84 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2017
    1. The basic vernacular arch­itecture research method, however, is hardly revolutionary: it still requires gathering data, ordering and analyzing the data, and interpreting the data. Our chapters generally follow this sequence. First there is a definitional chapter that introduces the community- based conceptual model underlying our approach to vernacular architecture and vernac­ular architecture studies. The second chapter provides a brief exegesis of the investiga­tory techniques used in the field documentation of buildings and landscapes. Chapter 3 shows how both field and archival evidence may be organized into a set of analytical frameworks that help illuminate patterns (or the absence of patterns) of behavior. In chapter 4 we give examples of how various practitioners in the discipline have inter­preted buildings and landscapes. And in chapter 5 we end by returning to the house on Richmond Avenue for a quick review of how the ideas contained in this book can be applied to a specific example of architecture. Also provided is a bibliographic survey of sources, which, along with the information contained in the footnotes, should help you move into the material on your own.

      This chapter by chapter research procedure reminds me of the scientific method, which is used to characterize natural phenomena in science. I use the scientific method as a reference to easily memorize the steps to studying buildings. Listed below, the scientific method requires 5 steps: make an observation, brainstorm a question, form a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and evaluate the information/draw a final conclusion.

      Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/The_Scientific_Method.jpg

    2. extrinsic

      In context, extrinsic data means information originating from the heart of matter and presumably irrelevant data. This word helps to emphasize the importance of the sentence. No matter much outside information is given, the most effective method to study architecture is to first hand observe and analyze the physical presence of it.

    3. “Buildings,” Gabrielle Lanier and Bernard Herman tell us at the beginning of their guide to architecture in the Mid- Atlantic region, “are the best teachers of ordinary architecture. Books, drawings, pho­tographs, and written documents are invaluable, but, inevitably, we learn the most about buildings by taking to the field— by looking, evaluating, measuring, questioning, and looking again.

      Buildings are the "best teachers of ordinary architecture" because one is able to actively go out and investigate/observe them. I agree with this statement because one may examine the small details that one cannot from pictures, books, or written documents. The most effective way to obtain the best kind of information is to have a hands on experience. This is also known as fieldwork.

    4. axiom

      Based off of Merriam-Webster, axiom is short for saying the self-evident truth that does not require any show of evidence. An example sentence is "According to the axiom, all women have equal opportunity and worth."

    5. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks, certainly. One has been mentioned already: the time it takes to do fieldwork. Another problem is the uneven rate of survival of buildings. Smaller houses tend not to endure, so the material record may be skewed in favor of the elites, just as the written record is. If we are trying to use buildings to get information about common people in everyday life, we will often be disappointed since much of the evidence from early periods of history is gone.

      The main two cons on why investigating history through buildings is ineffective are time investment and chance of survival of those buildings. It is not often that I see houses or buildings older than the 1800's in my community. A few of the buildings are either restricted due to future construction or some are completely demolished due to natural disasters.

    6. Fig. 10. Room 228, Art and Architecture Building, University o f Utah, Salt Lake City. Photo by Thomas' Carter

      The specific layout of this classroom in the University of Utah is very traditional and lacks active participation. Personally, I feel as if the students who are sitting in the first 2 rows have an advantage because they are closer to the teacher and lecture board. Looking at the back of the classroom, there are students who may not understand or comprehend information easily due to the placement of their desks. Students are only secluded to a particular group of people around them, which can lead to alienation and lack of communication throughout the entire classroom.

    7. If we teel that history ought to be an endeavoi that includes the widest range of people pos­sib le-rich and poor, black and white, ordi­nary and extraordinary', male and female— then we need to utilize the widest possible range of sources, and buildings are one such source (fig. 5 ).

      Another resource that almost everybody and anybody can utilize is MARTA, also known as the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority. In the supplementary article,"MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." Shamma thoroughly explains the plan to build six transit orientated developments near certain MARTA stations such as Edgewood/Candler Park, Chamblee, and Brookhaven/Oglethorpe University. These developments include housing, meal services, and recreation services such a park and performing arts center. MARTA gives back to those less unfortunate and those making low income in their area by committing approximately 20% of their housing complex to them. As an avid MARTA commuter, I think this is an amazing idea because it is convenient and affordable for almost everybody! It is a win win situation.

      Image: https://az616578.vo.msecnd.net/files/2015/06/27/6357102149783950631344411160_marta.gif

    8. Within this lengthy article, Carter and Cromley fully provide details and meaning to what our everyday architecture stands for, both physically and culturally. The authors imply the material world that we live in means more than what meets the eye. It mainly informs readers, who are either educated or uneducated in the field of vernacular architecture, how to understand and study various buildings in a thorough and refreshing perspective.

