30 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2017
    1. Ecological, genetic, and geological data suggest that gene flow was disrupted for the remaining three pairs by environmental change several million years before the land barrier was complete.

      Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, Christine D. Bacon, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423853112

      https://phys.org/news/2015-04-evidence-isthmus-panama-earlier-thought.html

      According to phys.org, a newly published paper suggests that the Isthmus of Panama was formed earlier than conventionally believed. The article states that the isthmus was formed in a stop and go manner over 20 million years ago; meaning that migration of organisms could have also followed the same trend. If migration of animals between North and South America started earlier, then the minimum time required for strong reproductive isolation may actually be longer than 3.5 million years. (JP)

    2. a cessation of circulatory connections across the Panama seaway between 12.9 and 7.0 Ma as a result of altered current patterns, followed by return of a restricted shallow water connection that shoaled to a depth of less than 50 m

      Genetic divergence was observed to have occured at different moments when oceanic changes like the haulting of certain currents across the Panama seaway and the shallowing of certain areas. (DV)

    3. intolerant behavior

      The intolerant behavior that has been observed in snapping shrimp known as snapping is the production of a water jet created by the larger claw that creates a loud "pop" sound. Although, it has been discovered that the actual threat in this behavior is the subsequent shock wave that comes after the water jet. (DV)

      Read more in Shrimp shootouts end with a shock wave bang: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/10/shrimp-shootouts-end-shock-wave-bang?utm_campaign=news_daily_2017-10-30&et_rid=17774509&et_cid=1632982

    1. Tibetans exhibit a distinct suite of

      https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/02/0224_040225_evolution.html Adaptations result in changed phenotype. As the Tibetan highlanders adapted to their high altitude environment, they underwent changes to their physiology as to better acclimate to their environment.

    1. References and Notes

      The economic value of grassland species for carbon storage is one of the first papers to monetarily quantify the gain or loss of a species from an ecosystem. Even slight additions (as little as one additional species) to the current U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve program could save hundreds of millions of dollars.

      Read more in Michigan News: http://ns.umich.edu/new/releases/24732-diversity-dividends-the-economic-value-of-grassland-species-for-carbon-storage

      SC

    2. References and Notes

      Grasslands with greater biodiversity were found to feature greater biomass than grasslands with fewer species diversity.

      Read more in ScienceDaily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170419091536.htm

      SC

    3. References and Notes

      This article by Hungate et. al applies its findings to the Conservation Reserve Program, attempting to estimate species richness of CRP. This article ( D. L. Carter, J. M. Blair, Recovery of native plant community characteristics on a chronosequence of restored prairies seeded into pastures in West-Central Iowa. Restor. Ecol. 20, 170–179 (2012). ) is cited, yet this cited paper specifically does not use CRP grasslands, suggesting an error on the part of Hungate et. al.

      Read more at PrarieBotanist: https://prairiebotanist.com/2017/04/11/a-brief-comment-on-the-economic-value-of-grassland-species-for-carbon-storage/

      SC

    1. rescued memory deficits and network aberrations

      Promising Alzheimer’s ‘drug’ halts memory loss (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130626184019.htm) I found this article interesting because it talked about p38 alpha. At the beginning of the article by Arne Ittner (2017) mice with depletion of p38 alpha, beta, gamma, and delta were all tested. Only p38 gamma depletion had an effect on PTZ seizures, so they tested p38𝛾 and its effect on mice with AD. This article from Northwestern University focuses on how p38 alpha becomes overactive in AD patients. Overactive p38 alpha leads to damage in the synapses by impairing glial cells protective abilities, disrupts the signal between neurons, and releases toxic molecules that can lead to more damage.

    2. revealing an Aβ toxicity–limiting role of p38γ in AD

      Discovery opens door to new Alzheimer’s treatments (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161117151205.htm) This article connected with our paper in many ways. Alzheimer’s patient have two things, protein plaques made from amyloid-beta, and tau tangles that are phosphorylated by the kinase. When tau is phosphorylated, it forms tangles. So we thought. What the study found is that when tau is initially phosphorylated, it is for protection. They focused on a protein kinase, p38𝛾, and found that is assists in phosphorylating tau and interferes with the amyloid-beta toxicity. When removed, Alzheimer's progresses. When reintroduced, it was therapeutic and helped halt Alzheimer’s progression.

  2. Nov 2017
    1. Indeed, bivalve molluscs constitute emerging models in epigenetics, as illustrated by recent studies examining the role of DNA methylation in the Pacific oyster

      Earlier in the year, researchers were using mollusks to derive a non addicting painkiller in the hopes of solving the U.S. opioid epidemic. Read more at salon: https://www.salon.com/2017/03/04/a-little-mollusk-may-lead-to-a-big-discovery-in-helping-solve-the-u-s-opioid-epidemic/ EM

    2. However, the role of these proteins goes beyond structure, participating in the dynamic regulation of chromatin during transcription, replication, and repair, among other DNA metabolic processes

      Histone functions can go as far as being key gene silencers in normal embryo development. Read more in ScienceDaily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170830202141.htm EM

    1. phosphorus (P) additions

      The levels of phosphorus in Lake Coeur d’Alene have doubled since the 1990's. This worries authorities about the potential growth in algae and increase in heavy metals in the lake.

