades worth of information based on the archaeological examination of the homes in Parting Ways. The article focuses on Cato Howe, Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany. Initially, not much is known about these individuals apart from the fact that they were once slaves and then were granted their freedom after service in the army. Though on the surface, not much can be inferred about each individuals' life, after immense scrutiny of the architecture of their community, their life stories can be unraveled and praised. Deetz demonstrates the importance of utilizing archaeology in telling the history of the undocumented and potentially forgotten.

    61. Renewed interest in the tiny community and its inhabitants had been generated by a special town bicentennial committee on black history, and this group's efforts at first were directed at the cemetery.

      This is a photo of the gravestone that currently lies in the Parting Ways cemetery. Before finding images of the cemetery, I read that the gravestone stated "here lies the graves of four negro slaves." Initially, I was in disgust because the four men from Parting Ways are more than just negro slaves. They have an identity that goes beyond such a subservient title. They had family, friends, belongings, property, a unique culture. But to the on-goers looking at their gravestone, they are just a group of slaves. Now, after looking at the reality of the photo, I hope people realize the impact that these men had on colonial society other than the coercive labor that they had to endure.

      Image credit:

      “Find A Grave - Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials.” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    62. at home in Plymouth, Massachusetts.


      To familiarize myself with the geography of Parting Ways and to visualize Deetz's setting, I looked up the location on Google Maps. In present day, the Parting Ways community is commemorated with a cemetery that honors the individuals who had once lived there. Parting Ways is located in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Too my surprise (mainly because I'm ignorant about United State's geography), I discovered that the city of Plymouth lies right next to Plymouth bay! After this discovery, it makes sense that the colony would be located near a coastline due to the sail-ships that transported individuals from Europe to the Americas via the Atlantic.

      Website Credit:

      “Parting Ways Cemetery.” Parting Ways Cemetery. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    63. The house has a small central chimney, and with its shingled exterior and six-over-six windows

      This is an image of the Turner-Burr house which was structurally different from most vernacular houses of the nineteenth century. In my opinion, the house reminds me of a classic one-story shotgun style home because of the structure's long and narrow frame. Shotgun houses originate from African influences which could be a coincidence or it could be intentional due to the African Americans living in the community. Additionally, for such a small house, there were plenty of windows that acted as a primary light source. Since electricity was not accessible during this time, it makes sense that the building had numerous windows; it was a necessity.

      Image Credit:

      “parting5.jpg (JPEG Image, 400 × 246 Pixels).” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

    64. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      By studying buildings, we not only learn about the building itself and who lived there, but we also learn about interactions inhabitants of the building had with other humans--interactions we did not previously think had happened or were possible.

    65. complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      This is obviously the downside to oral history. Each person is going to remember the same event or thing a little differently and that can throw off the actual description. That is why archaeologists must use good judgement when listening to a person recall a memory or a story and use common sense when comparing it to other's. This connects to my annotations on pages 194 and 195.

    66. The man was ninety-one years old and remembered walking past the house as a child

      This is a great example of oral history filling in the blanks for what is not there (the actual house). Because of this old man's memory and story, we are able to visualize the town more clearly and know that there was a house there.This supports my annotation from page 194.

    67. For this reason, the archaeological dimension of the study of the community assumes a much greater significance. In some respects, such investigations take on some of the aspects of prehistoric archaeology

      When we are studying a person whose life does not have much record, we must turn to outside sources to help fill in the gap. These outside sources can be anything, and sometimes can take the researcher as far back as to prehistoric times.

    68. In 1975 an archaeological investigation of the Parting Ways community was begun.

      It was probably at this archaeological investigation that archaeologists began to learn about Cato Howe and the town that he was a part of. Below is a link to the project's website. Here there is more information available to the reader than what is provided in this article.


    69. Cato Howe was black.

      By introducing the reader to his fact right from the start, we now can start forming ideas about the sorts of troubles and problems Cato Howe faced in his time serving in the Army and also in life afterwards.

    70. People who held such a status could hardly be expected to have recorded a history of their own in any conventional way, although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope.

      Slavery and the way blacks were treated at this time period not only affected them in the present but also in the future. Because of this, it is harder for us now to study their lives and find the details about their lifestyles.

    71. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      It is ironic and sad that the government (and no one else) cared to take any record of Cato until he had to serve for the country. This is the sad truth that the government (and white people) did not care about blacks back then until they needed their help.

    72. "voted and granted a strip of land about twenty rods wide and about a mile and a half long on the easterly side of the sheep pasture, to such persons as will clear the same in the term of three years."

      It's very cool that we still have records like this today. These records can help tell us a lot about who owned certain properties of land. This will help immensely when studying architecture and landscape and the histories of both.