      For an additional reading, I chose to analyze Tasnim Shamma's "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Developed Project". This article explains how six transit-orientated developments will be constructed near MARTA stations in order to increase population density, revenue, and transit riders. These 224 unit developments accommodate for a wide range of people and include housing, recreational services, and meal services. The Edgewood/Candler Park station is the first out of the six to be finished by the end of this year. This certain part of the city populates low income families and individuals that can barely afford necessities and housing. As a way to fix this issue, MARTA issues 20 percent of the living area as affordable housing to the low income families and individuals. In addition, MARTA describes these developments convenient stating, "We want to create new ridership and these are our easiest riders" and "People will be right here to ride our services".

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." WABE 90.1 FM. WABE 90.1 FM , 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.

    9. Unlike other mammals, humans cannot simply live in nature; rather, we must devise ways of finding and making shelter, clothing and feeding ourselves, and producing the tools needed for survival

      This implies the raw and distinct comparison between mammals and humans. Not only do humans have to devise various ways for survival, but they also have the ability to self reflect. The only mammal that has almost a similar genetic code as us humans is a chimpanzee. The article below contains more information behind the meaning of self reflection and how it can be used to possess a more spiritual and enlightened state of self.

      Link to article: http://wildtruth.net/the-essential-difference-between-animals-and-humans/


    10. In short, people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture. Culture is unseen and immaterial, consisting of the ideas, values, and beliefs of a particular social group or society; but it is everywhere within us, shap­ing our behavior, helping us to choose the right things to say, providing rules for social interaction, and giving us mental blueprints for making the things we need, from bread pans to buildings.

      This section implies what people do to their community/environment to accommodate for themselves in order to survive and prosper. Countries near Southern Europe such as Monaco, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland tend to maintain a longer life expectancy due to their cultural manifestations. People in these countries hold three keys to a longer life expectancy (around mid 80's) which are healthy diets, social interactions, and physical activities. Unlike Europe, America's life expectancy is late 70's which may result from being the number one most obese country in the world in addition to the American people lacking social and physical activity. The link below provides additional details pertaining to longer life expectancy in certain countries around the world.


  2. Feb 2017
    1. “We understand that, in our communities, black trans folk, gender-nonconforming folk, black queer folk, black women, black disabled folk—we have been leading movements for a long time, but we have been erased from the official narrative.”

      Garza represents those that are underrepresented. In a time where the Black Lives Matter movement is all encompassing and present, other movements can seem to be led with a lesser hand or put on the backburner. Garza brings attention to these movements.

    2. “to love and desire freedom and justice for ourselves is a necessary prerequisite for wanting the same for others.”

      This is a beautiful statement regarding the the literal equality needed for true freedom to be established and successful. Garza's involvement in the community does not cover just the Black Lives Matter movement, but also stretches to the National Domestic Workers Alliance and queer and transgender rights. It is a beautiful thing that the Black Lives Matter organziation acknlowedges that strength comes from unity and that inclues all people of all backgrounds.

    3. His killing was widely seen as a kind of political counterpoint—a reminder that the grip of history would not be easily broken.

      Black people as a whole are a proud and dignified people. While the rest of America may forget or dismiss history and certain points in time, there is always another part of America which will not and like the article said they will not "be easily broken".

    4. I continue to be surprised at how little Black lives matter.

      I continue to have a curiosity for those that disagree with this. This is not to be confused with rage or pity or anger. For the sake of this excerpt; I am curious. I have heard many people- pesonally- that have made the infamous argument "ALL lives matter" and "Why do they think they're special"?. "They" do not. However, I never knew how to explain it to others without offending them in some way. I heard it eloquently said a year ago. "Lets say rainforests are endangered, people are threatening it and cutting down the trees and wild life. If a group of people recognize this and start trying to save rainforests they're not telling everybody that other forests and biomes are irrelevant or unnecessary, but rather it is an imminent problem that must be addressed before it gets worse or too late."

  3. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      In accordance to beliefs, a cultural "melting pot" is an area, region, state that exists in harmony with people of many different backgrounds and ethnicites. However, I have once read that the phrase "melting pot" is the same as saying "love has no color" or "I am blind to color" in that these phrases do not celebrate diversity, but rather sameness. If I am blind to a persons color- their identity- what are they? Yes, they have their personalities and many could argue that there isn't more to a person than what is inside. I would argue back that the outside does matter. The outside is what- almost- caused Howe and his peers to go unnoticed had it not been for their honorable service. The outside is what forms a persons inside through compliments and backlashes, through appraisals and negative side eye glances.

    2. Real Estate: None. Personal Property: 1 cow, 1 pig, 5 chairs, 1 table, 2 kettles, 3 knives and forks, 3 plates, 2 bowls, ax, hoe. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      http://www.businessinsider.com/cost-of-living-single-people-2015-8 Attached is a link for a site that illustrates via graph/table what monthly and annual costs are for living in US major cities (as a single individual). In the article, Howe's life was essentially worth 27 dollars, for a family (not including food).

    3. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by.

      I find this statement interesting. If one looks up the definition of "free" the adjective form of the definition is: not under the control or in the power of another; able to act or be done as one wishes. However, the adverb form is: without cost or payment. Granted, the state making sure or seeing to it "that these people were free" is not associated with "free" housing or "free" help to find their way and naviagte through a lens they (Cato Howe and others) may not have known or remembered. This statement shows the lack of care for these men, especially as they had served alongside respected and honrable men. Men that were most likely cared for by the state in a better manner.

