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  1. Jun 2016
    1. Flanagin et al.(1998) developed a multivariate logistic regression model totest the hypothesis that coauthored articles (operationalizedas papers with six or more authors) were increasing at a rategreater than would be expected when confounding vari-ables, such as the number of centers, were taken into ac-count. They found that 19% of original research reports hadhonorific authors, individuals who were garnering phantomfodder for their curricula vitae. They also discovered that11% of articles had ghost authors, which means that quite afew individuals were not receiving due credit for theircreative or material contributions to the research process—“the ghostly inferred hosts of unnamed actors who shiftedinstruments about and exerted their muscular labor’(Shapin, 1995, p. 379). Their findings, based on surveys ofcorresponding authors, are in keeping with other estimatesof honorific authorship in the biomedical literature.

      Bibliography on ghost and guest authorship: flanagin et al 1998 and Shapin 1995, 379

      Used statistical methods and surveys to work out percentage of ghosts and uncredited authors.

    2. hapin (1995,p. 178) notes in his brilliant study of trust in 17th-centuryEnglish science,

      "Brilliant study of trust in 17th century English science"