    73. Cato married Lucy Prettison of Plymouth in 1821.

      What I am finding intriguing about all these details about Cato's life is earlier the author stated that there are few records about Cato before he served in the Army (besides his unconfirmed slave records). However, after he serves, there are plenty of records about where he lived, how much he was worth, who he married, when he died, etc. This shows that after a slave won their freedom (in this case Cato earning it by fighting in the war) they could become a true member of society even though society looked down on them because of their skin color.

    74. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      This supports the annotation I said previously. It took Cato serving in the war to be recognized as a true and free member of society and to have records about himself be written down.

    75. He was a slave, owned first by Dr. William Thomas and then by his son, judge Joshua Thomas.

      It is disappointing that the only reasons we have records of Prince Goodwin is because he was a slave. It just shows how different society was back then and how class played such an important role on your place in society.

    76. Melted window glass, heavy charcoal and ash deposits, and large numbers of nails all attest to the house's having burned in place.

      I think it is amazing how archaeologists can look at these ruins (broken glass, ash, nails, etc.) and use that to determine the house's fate. Being able to analyze clues like this can be really beneficial in learning about a building's past.

    77. Types such as handpainted creamware are not often encountered on New England sites representing people of average means.

      If only the upper-class had pottery like this, it makes us wonder, why did low-income, freed blacks have this type of pottery? Who gave it to them? And why did they keep it and not sell it for a profit?

    78. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This is a great question to pose, and one that is very hard to answer. However, through archaeology and archaeological digs, we can hope to come close to an answer.

    79. So it is that while the artifacts available to the members of the Parting Ways settlement were of necessity almost entirely Anglo-American, the rules by which they were put to use in functional combinations might have been more African American.

      Here is a prime example of two cultures colliding, and us learning about it only by excavating the site to learn more about it. The archaeologists just wanted to learn more about the building site, and ended up discovering something about culture, too.

    80. But the negative evidence is strong, so there had to be some accommodation for one within the building.

      Here, the picture is helping the archaeologists draw conclusions that would have otherwise baffled them. Even though there is no physical evidence that a fire place existed, because the picture shows one, that means it was there and was there with some purpose. Working backwards from this, archaeologists know what to search for to find more evidence of the fire place.

    81. Beyond this, there are differences.

      Culture changes over time. The basis can remain the same, but key aspects can and will change. Adjusting to the new environment always occurs.

    82. At the time of the community's formation, the usual pattern of Anglo-American house placement was a scattered one, each family on its own property.

      A key example to support my previous point. The settlers built their houses in accordance to tradition and culture, but modified key things, such as living patterns.

    83. they were able to organize their world on their own terms from the late eighteenth century onward.

      These African Americans who shared this land were a special group of people because they were not only freed slaves, but they also took culture and modified it and impact future generations. And by looking at their lifestyles and how they lived, we now in present time have a better understanding of life and culture back then.

    84. Prior to the excavations at Parting Ways in 1975 and 1976, the site was known only as the location of a tiny cemetery

      Examining the history and previous culture of a site can unlock clues for us in the present to learn what really happened there. That's why it's important for us now to study the past.

    85. Such a pattern has a striking parallel to grave decoration practices as they are known from the American South.

      By finding this shattered pottery, we are able to learn that there could be a potential grave here! Culture practices spread all over and fundamentally stay the same. This is really interesting.

    86. graves and their decorations are seen as inviolate, not to be stolen from.

      This explains why these fragments were never removed or touched or bothered. The cultural traditions continue on.

    87. But because the artifacts themselves were so familiar to us, the essential differences were disguised behind them, and only when a more basic consideration of different perceptions of the world was made did the picture come into focus.

      What the author is trying to say here is that since everything was grounded in similar habits and culture, it was easier to draw connections.

    88. Since the artifactual and architectural remains of these communities are a better index of the life of African Americans in their own terms, they hold great promise of supplementing American black history in a different and important way.

      The author here is saying that while oral history and stories are helpful, archaeology can unlock secrets we would not have known otherwise. We can learn about lifestyles and culture through archaeology and see hands-on the lives these people were living.

    89. African heritage surfaced one more time.

      The freed slaves united and came together through the common-ground of pure African culture, tradition, and, most importantly, heritage.

    90. In their own way, the black settlers of Parting Ways maintained their cultural heritage in the face of adversity.

      Through archaeology, we are able to see that the freed slaves were not just people, they were freed African American slaves and veterans who overcame racism and poverty to unite and form a bond and keep their African heritage alive, not only for them, but for future generations.