    4. Parting Ways

      The supplemental reading that I chose was the TIME Person of the Year Runner Up: Black Lives Matter article. This article details the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement, explaining its ideals and its growth over the past few years and creating a written timeline of its history. The piece begins by explaining that the Black Lives Matter originally started as an incidental hashtag on a facebook post made by Alicia Garza following the acquittal of George Zimmerman, the man who shot and killed Trayvon Martin; the same hashtag was used shortly thereafter on signs at protests demanding justice for Trayvon Martin. The author illustrates that while the movement has more or less solidified by this point in time, it is still widespread in its goals and actions of activism; from protests that have shut down busy streets to causing the removal of those abusing their positions of power to campaigns against school closures, Black Lives Matter continues to make their voices heard. The author's piece shows the growth of BLM movement from a single use of a hashtag to the group that was able to not only meet with but also influence Hillary Clinton in her presidential campaign. Continued protests and activism have kept the many issues that BLM fights against out of the dark, and will continues to do so until policy, government, and ultimately, the world, change.

      Altman, A. (2015). TIME Person of the Year 2015 Runner-Up: Black Lives Matter. Retrieved February 05, 2017, from http://time.com/time-person-of-the-year-2015-runner-up-black-lives-matter/

    5. Yet America was not a melting pot in the eighteenth century, and it is not one today.

      The term "melting pot" implies that as cultures come to the United States, the give way and become one in a homogeneous culture, which is absolutely not true. The US may have some cultural indicators that are specific to this country, but the individual cultures of each citizen still exist and are prevalent in today's society. Larger cultures continue to form as people find common connections, such as the belief that black lives truly do matter.

    6. African American archaeology has become an important and vital component of historical archaeology in the United States.

      Today, black and African American history are what drive movements like Black Lives Matter to refuse to give in and to continue to push for change. The knowledge that the types of injustices that they face have existed since before the days of the Revolutionary War makes it all the more obvious that they cannot be allowed to continue

    7. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form.

      In another annotation, I explain what a shotgun house is. Because of their simple structure, shotgun houses are generally cheaper than others in modern architecture. Because of this, many homes is predominantly poor, black communities are in the shotgun style.

    8. complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      Although this quote is in direct reference to the oral history of the town, it can also be related to the reporting on police violence in America today. Most news sources are based in partisan politics, therefore skewing their views on many incidents where black people are killed. Because of this, conflicting stories crowd the news, making it difficult for the general public to discern what is ans isn't true.

    9. bicentennial committee on black history, and this group's efforts at first were directed at the cemetery.

      Although deaths are useful in researching history because of their finality, it's still ironic that a committee on black history would start there. Today, as history is being made, many protests and other organized events, some stemming from BLM, are sparked by the unjust death of a black person at the hands of the police.

    10. While the state saw to it that these people were free, it did little or nothing to provide for their new needs, and subsistence, employment, and housing were difficult to come by

      Although not specifically mentioned in the article, the BLM movement also champions fair and equal housing and government assistance for black families, especially in impoverished communities. Today, in Flint, Michigan, there is an ongoing water crisis due to extremely high lead levels in the water system. The city of Flint has a mainly black population, and many have suggested that the reason this crisis has gone without fix for so long is because the government does not care about a poor black town. The BLM movement has worked to bring attention to this and to work towards temporary and permanent solutions.

    11. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      Saying "the black community of America" would be vastly inaccurate, because every individual person is different, and there are millions of black men, women, and others living in the United States today. However, many members of the black community experience oppression on similar scales on a day to day basis. This is the basis of the Black Lives Matter movement, and the reason why they protest and use other activism efforts to work towards change.

    12. the black experience in America.

      Although most would like to believe that society as a whole has changed over time, the treatment of African American or black citizens has remained relatively stagnant. Although released from slavery with the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, black Americans have experienced different forms of systematic oppression even up to the present day. On can draw a frighteningly large number of parallels between slavery, the Jim Crow era laws, and the modern police brutality and school-to-prison pipeline.

    13. not a name we will find in our history books.

      Today, society is experiencing a time of political change unparalleled at any point in the past. Many groups and individuals have stated that today people now are living the creation of history. However, as much of the action and change is brought about by groups, individual names will most likely not be remembered so much as the actions of their movements.

    14. terminus post quem

      the earliest possible date for something. Origin

      Latin, literally ‘end after which.’

    15. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      I find it kind of neat how they just come uopn new evidence and artifacts , and all i can sum it up to is pure luck , because if they would have went looking any other time Im almost certain they would have never found it .

    16. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      This shows how if you wanted to be known of some sort;or just to have record kept of you and you were african american you had to become a soilder and go to war for america to care about you.