      Read more in The Spokesman-Review: http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2017/nov/15/phosphorus-pollution-flowing-into-lake-coeur-dalen/

    2. stimulated at nutrient concentrations that are now common across human-disturbed landscapes

      A city releases water contaminated by agriculture which will have an adverse effect on local ecosystems.

      Read more in Lawrence-Journal World: http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2017/nov/15/short-notice-citys-release-nitrogen-contaminated-w/

    3. agricultural streams

      Poultry producer is fined by $1.4 million for polluting a local stream.

      Read more in WJCT: http://news.wjct.org/post/live-oak-poultry-producer-environmental-groups-reach-deal-over-suwannee-river-pollution

    4. nutrient pollution

      William & Mary’s Virginia Institute of Marine Science are studying oysters to see if they could be used to reduce nitrogen levels.

      Read more in the Williamsburg Yorktown Daily: https://wydaily.com/2017/11/05/study-suggests-oysters-offer-hot-spot-for-reducing-nutrient-pollution-tek/

    5. Nutrient pollution

      Nutient pollution is affecting the production of fisheries in the ocean by creating dead zones in the ocean where there are low levels of oxygen.

      Read more in the Iowa Public Radio: http://iowapublicradio.org/post/farmers-sea-say-livelihood-dying-midwest-ag-pollution#stream/0

    6. Algal production increases

      An increase on nutrients in nearby river has led to an increase in the levels of algae in these rivers, some of these which are toxic to people.

      Read more in nwi.com: http://www.nwitimes.com/business/toxic-algae-once-a-nuisance-now-a-severe-nationwide-threat/article_2b1decfa-43c9-5d80-bf64-173e51a95248.html

    1. Ecological, genetic, and geological data suggest that gene flow was disrupted for the remaining three pairs by environmental change several million years before the land barrier was complete.

      Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama, Christine D. Bacon, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423853112

      https://phys.org/news/2015-04-evidence-isthmus-panama-earlier-thought.html

      According to phys.org, a newly published paper suggests that the Isthmus of Panama was formed earlier than conventionally believed. The article states that the isthmus was formed in a stop and go manner over 20 million years ago; meaning that migration of organisms could have also followed the same trend. If migration of animals between North and South America started earlier, then the minimum time required for strong reproductive isolation may actually be longer than 3.5 million years. (JP)

    2. a cessation of circulatory connections across the Panama seaway between 12.9 and 7.0 Ma as a result of altered current patterns, followed by return of a restricted shallow water connection that shoaled to a depth of less than 50 m

      The formation of the Isthmus of Panama has been attributed to the ceasing of currents and changes to the depths of certain areas and levels of sand. It has been reinforced by a similar and more recent research that these changes are some of the major influences of divergence within the snapping shrimps species. (DV)

      Read more in New dates and new rates for divergence across the Isthmus of Panama: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/265/1412/2257

    3. intolerant behavior

      The intolerant behavior that has been observed in snapping shrimp known as snapping is the production of a water jet created by the larger claw that creates a loud "pop" sound. Although, it has been discovered that the actual threat in this behavior is the subsequent shock wave that comes after the water jet. (DV)

      Read more in Shrimp shootouts end with a shock wave bang: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/10/shrimp-shootouts-end-shock-wave-bang?utm_campaign=news_daily_2017-10-30&et_rid=17774509&et_cid=1632982

    1. Recent studies using the Ednrb antagonist bonsentan suggest that the use of Ednrb antagonists may prove useful for the treatment of melanoma.

      Ednrb antagonists could potentially be used for the treatment of melanoma. Read more: www.theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/20/10/1121.full.pdf (DB)

    2. Moreover, in situ melanomas appeared in adult skin grafts, while invasive melanomas developed in newborn skin grafts indicating that the susceptibility of skin to environmental tumor promoters is dependent on age (Berking et al., 2004).

      Exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of melanoma development. Read more: www.skincancer.org/media-and-press/press-release-2013/kids (DB)

    3. Cancer progression exhibits many of the characteristics seen during development.

      The progression of cancer is characterized by features that can be seen during development. Read more: https://www.cancerquest.org/cancer-biology/cancer-development (DB)

  3. Aug 2015
  4. Jul 2015
    1. Dogs are one of the best known examplesof domestication, the process of speciesmodification over time by human-inducedselection

      Check out a Science special issue on Dogs: http://www.sciencemag.org/site/extra/dogs/

    2. onset of domesticationthere 18,800 to 32,100 years ago.

      Wolves were domesticated much earlier than thought. Researchers discovered that wolves were domesticated by European hunter-gatherers between 19,000 and 32,000 years ago. The analysis cannot, however, be used to determine the origin of the dog, argues a Danish DNA scientist.

      http://sciencenordic.com/wolves-became-domesticated-dogs-much-earlier-thought

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    1. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a highlydynamic composite polymer material.

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