    91. The presence of the kind of pottery normally seen as an indicator of high status on a site occupied by pensioners receiving eight dollars a month should serve as a caveat to those who would uncritically use such a single piece of evidence to support a point.

      Most often, if valuable objects are found at a site, it is inferred that these people were rich and could afford such items. However, it is known that these men only received eight dollars a month, thus making it impossible for them to have bought that item. At this point, critical thinking must come into play to determine how the pottery came into this men's possession.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust7.html. This is a picture of the pottery found at the site of Parting Ways

    92. from

      In After Flooding, Some Louisiana Students Face Uncertain School Year http://abcnews.go.com/US/flooding-louisiana-students-face-uncertain-school-year/story?id=41589657 This article speaks of the massive damage sustained to a school after a flood, displacing many students and families and providing uncertain futures. These students were unable to go to school, and some even bounced from house to house after their own was destroyed. Since so many cars were damaged as well, more buses would have to be in operation in order to pick up the same students, some of which are now out of the school district in the effort to find a place to live. This can relate to the text in that this reminds me of how these men were displaced after the war, and received just enough to start over and try to make their own lives. They were also displaced from their homes on a much larger scale, as their homeland was Africa, and they were unable to go back to where they grew up or at least where their families grew up.

    93. The Burr house had been built in two stages, separated by perhaps as much as thirty years. The initial construction had taken place long before Burr moved to the site, and in view of the relationship between the two men, it may have been done by Burr's grandfather, Plato Turner. This first, small structure was twelve feet square, as evidenced by perfectly preserved stone footings. These footings stood on an intentionally mounded earth platform. Artifacts in the fill of this feature and in the trenches that held the footings all point to a construction date at the turn of the nineteenth century, with creamware and pearlware fragments providing the most precise dating evidence. These footings immediately abutted the cellar, and the cellar was beneath a second room, producing an overall ground plan of two contiguous

      The foundations of the Burr house have never been touched, so the condition of them makes it very easy to see how the house was made and what it looked like.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust4.html. This is a picture of the foundations.

      “James Deetz, Parting Ways Site, Illustrations.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/partingillust2.html. This is the Burr hosue before it burnt down.

    94. The archaeology tells us that in spite of their lowly station in life, they were the bearers of a lifestyle, distinctly their own, neither recognized nor understood by their chroniclers.

      I find it awe-inspiring that despite racial inferiority and poverty, the African men were able to live a distinct ethnic lifestyle in Parting Ways where they developed their own unique culture.

    95. ny simple vernacular house of the nineteenth century (see Figure 13)

      A "simple vernacular house", this relates back to the other article we read. A vernacular house shows how people were living at the time, so buildings with small central chimneys, shingled exteriors, and six-over-six windows were typical of a house at this time.

      Evans, Walker. “Nineteenth-Century House. Beaufort, South Carolina.” Still image, 1936. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998020874/PP/. This is a picture of a nineteenth century home.

    96. The town authorized the sale of the property in that year, referring to it as land "recently held by Cato Howe, deceased" and "formerly occupied by Prince, man of color

      As soon as I read ""formerly occupied by Prince" all I could think of was "the artist formerly known as Prince".

    97. The land was not sold -- small wonder, in view of its poor quality -- and remains to this day the property of the town

      Has anyone else noticed how the tone of the narrator of this article is subtly judgmental of certain aspects? For the most part, the author is informative and reflective on the meaning of what was found at the Parting Ways site, but at some points the authors personal opinion comes out, giving the reader another way to view a situation.

    98. When the site was first visited, the area later shown to have been the main center of occupation was grassy, with an occasional locust tree, in contrast to the scrub pine and oak that covered the remaining original ninety-four acres.

      I wonder why there was such a difference in the vegetation that grew in the middle of the plot of land and what grew around it. Could there have been a natural spring or something, thus influencing where the men decided to build their homes?

    99. terminus post quem

      Terminus post quem means the earliest possible date for something. So the jar was made after the cellar was have supposed to have been filled, making it harder to pinpoint the exact time of these occurrings. In history it is very hard to make pinpoint exactly when events happened, unless there are artifacts with written dates on them. I guess most of history is just an approximation.

    100. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      It appears a large degree of African culture has survived the transition from Africa to America. This is displayed in the building structure of the houses these men built, where they built them, the presence of a certain kind of pottery unique to Africa and the West Indies, and how the men disposed of trash in underground cellars.

    101. But the negative evidence is strong, so there had to be some accommodation for one within the building.

      Negative evidence is "evidence for a theory provided by the nonoccurrence or absence of something". So even though there is no physical evidence that a fireplace or chimney was built into the house, that somehow proves that one did exist? I'm a bit confused by what this paragraph is trying to say.