    17. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting Ways is an article that focuses on archaeological investigation of an African American community in Parting Ways. There are four African Americans that the article focuses on; Cato Howe, Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany. Unfortunately the only things recorded are their service in war up until their deaths. They were slaves but they gained their freedoms. Their lives do not really have much of a tale or a story because they were not recorded. Deetz wants to try to fit the puzzle pieces together by archaeology just to be able figure out the story of the area.

    18. Parting Ways

      Annotated Bibliography Cato Howe (1756 - 1824) - Find A Grave Memorial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017 TIME Person of the Year 2015 Runner-Up: Black Lives Matter. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017 "Archaeology Wordsmith." Archaeology Wordsmith. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2017. H. (2009, May 19). What's a shotgun house? Retrieved February 04, 2017 States' Rights & The Civil War. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

    19. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      Interesting thing about this quote is that it is true. I googled Cato Howe and there is honestly nothing listed before he was 25 years of age and put into the military."Howe enlisted in the spring of 1775 and served for the entire war in the 2nd Massachusetts (Commander, Colonel John Bailey)." Until he was in the military, none of his records are available." Its just fascinating to know that only his time into the military to the end of his life was only recorded. It is pretty weird why they'd only record that. I would think that they would want to record the live of a man who dedicated his time and efforts into the war. Cato Howe (1756 - 1824) - Find A Grave Memorial. (n.d.). Retrieved February 02, 2017

    20. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      This quote actually reminds me of my literature class from my senior year of high school. We talked about how in some cases many colored people's early lives were not recorded and that makes it a lot harder to track family history for many people. It is even more troubling to try to connecting their family lineage but they are stuck. For a project, I had to create a huge family tree and I can remember it being very aggravating asking my family members who were my family members pass my great-grandparents. It was so stressful and it took up a huge amount of time. I actually went the whole length of the project because it just took so long to find what I was looking for. I did not even get my 100%, I got a 96%. The treatment of African Americans as nothing but property it utterly disgusting and sad.

    21. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      If these jars were made in the west indies, how did they get into an African American civilization. It really boggles my mind of how they were able to obtain these jars. I know for certain if I was a slave I would have no way in the world to obtain these jars. The African Americans could not control shipments so the question is were they gifted the jars? It is really bothering me as to how they have them.

    22. shotgun house

      I googled shotgun house because I literally thought it was a house where you keep guns. I took it a bit too literally but I guess it was more metaphorical than anything else."This style of house is very simple: A typical shotgun house is long and narrow and often don't have windows on the sides (though they almost always do along the front or back) because of the houses' extremely close proximity to one another." H. (2009, May 19). What's a shotgun house? Retrieved February 04, 2017

    23. African Americans who were free of those constraints which might have been imposed on them under the institution of slavery.

      Did any of these men experience racism during their time at Parting Ways? It was around the time of slavery and I wonder if they had any troubling moments because even though they served their time in the war, I am sure some people gave them a hard time since they were African American.

    24. The more northerly one consisted of two sugar jars, a stoneware jug, miscellaneous pressed glass objects,

      The fact that they were instilled in slavery during their lives, they till kept African traditions. I find that very interesting. Many times when I think about slavery I think that there could be times where your will is broken and you just follow the culture that is being enforced onto you. I'm pretty sure I would have kept some of item that symbolizes my heritage because I can be somewhat of a rebel at times where I fight in something I believe in. It can be to the point that I get really hard headed. I find it interesting that they kept a piece of their natural culture with them. It is like I am looking at some of my qualities in myself in four other deceased people.

    25. https://historicaldigression.com/2016/06/22/early-african-american-settlement-at-parting-ways-plymouth/ I found a great article discussing the main men in this article (plus a few more) that sheds more light on their lives (i.e. their living standards).

    26. Summary: "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz is an article about 4 black men and the records kept of them, or the lack thereof following the Revolutionary War. I believe this article is about more than just these men but more of how they served their country yet still had little to no personal records to show for it. This article unveils the perspective that America held towards not only African Americans, but all minorities and speaks of how little their service was cared about through lack of acknowledgment.


      Why are the four men still referred to as negro slaves? Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany risked their lives during the war. Not only did the men fight for U.S. independence but for their own independence. Each man fought for the right to be a free man. Once the war ended, all of them became freed. But on their gravestone, none of their achievements are recognized. None of their military service mattered, they were only used for slave labor.

    28. Parting Ways

      In “Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think” by Dean Baker states the decline in homeownership is a positive thing. The need to own a house is not considered a priority for citizens anymore. Recently, citizens started to save their money instead of investing in a home purchase. But this is not true for all race. African Americans have the lowest rate of homeownership. The weak economy impacts African Americans the most. In “Parting Ways’, the four men had no source of income when leaving the military, but they did gain their freedom. Cato Howe is giving a small settlement where the men start their own community. None of the men receive their military pensions, so the men start to leave off the land. Cato’s estate listed him as a farmer. This evidence tells us the settlement of “Parting Ways’ is self-sufficient. Similar to African American communities, people in their neighborhood looks out for one another. If someone in the neighborhood needs help, another neighbor will offer to help. This is similar to the settlement of “Parting Ways.” Throughout history, the community aspect of neighborhoods is still a big part for African American communities. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think

    29. The ninety-four acres of land on which these four men lived were provisionally granted to Cato Howe in 1792, although there is no record of an outright grant of title to him.

      They didn't really own the land, it was granted to them by the town. I wonder if this was directly linked to a racial issue or if it only was the fact that they didn't own anything. They cleared and worked the land but the town granted them the land. After they passed away the town tried selling the land and failed, they also continue to own the land to this day.

    30. But Cato was different from most of his contemporaries both in the military and at home in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Cato Howe was black.

      This text stands out because it not put emphasis on the sentence "Cato Howe is Black." it draws focus to an issue on race and racial identity. This will then be further expanded upon through the use of racial cultures intertwining with the dominant Anglo-American culture and African culture mixing.

    31. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      This text pulls a lot of significance from the fact that people of darker skin tones were not even worth leaving a written account of until the played a role in America's independence from Great Britain.

    32. "Such person" was Cato Howe, and joined by three others -- Prince Goodwin, Plato Turner, and Quamany -- they established a tiny community on the property.

      This community is the core of the entire article and its substance. It makes me wonder what would have happened if these 4 men didn't come together or they didn't choose to settle land or own property. If they never owned the property, they never would be able to show such a blend of two different cultures coming together from their home structure to their pottery remains we would only then have their military service to work from a cultural standpoint of what their society was.

    33. Real Estate: None. Personal Property: 1 cow, 1 pig, 5 chairs, 1 table, 2 kettles, 3 knives and forks, 3 plates, 2 bowls, ax, hoe. Total Value: 27 dollars.

      I actually looked up how much 27 dollars was worth in 2017. It's a little over 530 dollars, That is probably the poorest I can imagine some people to be living with, only that value worth of assets to continue your life off of.

    34. At the time of its occupation by at least four black families, it was called New Guinea, a fairly common term used over much of Anglo-America for separate black settlements.

      Why were the settlements called New Guinea? I went to image search on Google and typed in the New Guinea to see the inhabitants. The first picture to pop up portrayed the people as tribal. The three men in the picture have tribal paint on their faces and a more rugged look to them. Europeans often thought these people were savages by their appearance and actions. I think the Europeans were making a comparison between the New Guinea tribes and the new settlers. In their eyes, African Americans were still savages to them.

    35. Both sections of the footing showed extensive evidence of fire. Melted window glass, heavy charcoal and ash deposits, and large numbers of nails all attest to the house's having burned in place.

      This article relates directly to the CNN Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake article as it shows, that natural disasters be it either fire or earthquake destroy human culture and heritage over time. It erases some of the answers we would have had, had they remained there, it also portrays their significance as a chain between the modern day and a look into the past.

    36. although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake CNN article conveys the story of a 6.2 magnitude earthquake that hit Italian towns and communities destroying many historical and cultural sites. It then continues to address the sadness and feeling of loss the communities experienced following the earthquake from the clean up to funds being raised for aid relief and restoration. Then they finally ask the people to come together for a day of solidarity for their community to mourn for their losses and to rebuild.

      This article addresses similar subjects of natural disasters destroying man made historical and cultural structures and buildings as well as addresses the importance and significance these building portrayed to the people and community. These building signify past generations and eras of time that leave a natural connection and chain to the past that newer generations will be able physically experience and relate to.

      James F Deetz exposes the racial, cultural, and economic differences experienced by freed African American slaves following the revolutionary war. He engages us in gathering every bit of detail and document he can gather about Cato Howe, Plato Turner, Prince Goodwin, Quamany and their families. he explains how they all had to survive on 96 acres on infertile land and had to survive off government pensions and aid. It was on this land where they spent the remainder of their days within the tiny community. Although their lives was modest the only documents we can obtain about them was their military and death records and a few references the city of Plymouth makes when addressing their land.

      Through the process of excavations and research we are able to determine so much more using the well preserved remains were dug up from the property. We learn of James Burr the Grandson of Plato Turner and last inhabitant of the land. Further investigations show how this small community interjected aspects of African culture and combined them with the more dominant Anglo-American culture of the time. These discoveries don't only give us a better understanding of their lives and community but also their cultural adaptations to a different society.

      “Parting Ways Cemetery.” Parting Ways Cemetery. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

      "Historical treasures lost, damaged in Italian quake." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2017.

    37. Mud-wall-and-post construction is reminiscent of West African building methods, although it did occur in the Anglo-American tradition at an earlier time.

      This could be an exact example of a blending or convergence of cultures as human societies used similar techniques to survive and thrive. They both relied on crude but reliable means to further their civilizations.

    38. The shotgun house is acknowledged as a true African American architectural form. Not only does the Burr house plan conform to the ground plans of shotgun houses, the dimensions are remarkably similar. Beyond this, there are differences.

      This shotgun house is a clear reminder of the African culture they were able to preserve and allow us to see their significance in a Anglo American dominated society

    39. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This Question addresses the entire paper and how the importance the material aspects and written documents allow us to peer back into the past and see the social and cultural aspects of a previous age. This relays on us to identify these links between past and present and what significance they portrayed.

    40. Parting Ways

      Parting Way is an article written by James Deetz about the settlement of Parting Way. Parting Way is a little settlement given to a former slave named Cato Howe. He settled the land with three other former slaves named Plato, Prince, and Quamany. During the Revolutionary War, all four men served as soldiers during the war. At the end of the war, the slaves were granted their freedom and became free men. The four men have little written history about them. Researchers were able to learn more about the men through discovered military records. To discover the rest of the information, researchers conducted excavations at the settlement. Artifacts discovered at the excavations helped them understand the lifestyles of these four men. For example, the root cellar discovered tells them the men were farmers. Pieces of pottery told them the men came from an African or West Indies background. James Deetz demonstrates the importance of archaeology in the world. Archaeologist discover the history of a location by studying the architecture, artifacts, and written records. Parting Ways. (1996). Retrieved February 03, 2017, from http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/parting.html

    41. Our knowledge of Cato Howe and his fellow blacks of Plymouth comes from two sources: Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details. A complementary body of information has been gained by excavating the site of the tiny community in which Cato Howe lived until his death, in 1824.

      The excavations at Parting Ways showed the reader the importance of oral history and artifacts. Cato, Plato, Prince, and Quamany had little written history about them. Cato’s estate record gave them a little more insight into their lives. Excavators searched the settlement to found artifacts to help them better understand their lives. Researchers discovered fragmented pieces of pottery at the scene. The found artifact helped the researchers understand the background of the four men. They learned the men came from Africa or the West Indies. Also, researchers discovered that Burr’s house burned down creating the depressions in the ground. They came to the conclusion by looking at the charcoal and ash deposits. Plus, two informants came forward with information about his house. The first person confirmed their suspicion that indeed Burr’s house burned down in 1908. But the second person remembered the house being moved to Plymouth. Conflicting views happen when oral history is repeated. People tend to remember events differently. Oral history gives researches a variety of information and straight from the source information. Through the oral records, they confirmed their theory that Burr’s house burned down.

    42. Chests $2.12 1/2

      In Cato’s estate inventory, the use of American and British money is used. Colonial America experienced a money shortage, because England permitted the colonies to exporting raw materials to England. This situation created a money shortage in Colonial America. The colonial government printed their own money and allowed colonists to use different foreign currencies along with it. Colonists often used the British currency of pounds, shillings, and pence for transactions. Colonial America shortage of money and lack of banks, explains the mixture of currency used in Cato’s inventory. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1646

    43. Parting Ways

      The definition of parting ways is when two people separate from each other. Cato Howe is an example. He separated himself from his former life to his new life. Cato shredded his former slave identity for a new identity. He gained a new identity through his hard work and military. He earned the right to be a free man. After Cato’s emancipation, his hard work did not end. He did not receive immediate military benefits after his service. He worked hard to accumulate wealth and establish a name for himself. Cato’s life ended for the better. He earned an estate valuing twenty-seven dollars. The decision to separate himself earned him a new successful life.

    44. Parting Ways

      Summary: Like a puzzle, Deetz's "Parting Ways" conveys how the author attempts to synthesize fragments of archaeological and oral history to form a coherent portrayal of the identities of four former slaves. Through archaeological research, Deetz sifts through evidence to unveil general information about these men. Although the evidence he compiles is enough to give us basic knowledge about the men, it is extremely difficult to thresh out more personal information due to the lack of documentation because of their socioeconomic statuses.

    45. This second cellar was filled with refuse and stone

      The second cellar find contained refuse and stone. Refuse is another term for garbage or waste. I think the waste in the cellar used to be stored food. It’s a common practice after harvesting season to place vegetables in there. Cellars keep food at a lower temperature and the humidity inside low. It prevents the food from freezing in the winter. During the summer months, it keeps food cool preventing it from spoilage.

    46. Cato was a common slave name

      I researched the meaning of the name Cato. When translated from Latin to English, the meaning of Cato came up as intelligent. In 1830, the South viewed slavery as a necessary evil. Cotton became an important cash crop for the South, so thus slavery became necessary. Slave owners defended their actions too by saying slaves were happy and content with their condition. Did slavery owners select this name for their slaves to strengthen their view on slavery? http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/lesson_30_notes.htm

    47. James F. Deetz

      James Deetz was a famous archaeologist and professor of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is known for building the field of historic archaeology. His career began at the Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at UC Berkeley. In 1979 Deetz became the director of the museum. The museum became the foundation for Deetz’s innovative explorations of early American life. Deetz became famous for his original interpretations of Pilgrim life in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Through his imaginative reconstructions of Puritan life, he contrasted the image of Puritan life. He studied their social life based on their tableware and other small things. He revolutionized the image of Puritans from dark, sober, and religious settlers to lusty Elizabethans who wore bright clothing and got into trouble.

    48. Such parts were of little value to Anglo-Americans, although they could be cooked to yield nourishment.

      This is still done today all throughout the Caribbean. Being of jamaican heritage, I have never had cow foot simply because it is not my cup of tea but my grandmother says it is good for my bones or healthy in some way. This makes me wonder if any of Cato or the others ancestors were from the Caribbean as the triangular trade did run through there for a good while.

    49. But the two share not lexicon but grammar, which in both instances is West African.

      How?! I find that hard to believe due to the fact that both of those countries were colonized by different countries with completely different languages. I have heard both of these languages while i was up in New York. They do not sound similar or look similar when written down.

    50. This piece of oral history established the cellar as that of James Burr.

      The fact that they stumbled into this piece of history is cool. The person could have kept quiet and leave these researchers in the dark about who was on the property at the time. They could have passed away a day too soon. If it was not for this informant, a good chunk of this article is gone with the wind. One can never be too lucky.

    51. Plato Turner was James Burr's grandfather.

      How come he was still a slave? His grandfather gained freedom so his lineage after him should gain those same rights from birth. He was not born a slave after all. How did he become a slave again?

    52. He apparently returned to the Thomas household, since he stayed on as a servant to the judge's widow

      It is possible that he was one of the few slaves that were treated relatively alright in comparison to what we know was the norm back in the day. I can understand if that was his reason for deserting. However, serving in the military is a daunting task and maybe it proved to be too much and risking his life for freedom was not worth the trade off of what he had going for him as a slave.

    53. The information summarized above is all we know.

      I find it interesting that the city did the excavation for this small site. I guess they were left asking more questions about how Cato,Quamany, Prince, and Plato lived there lives. Curiosity is always a good motivator to digging up history. Maybe there is more left to be found at the site.

    54. Real Estate: None.

      Buying real estate was never easy being a minority. I would think that today everybody has the same success at buying a house. However according to the NY Times, minorities are still hit the hardest during a weak economy. Can equal opportunity housing ever be reached? What else can we possibly change?

    55. Parting Ways

      Summary: Parting ways is a piece of literature that speaks about how four African american men setup their community following gained freedom from serving in the revolutionary war. There is very little written history about the four individuals due to their lack of social status at the time. In order to make up for this lack of written history, Deetz combines what little oral history he had with archaeology to form a respectable understanding of how these men lived there lives after gaining their independence. Deetz then compares his findings to today's architecture to show how these men had an impact on african american history. (Deetz, 1996, p. 187)

    1. This book is intended as a beginner’s guide to vernacular architecture studies. The idea for it came from the classroom. As teachers, we wanted an introductory text for students that would both open their eyes to the world of ordi­nary buildings and outline a basic method for studying them. It had to be affordable, so it had to be short. And if not simple, the coverage had to be straightforward enough so that students and others encountering this material for the first time could easily use it. Luckily we had a model. When we were talking about what our research guide might look like, Jam es Deetz’s pocket-sized Invitation to Archaeology immediately came to mind. The book cost $1.45 in the late 1960s and presented readers with a con­cise but detailed description of how to go about putting archaeology into practice. We honor both book and author in recycling its title and basic approach here. There was nothing we could do about the price.

      I believe that it is certainly an amazing idea to have this subject thought not just researches and scientist but everyday people as well. I believe it is very important to know your history not just through people or actions that took plays but through architecture as well.

    2. *I.l:lI N V I TAT ION TOVernacular Architecture

      'Invitation to Vernacular Architecture' uses a variety of ideas and concepts to explain the full complexity of what exactly is is that this type of architect studies. Carter and Cromley introduce ideas, making them essential, of the study into more than just the physical building, but the stories, culture, time periods, and location as all things that can effect what a building is and why we see it today

      Carter, T., & Cromely, E. C. (2005). Invitation to vernacular architecture: a guide to the study of ordinary buildings and landscapes. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee.

    3. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Puts an emphasis on the importance of building in general, rather on the idea of what the buildings meaning may hold. While the meaning of vernacular architecture is to analyze the buildings in different ways to get the most detailed description possible, its important to remember that at one time, buildings were the only way people knew how to leave their mark.

    4. And of course if we are looking for “traces of people doing things,” then it is easy to see that one of the main things people did in the past was to build and/or use buildings, and with such objects we do not have to rely on what people said about them.

      One way the people that study these buildings are able to draw conclusions is simply through using the progression of the buildings themselves. This quote makes it clear that, in some situations, contact with people from the past or even curiosity about the thoughts that engaged their architectural ideas are unneeded because through the building they can see all they need to know

  4. Jan 2017
    1. [ethnographic research implies, then, immediate ccmtac t with the behavic >r being studied.11

      Ethnographic research is being defined as as a type of research that can't be tainted or influenced from any outside source, since it is being directly observed

    2. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea. Vernacular architecture research is not going to replac e other kinds of humanistic inquiry. In the right situations, however, it can con­tribute greatly in addressing many kinds of questions concerning human behavior.

      The author explains that the idea of vernacular architecture is not to replace other kinds of studies or even really to compete with them. The purpose of this study is to, like it is said in the quote, contribute greatly in addressing questions on human behavior. By stating this, I feel like the author gave depth to the idea of his study in making it out to be something only intended to help rather than used to compete.

    3. If you are interested in studying build­ings, particularly those of the more ordinary variety that have not been studied before, the place to begin is with the buildings themselves.

      Often time people think the best way to learn about something is to dive into research about that subject. This can be done through online data, reading books, talking to specialists, etc. This article explains that for vernacular architecture, the best way to know what you need to know is to go to the building itself and see what you can see. Investigate there.

    4. Still, no matter how much extrinsic data there is, the evidence obtained by studying the physical object lies at the heart of the research

      draws in from points in my last annotation, explaining the importance of the research more so than just the extrinsic data. The research, as stated before, can be explained partially as the experiences the building has undergone or the stories that make it mean something to someone.

    5. It should he stressed, however, that the field of material culture studies remains artifact-driven, and the investigation and interpretation of buildings and land­scapes play leading roles in the research process.

      Artifact - driven studies become very objective, giving meaning to the building itself, but lacking the ideas of importance on the history of the building and it's meaning to the culture it was initially originated on. This quotes doesn't fail to mention that interpretation of the building is still essential, but more so in the research process.

    6. Building separate, detached houses that are spaced far apart in the countryside or separated by just a few feet in urban neighborhoods (fig. 1) would be another way this spirit of indi­viduation is advanced through architecture.

      Uses the definition of culture as "consisting of ideas, values, and beliefs stemming from a particular social group", this statement takes culture and personalizes it to a certain individuals trait: valuing private space. By personalizing this concept and making it easier to understand, the author then applies that idea of culture and personal space to architecture, demonstrating how every decision made through architecture is influenced by our own customs, beliefs, and visions.

    7. The study of vernacular architecture is part of a larger scholarly undertaking known as material culture studies." Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans.”'

      Material culture is based off of purely physical and objective aspects of a certain built environment, but these physical aspects are reflective of the culture that influenced or even physically constructed the environment observed. The culture has a lasting affect on not only the way the building was constructed, but the meaning put behind it for that certain group

    8. “historic architecture is one aspect of the past that we can still see, touch, experience . . . and part of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”1" I

      These building are able to communicate through more than the stories or journals told about the events taken place inside, but also in the way they were built and still stand in relation to what we know about other buildings from that time. Can be tied in with "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" by noting that natural disaster and all of the emotions that lie within that disaster can be tied to the progression of housing in a certain area and how it affected the people there

    9. As you move further back in time, however, and the testi­monies or actions of users are missing, a well-trained eye for what was built, used, remodeled, or even torn down may be all you have. R

      In "Unpredictable, High Risk, High Cost: Planning for the worst is the worst" it states that Native Americans, African Americans, and ethnic enclaves have centuries of old ties to land, making them the hardest to advocate displacement. This exemplifies this concept of Vernacular Architecture, showing that certain groups of people make ties to a certain area through culture and experience and in that, it becomes who they are and hard to let go or progress from.

    1. although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope. Piecing together black history on a local level is a fascinating and often frustrating process of assembling fragments to form a coherent whole. To gain a true understanding of the story of a people, it is best to detail a picture of their life within a community and then relate that to the larger world.

      James F Deetz exposes the racial and economic differences experienced by freed African American slaves following the revolutionary war. He engages us in gathering every bit of detail and document he can gather about Cato Howe and 3 other men and their families ,post-war, how they all had to survive on 96 acres on infertile land and had to survive off government pensions. It was on this land where he spent the remainder of his days with the tiny community he formed. He lived out a modest life only having a total of 27 dollars to his name, never having more than the minimum things he required to continue living. Although his life was modest the only documents we can obtain about him was his military and death records and a few references the city of Plymouth makes when addressing the land other than that, it was as if he never existed. Through the process of archaeology we are able to determine so much more using the well preserved remains were dug up from his property to not only get a better understanding of his life and community but also the modest living standards he lived off till the end of his days.

    2. "Parting Ways" by James F. Deetz provided knowledge in regards to the lack of resources available on the history of slaves and minority groups. In class, we discussed in small groups how the absence of documentation and detail(s) not only shed light on the attitude towards minorities, but it additionally paralleled it. "Fragmentary written records give us a partial picture, lacking in important details.", is what Deetz can supply through research and history of Cato Howe and "his fellow blacks of Plymouth". Slaves were commonly given alternate names under their owners care and as "Cato" was a "common slave name", it rendered research fairly useless as no one person could determine if it was the Cato Howe they were looking for. This text has a very to the point, no-frills, dry style to it, yet it keeps me (and my small group) reading. The compelling part of this story for me is that these men (Cato, Quamany, Prince, and Plato), regardless of color, did so much for their country and lived their lives modestly. Yet, because of the color of their skin, they were unable to receive pensions the first time and even for Prince, unable to receive freedom.